Rail transport in Indonesia

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KA Sri Tanjung Jemursari.jpg
Sri Tanjung train in Surabaya.
National railwayLogo PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) 2020.svg Kereta Api Indonesia
Ridership429.2 million (2019)[1]
Freight995.5 million tonnes (2015, as of October)[2]
System length
Total6,600 kilometres (4,100 mi) [3]
Electrified478 kilometres (297 mi)
Track gauge
Main1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
Standard gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)
107.7 kilometres (66.9 mi)
Main1.5 kV DC overhead line
Longest tunnelSasaksaat Tunnel
949 m (3,114 ft)[4]
Longest bridgeCikubang Bridge
300 m (980 ft)[5]
Highest elevation848 m (2,782 ft)
 atNagreg railway station[6]
Lowest elevation1 m (3 ft 3 in)
 atSurabaya Pasar Turi railway station[6]

The majority of Indonesia's railways are on Java, used for both passenger and freight transport. There are three noncontinuous railway networks in Sumatra (Aceh and North Sumatra; West Sumatra; South Sumatra and Lampung) while two new networks are being developed in Kalimantan and Sulawesi.[7][8] Indonesia has finalized its plan for a national railway network recently. According to the plan, 3,200 km of train tracks that will criss-cross the islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi, it has been touted as the most extensive railway project in Indonesia since its independence from the Dutch in 1945.[9] Indonesia targets to extend the national railway network to 10,524 kilometres by 2030. As of September 2022, the network spans 7,032km.[10]

Urban railway exist in form of commuter rail in all provinces and metropolitan areas of Java – notably in Jakarta – as well as Medan, North Sumatra. New mass rapid transit and light rail transit system are currently being introduced in Jakarta and Palembang, South Sumatra.

Despite Indonesia having a left-hand running for roads, most of the railway lines use right-hand running due to Dutch legacy.

Indonesia's rail gauge is 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in), although 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) and 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in) lines previously existed. Newer constructions in Sumatra including Aceh, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, along with the Jakarta LRT and Jakarta-Bandung HSR, are using the 1,435 mm gauge. Most of the Jakarta metropolitan area is electrified at 1500 V DC overhead.

Indonesia's railways are primarily operated by the state-owned Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI), its commuter subsidiary KAI Commuter, and the airport rail link subsidiary KAI Bandara. The infrastructure is state-owned, and companies[further explanation needed] pay a fee for using the railways.

Various narrow gauge industrial tramways operate in Java and Sumatra, serving the sugarcane and oil palm industries.


Locomotive and train of the Dutch Indies Railway Company (Nederlands-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij), Java, c. 1900s.

The first railway line in Indonesia opened in 1867 and was initially laid to standard gauge size. The railways were gradually expanded by both the state and private companies.

The Japanese occupation and the Indonesian War of Independence left Indonesia's railways in a poor condition. A batch of 100 steam locomotives were ordered in 1950, and dieselisation started in 1953. By the 1980s most mainline services had been dieselised. Electric multiple units were obtained from Japan beginning in the 1970s, replacing 60-year-old electric locomotives.

Since the independence era, all mainline railways in Indonesia have been managed by the state. The owners of the private railway were compensated first, but the system was fully nationalised in 1971.

Construction of new railway lines has been scarce, and most new construction is concentrated on double- and quad-tracking of existing railway lines. Most of the former tramway lines have been closed, reducing the mileage from about 7000 km to only 3000 km.

