This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

Raiden (Metal Gear)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Raiden
Metal Gear character
Raiden (Metal Gear).png
Raiden as seen in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, illustrated by Yoji Shinkawa
First appearanceMetal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (2001)
Last appearanceMetal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain (2015)
Created byHideo Kojima
Designed byYoji Shinkawa
Voiced byQuinton Flynn (MGS2, MPO+, MGS4, MGR:R, PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale)
Charlie Schlatter (MGS3 Secret Theater)
Kenyu Horiuchi (Japanese)
Motion captureEiji Morisaki (MGS2)
Takeshi Yoshioka (MGS4)
Information
Full nameJack
AffiliationPseudo-FOXHOUND operative unknowingly employed by The Patriots (MGS2)
Free agent (MGS4, Post-MGRR)
Cyborg private military contractor (MGRR)
NationalityAmerican-Liberian[1]

Raiden (Japanese: 雷電), real name Jack (ジャック, Jakku), is a fictional character and protagonist from Konami's Metal Gear series of video games. The character was created by Hideo Kojima and designed by Yoji Shinkawa, and was introduced in the series as the main player character of the 2001 stealth game Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. In Metal Gear Solid 2, Raiden appears to be a member of the U.S. special operations unit FOXHOUND and is participating in his first mission against terrorists. Despite coming across as a rookie, he is a young soldier who is later revealed to have been a Liberian child soldier. Raiden also appears as a supporting character in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, in which he is assisting the series' protagonist Solid Snake in his fight against Revolver Ocelot's forces. He is also the main character of the hack and slash game Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance, in which he is dealing with his past and his present life as a combatant who faces enemies from private military companies.

Raiden, who was inspired by the Sherlock Holmes stories and a fan's letter wanting a younger character to be featured in the series, originated from Hideo Kojima's desire to view Solid Snake from a different point of view. Raiden's inclusion in Metal Gear Solid 2 was kept secret from gamers before his debut; despite some players' reactions, the staff liked the character. To appeal to fans of the series who initially disliked Raiden, the character was redesigned for Metal Gear Solid 4. He was again redesigned for both the cancelled game Metal Gear Solid: Rising and its reboot Revengeance to portray a darker side of his character. In Japanese, the character is voiced by Kenyu Horiuchi and in English by Quinton Flynn.

Raiden's debut role as the protagonist of Metal Gear Solid 2 was controversial, however, due to his unexpected substitution for the established hero Solid Snake. Some critics defended the character, stating that fans were merely angered by the former's removal and that the latter was appealing. Despite this mixed reception, Raiden has been praised for his role and Metal Gear Solid 4 redesign, and even more for his role and design in [Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance.

Character design[edit]

Creation and appearance[edit]

According to series creator Hideo Kojima, the decision to make a new character to replace Solid Snake for most of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty stemmed from the developer's desire to develop Snake from a third-person perspective. Kojima stated that Raiden's character and his perception by the audience were important to the overall feel of the story. The idea of having a second main character was inspired by the Sherlock Holmes short stories and novels in which the narrator is Dr. Watson rather than Holmes. Kojima said Snake was the game's protagonist rather than Raiden. Yoshikazu Matsuhana, assistant director for the project, was uncertain about this decision; he considered Raiden a "weak-looking character" but decided to follow Kojima.[2] The codename "Raiden" was based on that of the Mitsubishi J2M Raiden, a historical combat aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. It was initially planned to be written in katakana as "ライデン", but was changed to the kanji form "雷電" because of a resemblance to Bin Laden's "Laden" in katakana, "ラーディン".[3] The romantic relationship between Raiden and Rosemary was inspired by Kojima's experiences; their names, Jack and Rose, are a reference to characters in the film Titanic.[4] In Metal Gear Solid 2, Raiden is considered to be a representation of the player through the experiences between the player and the character during the game.[5]

Kojima received much fan mail; one letter from a girl stated she did not want to play a game with an old man. Kojima took this into consideration; he and his team designed Raiden to be more appealing to women.[6] Designer Yoji Shinkawa said he and the other character designers took much inspiration for Raiden's appearance from the bishōnen archetype.[6] Because Raiden was a new character, the staff designed him carefully, giving him white hair to symbolize his introduction. Shinkawa also said Raiden had an overall feminine appearance.[4] His outfit—the Skull Suit—was difficult to design until the staff decided on a "bonelike" concept. Shinkawa wanted to make Raiden sexually appealing, emphasizing the tightness of his clothing.[7]

Konami kept Raiden's starring role in Metal Gear Solid 2 secret until the game's North American release; the company replaced Raiden with Snake in teaser trailers and other preview materials. Although Raiden appeared in several preview trailers in his scuba gear, his presence was not emphasized.[4] Raiden's appearance in the game was announced to the Japanese press on the day of the game's release in North America.[8] Due to negative response to Raiden's role in the game, Kojima said in retrospective that the team failed to properly show the character.[9]

Raiden—a sinister-looking young man in battle gear
Raiden's sketches for Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots as well as his CGI-form in the bottom right.

