Rail transport in Albania
The railways in Albania are administered by the national railway company Hekurudha Shqiptare (HSH) (which means Albanian Railways). It operates a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge (standard gauge) rail system in Albania. All trains are hauled by Czech-built ČKD diesel-electric locomotives. The system is considered by many travel guides as a tourist attraction and de facto a panoramic train journey.
The country's first standard gauge line was not built until 1947, although some narrow (decauville) gauge lines were built earlier during World War I. There is one international link with Montenegro, the Podgorica–Shkodër railway, which has only ever been used for freight traffic, and whose last station in Albania is the Bajzë Rail Station.
The railway system was extensively promoted by the totalitarian regime of Enver Hoxha, during which time the use of private motor transport was effectively prohibited. After 1947, a significant infrastructure undertaking was the construction of the country's rail network as Albania was considered as the only state in Europe not to have standard rail service. By 1987, 677 km of railway were constructed in total linking the main urban and industrial centers for the first time since the end of World War II. Train transport was the main transportation method until 1990. After the collapse of Communism, the network fell into disregard.
Since the collapse of the former regime, there has been a considerable increase in car ownership and bus usage. Whilst some of the country's secondary roads are still in a very poor condition, there have been other developments (such as the construction of a motorway between Tirana, Durrës, and other towns) which have taken much traffic away from the railways.
As of 2015, some stations and rolling stock along the Durrës-Tirane line are being renovated and colored red and white.
- November 1947 - Opening of the first standard gauge railway line (Durrës to Peqin).
- June 1957 - Introduction of diesel-electric locomotives.
- July 1973 - Completion of the railway line from Elbasan to Prrenjas, the first Albanian line through the mountains.
- September 1986 - First international rail freight (to and from Montenegro, then part of Yugoslavia).
- 2000 - HSH ceases to be a state enterprise, becoming a limited company (although state owned).
- 2005 - Other rail operators allowed track access.
Present day network
The HSH passenger system presently consists of the following lines:
- (Shkodër–Vorë railway) – Durrës – Rrogozhinë – Fier – Vlorë (Rrogozhinë-Vlorë only Summer from 2012)
- Kashar–Tirana is no longer operational as of September 2013. This is due to the fact that Tirana station has been demolished to make way for a new road project. It is now necessary to catch the rail replacement bus service from outside what is left of Tirana station to Kashar to catch onward rail connections. The bus service operates between the two localities as part of the (Durrës–Tiranë railway).
- Rrogozhinë – Elbasan – Librazhd
The rails from the line Milot–Rubik–Rrëshen have been partially removed to repair the line to Montenegro. The line should have led to the Nuclear Power Plant of Klos, but was never finished. Currently a new railway link is being built between Rrëshen and the border to Kosovo.
The Librazhd-Pogradec line, the most beautiful part of the Albanian railway network was closed for passenger traffic in 2012. The stored locomotives and wagons from Prrenjas are being moved to Elbasan. As a result, the railway is probably going to be dismantled, as it doesn't link any major cities.
There are several freight-only branch lines. Regular freight trains run between Podgorica and Shkodër every weekday (with an Albanian or a Montenegrean locomotive alternating daily) and between Durrës and the oil refinery at Ballsh about once a week. The Tirana-Shkodër and the Durrës-Elbasan lines are normally served by mixed trains.
The UIC Country Code for the Albanian railway system is 41.
Usage of the railway network of Albania is declining year by year.
|in millions pass.-km||223||215||197||168||95||116||121||125||138||123||105||89||73||80||51||41||32||19||18||16||12|
|Freight||in thousands tonnes||539||522||574||521||284||305||361||412||258||340||520||417||404||450||399||355||343||403||317||142||151|
|in millions ton.-km||54||53||53||42||23||25||27||28||19||21||31||32||26||36||53||52||46||66||50||25||23|
|Network length||in kilometres||115||143||193||272||319||421||447|
Neighbouring railways have the same gauge.
- Montenegro - freight only
- Greece - no connection
- Republic of Macedonia - no connection
- Kosovo - no connection
- Railway transport of goods and passengers (1993-2013). INSTAT (Institute of Statistics). Tirana, Albania
- Sako Z. Ilir MBA MSc (2008), Railway market: Albanian Railways - a difficult heritage
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rail transport in Albania.|
- HSH Official Website
- Albanian railway developments on Skyscrapercity Forum
- Albanian Trains Website
- — Timetable of Albanian trains
- — A site maintained by and for railway enthusiasts with an interest in Albanian Railways.
- Albanian railways in photos
- Photo gallery dedicated to HSH on World of Railways.
- Albania's long-suffering railways, The Economist, 2010.