Regulator and operators[edit]


The sole regulator of Indonesian rail transport system is Directorate General of Railways, Ministry of Transportation. Established 5 August 2005 during the reign of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, the directorate general was designed to regulate rail transport policies in Indonesia.[11] The first Director-General was Soemino Eko Saputro, who had served as CEO of Perumka. When he was served as the Director-General, Saputro was involved in a corruption case concerning procurement of EMUs from Japan, which caused the state to lose IDR 20 billion.[12]


There are a bunch of passenger and freight rail companies in Indonesia:

Some agricultural companies also operates industrial railways:

  • Perkebunan Nusantara (state-owned)
    • PT Perkebunan Nusantara II — operates palm oil trains
    • PT Perkebunan Nusantara IV — operates palm oil trains
    • PT Perkebunan Nusantara IX — operates sugarcane lines and tourist train
  • PT Bakrie Sumatra Plantations (part of Bakrie Group) — operates rubber and palm oil freight trains
  • PT Tanjung Enim Lestari — operates pulp freight trains

Rail infrastructures by region[edit]


Map of Java's transportation network, including railways

The first railways in Indonesia were built on the island of Java, using 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge. During the Japanese occupation, they were converted to 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge. At its greatest extent, the Javanese network had a length of 4,807 kilometres (2,987 mi), connecting most parts of the island.[13] The Javanese network train (in Java Island) is divided into nine operating divisions.


Map of Sumatra's railway network. Only red, dark red, brown, green, and blue-colored thick lines are still active
Medan railway station, serving intercity trains as well as Railink airport train service to Kualanamu International Airport

As of 2013, there are 1,869 kilometres of track in Sumatra, of which 1,348 km are operational.[14] Several unconnected railway networks were built in the time of the Dutch East Indies:

Plans to connect up and fix these isolated lines are included in the Trans-Sumatra Railway plan. Railway services in Sumatra by operational is divided into four regional divisions, which are:

Regional Division 1
(North Sumatra and Aceh)
Regional Division 2
(West Sumatra)
Regional Division 3
(South Sumatra)
Regional Division 4
(Lampung) and South Sumatra)
  • Medan - Tebing Tinggi
  • Araskabu - Kualanamu
  • Tebing Tinggi - Kisaran
  • Kisaran - Kotapinang
  • Kisaran - Tanjungbalai
  • Tebing Tinggi - Siantar
  • Medan - Belawan
  • Medan - Besitang
  • Kutablang - Krueng Geukueh
  • Teluk Bayur - Sawahlunto (156.5 km)
  • Muara Kalaban - Padang Sibusuk (6.2 km)
  • Bukit Putus - Indarung (14.5 km)
  • Lubuk Alung - Pariaman (21.5 km)
  • Pariaman - Sungai Limau (15 km)
  • Padang Panjang - Payakumbuh (52.1 km)
  • Payakumbuh - Limbanang (20.2 km)
  • Padang Sibusuk - Muaro Sijunjung (19.9 km)
  • Padang - Pulau Air (5.5 km)
  • Duku - Minangkabau International Airport
  • Kertapati - Prabumulih
  • Simpang - Indralaya
  • Prabumulih - Lubuk Linggau
  • Tarahan - Prabumulih


The first railway network in Kalimantan island was opened in 1908, serving the oil refinery and port of Balikpapan. It was closed in 1950.[16] In 2010, plans were announced for Kalimantan to get a 122 km long 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge railway for the transport of coal between the Muara Wahau [id] mine and the port of Bengalon.[17] In January 2016, Russian Railways reported that the construction of a railway in Kalimantan will finish in 2019;[18] however, in 2022 they withdraw from the initial investment plan so the railway construction was canceled.[19]

Lesser Sunda Islands[edit]

In 2019, it was reported that governor of Bali Wayan Koster is planned to build railways on Bali with 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge. The railway "is keen to improve Bali's transportation infrastructure and is considering plans to build an electric rail network across the island".[20]


Invitation to the 30 June 1922 opening of the Makassar-Takalar line

The first railway network in Sulawesi was opened in 1922 connecting Makassar and Takalar, but was closed in 1930 due to poor revenue.[21][22] The newer Trans-Sulawesi Railway is under construction as of 2022. It will be built with 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge, which is wider than the cape gauge used in Java and most of Sumatra to accommodate more weight and speed.[23][24]


A 440 km railway from Manokwari to Sorong in West Papua province is planned.[25] In Papua there is also a subway line assigned to transport mining products which is located in the Grasberg mine, Mimika Regency, near Puncak Jaya, and operated by PT. Freeport Indonesia and has been operating since 2019.[26] Besides that, a train line is also operated specifically for students at the Nemangkawi Mining Institute.[27]