Raiden's new design for Metal Gear Solid 4 was a response to the criticism that only his face remained in his cybernetic body. Shinkawa was surprised by the way he illustrated Raiden. The staff noted that Raiden's debut in the game's trailer received notably positive responses; several video-game magazines promoted the game with Raiden's screenshots.[10] Shinkawa stated Raiden was remade as a darker hero to appeal to the Western fanbase. Seeing Gray Fox as one of his favorite characters, Shinkawa made Raiden be an archetype of such character.[11] Kojima echoed similar comments, indicating he wanted to expand the character with another game.[12] In designing him, Shinkawa wanted to convey both Raiden's beauty and sorrow in his cybernetic body. He was given the ability to wield swords with his own legs, giving the players the impression he was a ninja.[13] Raiden's first fight against Vamp in the game caused motion and voice actors difficulty because of carefully planned movements performed by the two fighters. The staff was satisfied with the outcome, considering it one of the best battles in the game.[14] Two actors were selected for the motion capture of Raiden; one did most of his appearances while another did his action sequences.[15] Raiden's fights in Guns of the Patriots were made to assist the weaker Solid Snake and appealed to previous fans of the series who disliked the character.[9]

When Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance was known as Metal Gear Solid: Rising, former producer Shigenobu Matsuyama hinted that Raiden's past as a child soldier would be elaborated upon and his weaknesses as a human would be explored. Matsuyama wanted Raiden to have as strong a role in the game as in Metal Gear Solid 2, leading him to become its main character.[16] Director Mineshi Kimura wanted Raiden to be able to move the way he did in the Metal Gear Solid 4 trailers, wanting to show "the stealth of the sword, and the strength of not even losing to the gun, and the fear and power you have with this blade".[17] Matsuyama said they would focus on Raiden's strong will and physical strength so he would be enjoyable to control.[18] Raiden's design was changed during the game's development, leading to different promotional images of him.[19] Following the game's reboot into a spin-off, developers stated that while Raiden "has grown up" in comparison to previous Metal Gear games, he is still conflicted with his life as a child soldier in the First Liberian Civil War, leading him to become a "dark hero".[20] Shinkawa designed Raiden's new body to emphasize his dark herism, contrasting with his Metal Gear Solid 4 persona. Shimkawa later discussed with Platinum Games' Kenji Saito about including his quasi-human look. Raiden's loss of an eye also represents his transformation across the story.[21] In response to complaints that Rising appeared to contradict Raiden's ending in Guns of the Patriots, the Kojima Productions staff said the game would explain what happened with Raiden's life.[22]

The team in charge of Revengeance depicted Raiden as a more mature character than in his previous appearances; they said his swordplay is not based on any samurai and that Raiden's cybernetic body includes heels because they "are very uncomfortable to run in or fight in ... and besides he's a guy!".[23] When developing the game's , the team thought of Raiden's revenge against his enemies, which resulted in the title "Reveangeance".[24] Writer Etsu Tamari expressed joy in the final product and expected that in the future, the team could make another game focused on Raiden.[25]

Raiden is first depicted as a white-haired adult who uses a protective suit known as a "Skull Suit" (スカルスーツ, Sukaru Sūtsu) for his missions.[26] In Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots Raiden's entire body below the upper jaw is replaced with a prototype cybernetic body; his blood is replaced with a military substitute called "White Blood" (白血, Shiro Chi) that requires regular maintenance.[27] His original cybernetic body is replaced with a black one that also covers the left eye for Revengeance. Although proficient at all types of weaponry, Raiden specializes in wielding swords that resonate at high frequencies for the last fights in Sons of Liberty,[28] and during Guns of the Patriots and Revengeance.

Personality and portrayal[edit]

Quinton Flynn has enjoyed doing the English voice for Raiden.

In his first appearances Raiden is a rookie agent who is inexperienced as a result of training only in virtual reality. He later reveals, however, that he was a child soldier known as "Jack the Ripper" (ジャック・ザ・リッパー, Jakku Za Rippā) who killed several enemies in a civil war and is ashamed of his past.[29] This affects Raiden's personality; he begins to believe he is only useful in the battlefield and his relationship with his girlfriend Rosemary would not work.[30][31] Manipulation by the Patriots causes him to believe he has no free will. Solid Snake encourages Raiden to ignore what people tell him and to become self-reliant when problem-solving.[32]

In the Japanese versions of the games, Raiden has been voiced by Kenyu Horiuchi,[33] who felt he could understand the character's pain; despite becoming a cyborg, Raiden still acts like a human.[14]Casting director Kris Zimmerman choseQuinton Flynn, with whom he had previously worked, to voice Raiden in the series' English adaptation. Flynn remembers having a long time to develop the character and being instructed by Zimmerman to use an older voice from a character he previously voiced. Flynn said Raiden was one of his favorite video-game voice characters and noted a difference between his roles in Metal Gear Solid 2 and Metal Gear Solid 4;[34] for Metal Gear Solid 4 Flynn used a deeper voice to match the cyborg Raiden in contrast to the original, youthful Raiden of Metal Gear Solid 2. Flynn said the voice he used was "grizzled, yeah—but different enough from the style of Snake".[35] In 2015, Flynn stated he was pleased with Raiden's role in Reveangence and that he would have liked a new sequel Raiden as the lead. Internal problems between Kojima Productions and Konami, however, left Flynn worried there might not be another game in the series.[36]

Kojima Productions compared the experiences and ways of thinking of Raiden and Solid Snake. During the game's climax, Raiden stays handcuffed until his final fight against Solidus Snake; Snake escapes from his handcuffs to follow Revolver Ocelot, emphasizing Raiden's lack of freedom. Hideo Kojima compared Raiden and Snake with movie monsters King Kong and Godzilla, respectively; the former was taken from his home and his nature changes upon meeting Rosemary, whereas the latter will continue fighting against mankind's menaces. Defeating Solidus, Snake encourages Raiden to trust himself and believe in his own choices. This is further addressed by the staff's motivation to make a new sequel to Metal Gear without Kojima.[4] Kojima also likened Raiden with John Rambo from the Rambo series because both characters always find themselves taking part in battles despite their desire for a peaceful resolution.[37]

