A Rag-picker, or Chiffonnier, is term for someone who makes a living by rummaging through refuse in the streets to collect material for salvage. Scraps of cloth and paper could be turned into cardboard, broken glass could be melted down and reused, and even dead cats and dogs could be skinned to make clothes.
The rag-pickers in 19th and early 20th Century did not recycle the materials themselves; they would simply collect whatever they could find and turn it over to a "master rag-picker" (usually a former rag-picker) who would, in turn, sell it—generally by weight—to wealthy investors with the means to convert the materials into something more profitable.
Although it was solely a job for the lowest of the working classes, rag-picking was considered an honest occupation, more on the level of street sweeper than of a beggar. In Paris, for instance, rag-pickers were regulated by law: their operations were restricted to certain times of night, and they were required to return any unusually valuable items to the owner or to the authorities. When Eugène Poubelle introduced the garbage can in 1884, he was criticized in the French newspapers for meddling with the rag-pickers' livelihoods. Modern sanitation and recycling programs ultimately caused the profession to decline, though it did not disappear entirely; rag and bone men are not uncommon in England today.
Rag-picking is still widespread in Third World countries today, such as in Mumbai, India, where it offers the poorest in society around the rubbish and recycling areas a chance to earn a hand-to-mouth supply of money. In 2015, the Environment Minister of India declared a national award to recognise the service rendered by rag-pickers. The award, with a cash prize of Rs. 1.5 lakh, is for three best rag pickers and three associations involved in innovation of best practices. 
Relationship in Waste management and recycling
Cities and urban agglomerations with a weak waste management infrastructure when coupled with expanding population and consumption, are recognised to have a positive impact by the activities of ragpickers. In India, their economic activity is supposed to scale to ₹3200 crore. India was also found to have a near-90% recycle rate for PET bottles, which could most probably be attributed to ragpicking, given a lack of solid-waste management and under-developed waste collection and recycling culture in that country. 
- Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du Mal (1888) includes a poem where the rag-picker character has a prominent role, entitled "Le Vin de chiffonniers" ("The Rag-Picker's Wine").
- Francis Saltus Saltus' Shadows and Ideals (1890) includes a poem about rag-pickers entitled "The Old Rag-picker of Paris".
- A section of tenement buildings near Chatham Square, Manhattan became known as Rag-picker's Court, as this was the profession of most of its residents. In 1879, William Allen Rogers drew the rag-strewn courtyard for Harper's Weekly as part of a series of engravings focused on inner-city life.
- In the 1862 novel Les Misérables, the character Vargouleme is a rag-picker. He considers himself fortunate because, unlike many on the streets of Paris, he has a profession.
- "Original Rags" is an 1899 musical medley for piano, an early example of the Ragtime genre, that makes reference to rag picking, as well as a pun
- "Rag and Bone" is a song by the American garage rock band The White Stripes, told from the point of view of two rag and bone collectors.
- The Ragpicker's Dream is a song and album by songwriter/guitarist Mark Knopfler released in 2016.
- Edwards, Henry Sutherland (1893). Old and New Paris: Its history, its people, and its places. Cassell and Co. pp. 360–365.
- The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1904). "The Workers in Waste Products". Public Opinion. 36.
- Lynch, Hannah (1901). French life in town and country. Putnam. pp. 278–279.
- http://www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai-news/india-recycles-90-of-its-pet-waste-outperforms-japan-europe-and-us-study/story-yqphS1w2GdlwMYPgPtyb2L.html NCL and PET Packaging Association for Clean Environment (PACE) 2017年2月>
- Francis Saltus Saltus (1890). Shadows and Ideals. C. W. Moulton.
- Grafton, John (1977). New York in the nineteenth century. Dover Publications. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-486-23516-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ragpickers.|