Rolling stock[edit]

Preserved locomotives[edit]

Indonesia had various types of locomotives, being the legacy of the many different companies. Surprisingly, only five steam locomotives remain in operable condition, with two located in the Ambarawa Railway Museum, two in Surakarta running the Jaladara excursion train, and one in the Sawahlunto Railway Museum. On the other hand, static steam locomotive displays are located in the Transportation Museum (under the auspices of the Department of Transportation) in Jakarta's Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park) and Ambarawa Railway Museum (managed by PT Kereta Api) in Central Java. Plinthed locomotives can also be found in most cities and towns. Somewhat surprisingly, few non-locomotive rolling stock were preserved.

Derelict B52 03 at Tegal locomotive depot on 9 July 2002. Presumably it was later scrapped

With the Asian economic crisis of 1997, remaining hulks of steam locomotives formerly standing in former depots became valuable for their scrap value, and by 2000, most locomotives not already plinthed or sent to museums were scrapped, presumably illegally.

Four operable industrial steam locomotives are present, with two more preserved, at the Cepu Forest Railway. This currently represents the largest concentration of active preserved steam locomotives in Indonesia.

Several "last" steam locomotives were built for Indonesia. E10 60, a 1966-built rack steam locomotive (Esslingen 5316) is operable in Sawahlunto Railway Museum. BB84, the last Mallet locomotive built for a non-tourist railway (according to Durrant) was built by Nippon Sharyo Keizo Kaisha in 1962 (works number 2007). This locomotive was plinthed in Banda Aceh and survived the December 2004 tsunami. The locomotive is in rather poor condition with its valve gear and cylinder pistons missing (as of March 2006).

SS 1600-class steam locomotive No. 1622 "Sri Gunung" (Mountain Queen), a 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) mallet built in 1928, preserved in the Dutch Railway Museum.

The Trangkil No. 4 (Hunslet Engine Company 3902) was built in 1971, being the last steam locomotive built at Hunslet's Jack Lane Works in Leeds, England. The locomotive was used on the Trangkil sugar mill estate on Java. It has been repatriated to the UK in 2004.[28]

Sragi No.1 (Krauss) was built in 1899, restored to working order in 2008. This locomotive is a former sugar cane carrier in Pekalongan, Central Java. Then there are two other locomotives namely Pakis Baru No. 1 (Orenstein & Koppel built 1900) and Pakis Baru No. 5 (Orenstein & Koppel built 1905), both of which were former locomotives belonging to the Pakis Baru sugar factory in Pati, Central Java. All locomotives now preserved at Statfold Barn Railway, England.

Diesel locomotives[edit]

As of 2016, PT Kereta Api operates about 350 units of diesel locomotives divided into classes in Java and Sumatra[29] used both for passenger and freight services. The first diesel locomotive owned by PT Kereta Api was CC200 class, built by General Electric in 1953.[30]

Electric trains[edit]

As of August 2017, PT Kereta Api's commuter subsidiary, Kereta Commuter Indonesia, operates 758 units of electric multiple units (EMU) in Greater Jakarta area.[31] Most EMUs operated in Jakarta are secondhand trains acquired from major urban railway operators in Greater Tokyo in Japan, such as East Japan Railway Company and Tokyo Metro.


Passenger services[edit]

Argo Wilis, a long-distance passenger train serves Bandung to Surabaya route

KAI provides extensive passenger services. Various classes are available, from luxury class with reclining seats and plane - like facilities, executive class with air conditioner and reclining seat comparable to the better classes of other countries' railways, business coaches which recently have been equipped with air conditioner and reclining seats much like executive class, to the hard bench, but still air conditioned, economy class coaches for cheaper trains. In last couple of years, the business and economic class are in the process of being equipped with air conditioned system. The whole process was completed in early 2013.