Appearances[edit]

Main games[edit]

Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty introduces the player to Raiden in the Plant chapter; Jack is introduced as a newly recruited, virtual reality-trained member of FOXHOUND with no live-combat experience before his current mission.[38] He is assisted via Codec by his commanding officer the Colonel and his girlfriend Rosemary. Raiden's initial objective is to rescue several hostages from a terrorist group known as the Sons of Liberty.[39][40] During his mission, Raiden is helped by mercenary Solid Snake and spy Olga Gurlukovich.[41][42]

As the story progresses, Jack is revealed to be a former child soldier who fought for the Sons of Liberty leader Solidus Snake during the First Liberian Civil War.[30][43] After the war's end, Raiden was given a normal life and tried to forget his past.[44] It is revealed that a clandestine organization known as The Patriots is controlling his actions and his commanding officer is revealed as their computer-generated Artificial intelligence (AI).[45][46] One of their spies becomes Raiden's girlfriend and the two fall in love.[47] Raiden defeats Solidus after the Patriots' AIs tell him his death would also trigger those of Olga's child and Rosemary, the latter of whom is revealed to have been pregnant with Raiden's child during the mission.[48] He later reunites with Rosemary, and both decide to stay together to raise their unborn child.[49]

Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots (set five years after Metal Gear Solid 2) features Raiden after rescuing Olga's daughter Sunny from the Patriots,[50] and searching for Big Boss's corpse for Big Mama in exchange.[51] The trauma of his breakup with Rosemary and the apparent miscarriage of his child have made Raiden believe he belongs on the battlefield.[30][31] Raiden is fitted with a cybernetic exoskeleton as a result of the Patriots' machinations;[52] he helps Solid Snake in the fight against Liquid Ocelot, wanting to obtain the Patriots' powers. After several encounters with Liquid's men, Raiden stays in the ship Outer Haven to protect Snake as he shuts down the Patriots' AIs.[53] In an epilogue, Rosemary tells Raiden their child was not miscarried; her marriage to Roy Campbell was a hoax to protect her and their son from the Patriots. Upon hearing this news, Raiden reconciles with Rosemary.[54]

Raiden's artwork used as a promotional piece in Leeds, UK, for Revengeance.

Raiden returns as the main character in Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance, which is set four years after Metal Gear Solid 4.[17] He is a member of the private military company (PMC) Maverick Security in multiple tasks while raising money for his family. They are attacked by a group of terrorists called Desperado Enforcement LLC that kill his protectee and leave Raiden near to death. He is saved by Doktor and starts working with them to fight Desperado.[55] Raiden's vengeful obsession with Desperado becomes more personal when he discovers during a mission to Mexico that Desperado and World Marshal Inc have kidnapped several children, surgically removed their brains to place into cybernetic bodies, and were planning to subject them to VR training modeled on his own. Raiden abruptly resigns from Maverick to pursue and retrieve the children's brain cases from World Marshal, embracing his sadistic persona "Jack the Ripper".[56] Raiden defeats Desperado and learns that Steven Armstrong was using PMCs to distract him as he attempts to create a new War on Terror. Raiden stops Armstrong's actions and decides not to return to Maverick and travels to the Middle East to battle World Marshal mercenaries.[57]

Other appearances[edit]

Raiden does not appear in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater but he is parodied throughout the game by debuting character Raikov.[58] Raiden appears in a series of comical scenes in an early promotional trailer for Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, in which he fights for control of the franchise with Solid Snake. A sequel to the trailer titled "Metal Gear Raiden: Snake Eraser" was produced; Raiden travels to the past to assassinate Big Boss but fails comically.[59] In the trailer's English version, Raiden is voiced by Charlie Schlatter (the voice actor for Raikov) rather than Quinton Flynn. Raiden's Metal Gear Solid 2 version appears in the Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops Plus expansion pack as an unlockable character.[60] His Metal Gear Solid 4 incarnation appears as a playable character in Metal Gear Online.[61]

In Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Raiden stars in a non-canonical mission titled "Jamais Vu". Having time-travelled to the past,[62] he infiltrates Camp Omega under orders from MSF. His aim is to incapacitate a group of soldiers known as the "body snatchers", a reference to the android replicators in Kojima's video game Snatcher. His appearance in this game is modeled on that in Metal Gear Rising.

The Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty 2007 comic book adaptation by Alex Garner retells Raiden's story with few changes. His relationship with Solidus is explored when he remembers his past; when Solidus about to kill him, Raiden is saved by Snake.[63] The game's novelization by Raymond Benson makes minor modifications to Raiden's history, except for the moment he receives Olga's sword, resulting in a change to his battle psyche. When Raiden kills Solidus he cuts the rope on Federal Hall National Memorial's flagpole, causing an American flag to cover his enemy's body. This scene was deleted from the original game due to the September 11 attacks.[64]

Outside the Metal Gear series, Raiden appears in the video game LittleBigPlanet as a sticker and a playable sack-boy character in the Metal Gear Solid 4 downloadable content.[65] He is an unlockable character in Evolution Skateboarding.[66] He also appears in Super Smash Bros. Brawl as a collectible sticker and in Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood as an alternative skin for Ezio Auditore da Firenze.[67] Raiden is playable in the video games PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale and Super Bomberman R using his Metal Gear Rising design.[68] The webseries Mega64 includes a parody of Raiden's story in Revengeance; the character struggles against his darker persona while making breakfast.[69]

Reception[edit]

Critical reaction[edit]

Raiden's replacement of fan favorite Solid Snake in Metal Gear Solid 2 proved controversial; GamesRadar considered the replacement a reason to dislike the series.[70][71] The same site criticized Raiden's role in Metal Gear Solid 2 several times and called his inclusion one of the worst aspects of the game.[72][73] In 2004, GameAxis Unwired published a fake interview in which Hideo Kojima expressed regret for creating the character.[74] While calling Metal Gear Solid 2 one of the biggest disappointments in video-game history, UGO Networks' Marissa Meli cited Raiden's debut as a key problem with the game.[75] Meli also commented on Raiden's design, placing him 12th in a list of the most androgynous video game characters.[76] The book Playing with Videogames states that Raiden's inclusion was intended to surprise Metal Gear fans who, instead of playing as Snake, played as his opposite. Writer James Newman commented that fans' reactions were highly negative; they acted as though Kojima had betrayed their expectations. He compared Raiden to the controversial Star Wars character Jar Jar Binks. Newman considered trailers for Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater in which Raiden is mocked to be Konami's comic response to fans' disapproval.[77] Raiden proved to be more popular in Japan; according to Yoji Shinkawa this was because he matched the stereotype of the manga hero.[78] In 2012, manga artist Hiro Mashima drew an illustration of Raiden in anticipation of the series' following games. He mentioned having had difficulties illustrating the character.[79]

Eurogamer's Tom Bramwell enjoyed Raiden's role, commenting that his interactions with the other characters also helped expand Solid Snake's character.[80] Raiden's introduction was given an award for "Biggest Surprise" by GameSpot in 2001,[81] while Dave Meikleham from GamesRadar listed his appearance as one of the biggest plot twists in a video game because the trailers did not show him. Meikleham also called Raiden a "surprisingly likeable character" and found his dynamic with Solid Snake appealing.[82] Den of Geek listed Raiden as one of the most sexually appealing video game characters, calling him disappointing to some but to others "a pin-up forever".[83]

Before joining Kojima Productions, Ryan Payton stated that he was not disappointed by Raiden's introduction and liked the fact the Metal Gear Solid 2 team kept his identity secret.[84] Raiden's English voice actor Quinton Flynn was surprised by fans' response to the character but said it attracted new fans to the series. Flynn thought fans were angry at the idea that Raiden would replace Snake for all subsequent games.[34] Raiden's relationship with Rosemary was listed as the most awkward part of the Metal Gear series by 1UP.com, with writer Scott Sharkey speculating about Hideo Kojima's life because he said the relationship is autobiographical.[85] PLAY editor Nick Jones listed the scene in which Raiden is nude as his fourth-favorite moment of the franchise, calling it the "one of the funniest moments in gaming history".[86] Lisa Foiles of The Escapist included him on her 2014 list of top five katana wielders, writing "this is not a popularity contest and Raiden qualifies" even in MGS2 where "he was whiny, an emo, and kind of a bitch".[87]

Response to the character in subsequent games was mainly positive. GamePro's Pattrick Shaw analyzed his new design for Metal Gear Solid 4; he said Raiden "was in one hell of a fight".[88] Raiden's redesign has been praised for reducing his androgynous appearance, thus making him more appealing.[89] UGO placed Raiden's design in that game at 18th on its 2011 list of "the most stylin' alternate costumes",[90] but Gavin Mackenzie from PLAY listed it seventh on his list of inappropriate outfits, stating that the costume was "cool" but had unnecessary accessories.[91] It has also been compared with Gray Fox's cybernetic-ninja design in Metal Gear Solid.[92][93]

GameSpot staff stated that Raiden "is definitely the inheritor of the quasi-unkillable Cyborg Ninja inheritance" when he made his first appearance in a Metal Gear Solid 4 trailer. GameSpot applauded his actions in the trailer, calling it "wordlessly awesome" and comparing his stunts with those in the film Casshan: Robot Hunter.[94] Writers from Cheat Code Central referred to his fight against Vamp in another trailer as the "undeniable highlight" that would make player wish to use Raiden in the game.[95] Game Informer placed him on "The Snubbed List" of the best characters of the 2000s in response to his new design because it made fans like the idea of a new Metal Gear game solely focused on Raiden.[96] GamePro called Raiden's encounter with Vamp in this game one of the "most memorable cinematics" of the series because of his change of fighting style from his debut as he "redeems his girlish image",[88] while IGN listed it as the 80th best moment in video-game history for similar reasons.[97]

Following Metal Gear Solid 4's release, Raiden also appeared in more lists. IGN's Jesse Schedeen listed Raiden as one of the "gaming icons" and most valuable players of 2009, in response to his role in an upcoming Metal Gear title.[98][99] Dave Meikleham of GamesRadar wrote an article itled "Why Metal Gear Solid: Rising [Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance] will make you love Raiden", writing that fans who disliked the character would find him appealing in the game.[100] In a 2010 Famitsu readers' poll, Raiden was voted the 42nd most-popular video game character.[101] In 2013, Complex ranked Raiden as the 12th-greatest soldier in video games, "even as he's not as cool as Solid Snake",[102] while GamesRadar called Revengeance "perhaps the greatest cyborg ninja game of all time".[103] PLAY ranked Raiden as the second-top ninja in games.[104] While surpassed by Solid Snake, GamesRadar listed Raiden as the second-best video game hero of all time.[105]

Raiden's role and development in Revengeance were found to be appealing, with GameSpot's Peter Brown praising his violent attitude that made him an outstanding anti-hero,[106] whereas GameTrailers wrote that Raiden contrasted with his Metal Gear Solid 2 persona that was criticized in 2001.[107] The Escapist said Raiden was now worthy of his own game based on his characterization.[108] Polygon said that while Raiden's actions provide a departure from the stealth games, his actions were referred as "outlandish and ridiculous". The detail given to Raiden's past was also praised.[109] IGN wrote that fans of Metal Gear Solid 4 would enjoy the game more because Raiden can replicate his moves from that game's cutscenes in gameplay.[110] Eurogamer said a major change in Raiden's characterization is Revengeance, referring to him as a "the ultimate cyborg and also the ultimate killer" based on his darker persona that is explored in combat, with Flynn's portrayal standing out within the scenario.[111]

Analysis[edit]

Raiden's role in Metal Gear Solid 2 has been analyzed by several writers, who said he is intended to represent the player.[112] Early in the game, when Raiden's virtual reality training is mentioned, the game shows scenes from the previous game Metal Gear Solid in which the player takes control of Solid Snake.[113] Raiden's interactions with veteran Solid Snake identify the former as "a Metal Gear fan". As the game progresses it is stated that Raiden "has become Snake", having developed skills similar to those he gained from taking part in the Big Shell's fights that resemble Metal Gear Solid's Shadow Moses Island.[114] The recurring plot twist involving Raiden's life and the people with whom he often interacts have been praised as being early post-truth content in a video game. Raiden's interaction with the Patriots was also analyzing the way the digital era became relevant over a decade after Sons of Liberty was released.[115][116][117]

Later in the game, a character tells Raiden to "turn off the console", which confuses both Raiden and the player; this was first interpreted as a fourth wall-breaking joke but the game's climax goes deeper into Raiden's connection with the player.[118] When his superiors force Raiden to kill the game's antagonist, Solidus Snake, the designers tell the player to finish the game.[119] Both the player and Raiden take different paths at the game's end; the player is told not to waste time playing games[118] while Raiden's character is expanded with his decision to move on with his life, rejecting his previous identity by discarding the dog tags the player wore in the beginning.[120]

Upon the revelation of Raiden's new design as a cyborg ninja, writers said he distanced himself from his previous appearance that imitated Solid Snake.[77] They also said Raiden becomes a different type of game hero with a new, direct fighting style.[88] Because Raiden has become more powerful than Solid Snake in strength and weaponry to the point of exaggeration,[121] writers have compared him favorably to other popular game heroes and find his actions still in-character considering the fighting scenes throughout the series.[122]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hurley, Leon (November 22, 2012). "Metal Gear Rising main cyborgs explained – alliances, weapons and abilities". PlayStation Official Magazine. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
  2. ^ "The Final Hours of Metal Gear Solid 2". GameSpot. Archived from the original on January 3, 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
  3. ^ Ashcraft, Brian (September 27, 2011). "What Osama bin Laden and Metal Gear Solid Have in Common". Kotaku. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d Kojima Productions. The Document of Metal Gear Solid 2. Konami. Level/area: Making of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.
  5. ^ James Howell & Ryan Payton (March 20, 2008). "The Kojima Productions Report Session 084". Kojima Productions. Archived from the original on 2009-06-04. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  6. ^ a b Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence. Konami. Level/area: Metal Gear Saga Vol. 1.
  7. ^ "Yoji Shinkawa Interview: Segment 3". Konami. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  8. ^ Kojima Productions. The Document of Metal Gear Solid 2. Konami.
  9. ^ a b "Interviews// Hideo Kojima on Metal Gear Rising". Spong. Archived from the original on 2018-11-28. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  10. ^ Payton, Ryan. "The KP Report Session 027". Kojima Productions Report. mp.i.revo. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  11. ^ "[- El Arte de Metal Gear | El legado visual de Yoji Shinkawa" (in French). 3DJuegos. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  12. ^ Schirado, Tyler (January 5, 2012). "Hideo Kojima Talks Killing Snake, Project Ogre, Metal Gear Rising & More!". GameRant. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
  13. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots Master Art Works. Example Product Manufacturer. 2009. p. 39. ASIN B0033910T0.
  14. ^ a b Making of Metal Gear Solid 4 (Blu-ray). Konami Digital Entertainment GmbH. 2008.
  15. ^ "Development". Konami. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  16. ^ Wesley Yin-Poole (September 13, 2010). "Metal Gear Solid: Rising Interview". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on September 17, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  17. ^ a b Stephen Totilo (June 16, 2010). "Konami E3 Liveblog Is Right Here, Hopefully With Lightning And Whips". Kotaku. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
  18. ^ Gatson, Martin (August 28, 2010). "Metal Gear Solid: Rising Preview". VideoGamer.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-03. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
  19. ^ McWhertor, Michael (January 29, 2010). "Metal Gear Solid: Rising's Raiden Has Changed". Kotaku. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
  20. ^ "E3 2012: Platinum details Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance". Edge. June 1, 2012. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
  21. ^ Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance The Complete Official Guide. Piggyback. 2013. ISBN 978-0307897169.
  22. ^ "Kojima Productions Podcast Session 153". Kojima Productions. January 26, 2012. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
  23. ^ "Metal Gear Rising preview and interview – Platinum medal". Metro. June 11, 2012. Archived from the original on 2018-11-28. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  24. ^ "The story of the 'chemical reaction' that gave Metal Gear Rising its Revengeance". Financial Post. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  25. ^ "Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance writer on future DLC and how the story got shifted years into the future". Polygon. Archived from the original on 2018-12-10. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  26. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Colonel: Your new Sneaking suit uses electrofiber technology, a by-product of fiber-optics research. The texture isn't far removed from rubber but the material protects against a wide range of toxic substances. The suit itself has a wide array of built-in sensors. It is referred to as "Smart Skin" in military R&D. Data about damage to different regions of the body, including blood loss, is exchanged between the suit and the intravenous nanomachines to create a bio-feedback system. ... They call this the "Skull Suit" in FOXHOUND.
  27. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. Naomi Hunter: That's right. Raiden's blood is an older type of artificial blood that was used by the military ... Called white blood. After it's been in use for a while, the blood needs to be dialyzed ... Filtered. Right now, he's slipping into autotoxemia.
  28. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Solid Snake: Olga asked me to give it to you. Besides, I'm not a big fan of blades.
  29. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Raiden: No, it was field training, when I was a kid. I lied, Snake. I have more field experience than I can remember. It's not VR that's doing this to me. / Solid Snake: Raiden, we don't carry guns to take people down. We're not here to help some politician either. / Raiden: You can say that because you're a legend, a hero. I'm Jack the Ripper, a dirty reminder -- of a terrible mistake.
  30. ^ a b c Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. Rosemary: After the Big Shell Incident, he became unstable. Memories began to resurface from his childhood, when he fought for Solidus in the Liberian Civil War. And in the midst of all that ... The baby we had together ... It hadn't even been born yet. Jack slowly stopped coming home. And when he did, he'd be dead drunk, sometimes covered in cuts and bruises.
  31. ^ a b Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. Raiden: I've got nothing to lose. / Snake: Don't be an idiot. You know you've got someone to protect. / Raiden: It was never going to work out for me. It even "rained" the day I was born.
  32. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Solid Snake: Listen, don't obsess over words so much. Find the meaning behind the words, then decide. You can find your own name. And your own future ... I know you didn't have much in terms of choices this time. But everything you felt, thought about during this mission is yours. And what you decide to do with them is your choice ... / Raiden: You mean start over? / Solid Snake: Yeah, a clean slate. A new name, new memories. Choose your own legacy. It's for you to decide. It's up to you
  33. ^ 堀内 賢雄 (in Japanese). Kenyu Office. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  34. ^ a b "Raiden Speaks! An interview with Quinton Flynn". The Gaming Liberty. May 21, 2011. Archived from the original on June 25, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  35. ^ "MGS4's Raiden Speakes". IGN. June 18, 2008. Archived from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  36. ^ Sinha, Ravi (May 26, 2015). "Konami Were Considering Metal Gear Rising 2, Kojima Break Up Unfortunate: Raiden's VA". Gaming Bolt. Archived from the original on 2018-12-04. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  37. ^ "CVG News". Computer and Video Games. Twitter. February 22, 2013. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  38. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Colonel: Just a precaution. You are now designated "Raiden." All right, Raiden. You've already covered infiltration in VR Training. / Raiden: I've completed three hundred missions in VR. I feel like some kind of legendary mercenary ...
  39. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Rosemary: Jack, I'm a part of this mission. / Raiden: Colonel, what the hell is going on? / Colonel: Raiden, meet the mission analyst. She'll be overseeing the data saving and support.
  40. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Colonel: You have two missions objectives. One: infiltrate the offshore decontamination facility "Big Shell" and safeguard the President and other hostages. And two: disarm the terrorists by any means necessary.
  41. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Olga: I was sent to provide you support. / Raiden: Support? Who sent you? The Colonel? / Olga: No ... the Patriots. ...My child is ... being held hostage by the Patriots.
  42. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Raiden: Are you two really an NGO? / Otacon: Insofar as we're a nonprofit organization of civilians advocating a cause, yes. The cause happens to be the eradication of Metal Gear. / Solid Snake: We work on our own. But it's a cause worth fighting for.
  43. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Solidus Snake: The eighties ... the civil war. You were one of the best among the child soldiers that fought in that conflict. When you were barely ten years old, you became the leader of the small boys unit ... I was your godfather, I named you.
  44. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Raiden: When the civil war ended, those of us who survived were taken in by NGO's. They gave me a new life in the States. I can't complain. But nothing's changed ... What I hate more than anything else in the world is my own past.
  45. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Otacon: I think it means ... you've been talking to an AI. / Raiden: That's impossible! / Otacon: The Colonel probably isn't GW per se. GW was most likely stimulating cortical activity in the dormant part of your brain through signal manipulation of your own nanomachines. The Colonel is in part your own creation, cobbled together from expectations and experience ...
  46. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Emma: GW is a system that allows the Patriots to decide what will be recorded in tomorrow's history.
  47. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Rosemary: No, it's something else. That day at Federal Hall two years ago{{subst:mdash}}it wasn't a coincidence. I was ordered to keep an eye on you ... / Raiden: Keep an eye on me? / Rosemary: Yes{{subst:mdash}}by the Patriots. / Raiden: You're a spy; ... / Rosemary: Jack, I thought I was acting, because that was my job. But I did fall in love with you, that wasn't an act.
  48. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Colonel: It's time for the final exercise. Raiden, take Solidus down. / Raiden: Think again! I'm through doing what I'm told! / Colonel: Oh really? Aren't you forgetting something? "If you die, my child dies." The termination of vital signals from your nanomachines means the death of Olga's child. Not to mention the death of Rose. She's wired the same way. / Raiden: Rose -- does she actually exist? / Colonel: (Using Rosemary's voice) Of course I do, Jack! You have to believe me! / Raiden: Damn ... / Colonel: It will be a fight to the death.
  49. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. Raiden: Of course. This is where we first met ... I remember now -- Today is the day I met you. That's it. I think I found something to pass along to the future. He said all living things want their genes to live on. / Rosemary: Are you talking about the baby? / Raiden: Yeah. But genes aren't the only thing you pass on. There are too many things that aren't written into our DNA. It's up to us to teach that to our children.
  50. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. Solid Snake: Jack's gone? I used to work with the guy. He saved Sunny from the Patriots. / Roy Campbell: He disappeared soon after that.
  51. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. Snake: Raiden, where have you been all this time? What have you been doing? Finding what? / Raiden: The corpse of Big Boss. / Snake: What? / Raiden: I was asked to do this in exchange for Sunny's location. / Snake: Matka Pluku ... Big Mama.
  52. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4 Database. Konami. Level/area: Raiden.
  53. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. Snake: It's my duty to put an end to all of this. / Raiden: All right. I'll make sure they don't get through. / Otacon: Stay with me, Snake. Hold on until we insert the virus.
  54. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. Raiden: You said miscarriage ... / Rosemary: I lied. I had a healthy baby boy. Roy pretended to by my husband ... To protect me ... And our son. Only until you'd completed your mission. To shield us from Patriot eyes ... / Raiden: I'll never leave you alone again. Like a scene from Beauty and the Beast. / Rosemary: Don't say that. You're no beast. You're my husband. And his father. And me ... I'm going to do my very best ... to be the wife and mother this family deserves.
  55. ^ "Official E3 Preview of Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance". G4TV. June 4, 2012. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  56. ^ Platinum Games, Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance. Konami. Raiden: You're right ... about me, I mean. I knew something was ... off. After the Patriots, I thought I could walk off the battlefield and into a normal life ... but here I am, surrounded by death, arguing philosophy with terrorists. I told myself this was about justice, about protecting the weak ... but I was wrong. / Monsoon: Then you admit it? / Raiden: I learned young that killing your enemies felt good. Really good. In America, my friends, my family ... they helped me forget the devil inside ... but who am I kidding? I was born to kill! The bit about my sword, that "means of justice" stuff? I guess I just needed something to keep "the Ripper" in check when I was knee-deep in bodies ... / Monsoon: You ... / Raiden: But you..all this ... is a wake-up call to what I really believe ... what I really am. / Monsoon: What are you saying / Raiden: I'm saying Jack is back!
  57. ^ Platinum Games, Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance. Konami. Raiden: Sorry Boris. / Boris: I understand, but then ... what will you do? / Raiden: I've got my own war to fight.
  58. ^ "Saving Private Raiden". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2011.
  59. ^ Niizumi, Hirohiko (September 18, 2005). "TGS 2005: Metal Gear Raiden: Snake Eraser". GameSpot. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  60. ^ Pigna, Kris (October 17, 2007). "MGS: Portable Ops Plus Dated Nov. 13 for US". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
  61. ^ Gifford, Kevin (February 18, 2009). "Metal Gear Online adds Raiden, Vamp". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
  62. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes Jamais Vu trailer, Kojima Productions (2013).
    Kazuhira Miller: But we've [MSF] got a secret weapon. A man [Raiden] from another world. A dark and distant future. A man turned into a war-machine with no human body for those bastards [body-snatchers] to snatch.
  63. ^ Garner, Alex; Wood, Ashley (December 25, 2007). Metal Gear Solid: Sons Of Liberty Volume 2. IDW Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60010-111-3.
  64. ^ Benson, Raymond (November 24, 2009). Metal Gear Solid 2: The Novel: Sons of Liberty. Del Rey. ISBN 978-0-345-50343-5.
  65. ^ Torres, Ricardo (December 19, 2008). "Little Big Planet Update: Metal Gear Solid 4 Pack Impressions". GameSpot. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
  66. ^ "Evolution Skateboarding Hints & Cheats". GameSpot. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  67. ^ Ivan, Tom (November 3, 2010). "Unlock Raiden in Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  68. ^ Phillips, Tom (July 30, 2012). "PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale leak outs characters, stages". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
  69. ^ "History". Platinum Games. Archived from the original on 2018-12-14. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  70. ^ David Radd (November 10, 2009). "'Controversial' Games: Dealing with Fan Backlash". Industry Gamers. Archived from the original on November 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
  71. ^ Reparaz, Mikel (November 10, 2009). "5 reasons to hate Metal Gear Solid". GamesRadar. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
  72. ^ Meikleham, Dave. "Shit characters who almost ruined their great games". GamesRadar. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  73. ^ Meikleham, Dave (December 10, 2009). "Gaming's most bizarre decisions". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  74. ^ Santos, Shoeless Wayne (September 2004). "The News That Never Was". GameAxis Unwired. 7: Singapore Press Holdings: 4. ISSN 0219-872X. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
  75. ^ Meli, Marissa (June 3, 2011). "Trolled: The Biggest Disappointments in Video Games". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  76. ^ Meli, Marissa (January 26, 2011). "He or She? The Most Androgynous Video Game Characters". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on January 29, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  77. ^ a b Newman, James (2008). Playing with Videogames. Taylor & Francis. pp. 39–40. ISBN 0-415-38523-7.
  78. ^ Cook, Dave (April 24, 2013). "The art of Metal Gear: Yoji Shinkawa's visual legacy". VG247. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
  79. ^ "E3 09: Why Metal Gear Solid: Rising will make you love Raiden". Siliconera. September 4, 2012. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  80. ^ Bramwell, Tom (December 3, 2002). "Metal Gear Solid 2 : Sons of Liberty - Review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on August 26, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  81. ^ "Biggest Surprise". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 8, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
  82. ^ Meikleham, Dave. "The Top 7 ... Games with mega plot twists you never saw coming". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  83. ^ Haigh, Matthew (July 31, 2008). "Top 10 sexiest computer game characters". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on 2012-06-16. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  84. ^ Berghammer, Billy. "Kojima Productions' Ryan Payton". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  85. ^ Sharkey, Scott (June 3, 2011). "Metal Gear's Top 5 Awkward Moments". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  86. ^ Jones, Nick. "Metal Gear Solid – My Top Five Moments". Play. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  87. ^ Top 5 Katana Wielders. "Top 5 Katana Wielders | Top 5 with Lisa Foiles Video Gallery | The Escapist". Escapistmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 2014-05-23. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
  88. ^ a b c Shaw, Pattrick (June 11, 2009). "Feature: Metal Gear Solid Rising: 6 Things to Expect from the Game". GamePro. Archived from the original on June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  89. ^ "The complete history of Metal Gear". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
  90. ^ Jensen, K. Thor (February 27, 2011). "The Most Stylin' Alternate Costumes". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on 2011-03-04. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  91. ^ Mackenzie, Gavin. "Top 10 inappropriate outfits". Play. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  92. ^ "Top ten ninjas on PlayStation". Play. Archived from the original on March 13, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
  93. ^ Scheeden, Jeese. "Top 10 Metal Gear Villains". IGN. Archived from the original on June 28, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
  94. ^ "E3 06: Metal Gear Solid 4 Extended Trailer Impressions". GameSpot. May 10, 2006. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
  95. ^ Beatty, D'Marcus; Walker, Matthew. "Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots Trailer Analysis". Cheat Code Central. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  96. ^ Bertz, Matt (November 19, 2010). "The Snubbed List". Game Informer. Archived from the original on February 10, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
  97. ^ "Top 100 Video Game Moments". IGN. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  98. ^ Schedeen, Jesse (March 30, 2009). "Cast of Characters: GDC '09". IGN. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  99. ^ Schedeen, Jesse. "The MVP's of E3 2009". IGN. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  100. ^ Miekleham, Dave. "E3 09: Why Metal Gear Solid: Rising will make you love Raiden". GamesRadar. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
  101. ^ Glifford, Kevin (February 10, 2010). "Snake Beats Mario, Is Coolest Video Game Character Ever". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on September 8, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
  102. ^ Chad Hunter, Michael Rougeau, The 50 Greatest Soldiers In Video Games Archived 2013-11-06 at the Wayback Machine Archived 2013-11-06 at the Wayback Machine, Complex.com, May 25, 2013.
  103. ^ Henry Gilbert (2013-02-21). "The deadliest cyborg ninjas in gaming history". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on 2013-10-07. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
  104. ^ PLAY 232, page 34.
  105. ^ "2. Raiden (Metal Gear)". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
  106. ^ Brown, Peter (February 19, 2013). "Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2013-02-20. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  107. ^ "Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance review". GameTrailers. February 19, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-02-22. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  108. ^ Concepción, Miguel (February 19, 2013). "Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance Review – Outside the Box". The Escapist. Archived from the original on 2013-12-08. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  109. ^ McWhertor, Michael. "Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance review: blood and thunder review". Polygon. Archived from the original on 2015-04-21. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  110. ^ Dyer, Mitch (February 18, 2013). "Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance review". IGN. Archived from the original on 2013-02-21. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  111. ^ "Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2013-02-19. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  112. ^ Emmbrick, David (September 25, 2010). Utopic Dreams and Apocalyptic Fantasies: Critical Approaches to Researching Video Game Play. Lexington Books. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7391-4700-9.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  113. ^ Huntemann, Nina B. (August 8, 2009). Joystick soldiers: the politics of play in military video games. Routledge. pp. 263–264. ISBN 978-0-415-99660-0.
  114. ^ Emmbrick, David (September 25, 2010). Utopic Dreams and Apocalyptic Fantasies: Critical Approaches to Researching Video Game Play. Lexington Books. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-0-7391-4700-9.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  115. ^ Wiltshire, Alex. "Flashback: How 'Metal Gear Solid 2' Foretold Our Post-Truth Future". Glixel. Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  116. ^ https://nowloading.co/posts/4199069/amp
  117. ^ Kunzelman, Cameron. "The Scary Political Relevance of 'Metal Gear Solid 2'". Archived from the original on 2017-02-23. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  118. ^ a b Ryan, Marie-Laure. Avatars of story. University Of Minnesota Press. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-8166-4686-9.
  119. ^ Matthew Weise (2003). "How Videogames Express Ideas" (PDF). Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. p. 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 15, 2010. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  120. ^ Emmbrick, David (September 25, 2010). Utopic Dreams and Apocalyptic Fantasies: Critical Approaches to Researching Video Game Play. Lexington Books. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-7391-4700-9.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  121. ^ George, Richards (December 12, 2011). "Opinion: Revengeance Will Ruin Metal Gear Solid". IGN. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
  122. ^ Houghton, David (December 13, 2011). "Stop your delusional whining: Platinum's Metal Gear Rising is the best thing that could have happened". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on February 20, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2012.

Further reading[edit]