Sleeper trains have existed in Indonesia. The last all-sleeper train service was Bima express train which ran from 1967 to 1984 when it was changed to mostly coach, leaving only one or two sleeping cars. It ran in this configuration until 1995, when the sleeper cars were withdrawn and modified into seating coach. Since 2018, sleeper trains have been re-activated for the Argo Bromo Anggrek (Jakarta to Surabaya), Taksaka (Jakarta to Yogyakarta), Argo Lawu and Argo Dwipangga (Jakarta to Solo), and Gajayana (Jakarta to Malang).[32]

Sawunggalih Premium Economy coach in 2017.

In Java, most trains connect Jakarta and the hinterland - regional (or "cross-country" services) have not been fully developed. Between pairs of important cities such as Jakarta and Bandung, intensive hourly services are provided.

Most passenger trains in Indonesia, except commuter locals, are named. The names varies from plainly descriptive such as Depok Ekspres (a former fast service between Jakarta and Depok), through Logawa (name of a river near Purwokerto, which is served by the train), Argo Lawu (Mt. Lawu, an extinct volcano near Solo, which is served by the said express train), to more or less meaningless, though romantic, names such as Bangunkarta (abbreviation of names of cities it serves: Jombang-Madiun-Jakarta) and Matarmaja (Malang-Blitar-Madiun-Jakarta).

Gumarang Business coach in 2009.

Railway passenger services experienced a renaissance in the 1995-1999 period, with the introduction of many new passenger express services. With the advent of cheap airplane tickets, KAI experienced a downturn in the number of passengers carried, though the number has stabilized and most trains remain at more than 50% occupancy rate.

Argo Network[edit]

Ka argo.svg

Note: K.A. Argo Gede and also K.A. Parahyangan no longer exist. As a replacement, K.A. Argo Parahyangan trains operate the same routing as a merge of K.A. Argo Gede and K.A. Parahyangan.

Women only carriages[edit]

As a response to many reports of sexual harassment in public places, including commuter trains and bus, KAI launched women-only carriages in some KRL Jabodetabek commuter trains in Jakarta metropolitan area in August 2010.[33] On May 13, 2013 KAI changed women-only trains to regular trains which at the front and back of the train has a coach for women only. This rule apply in KRL Jabodetabek.[34]

Priority seat[edit]

KAI designates priority seats to elderly passengers, pregnant women, disabled passengers and mother with infant to ride public transport with an equal degree of access and comfort as other people. Priority seat not only in the first and end of the train like in women only carriages, but eight seats in each carriage are designated as priority seats. This apply in KRL Commuterline.

Priority Class (Sleeper Train)[edit]

KAI relaunched the Sleeper Train service on June 11, 2018.[35][36] This sleeper train is equipped with excellent facilities even in the same class as a first class aircraft cabin. The first route for sleeper train is from Gambir Jakarta to Surabaya.[37] The Luxury Sleeper Train is managed by another KAI subsidiary, KAI Wisata.

Freight services[edit]

A CC 201-47 Locomotive hauling Gottwald Crane in 2005.

The railway system in Java is more or less a passenger-oriented system, and there are few freight services, due to the limited capacity of the tracks. Some notable freight services in Java include the Kalimas container train and the Parcel train between Jakarta and Surabaya, petroleum trains between refineries or oil pipe terminals and oil depots, and quartz sand trains in Central Java. Besides being operated for Krakatau Steel, the train will later be used to supply steel from Cilegon to other areas.[38]

But in recent years, there have been many efforts to increase freight traffic in Java by introducing the GE CC206 locomotives, as well as building double-track lines that connect Jakarta and Surabaya on the North Coast line to increase the number of container trains between both cities. Many container ports have also been built in intermediate cities and towns. This effort has already attracted some customers who normally shipped their products via road.

A GE CC206 Locomotive departs with empty coal train in 2015's above.

The system in South Sumatra is rather freight-oriented. Coal unit trains, carrying coal for an electricity plant is given priority over passenger trains, and Pulp unit trains to transport pulp for paper mills. In West Sumatra, the remaining railway line serves the cement plant at Indarung, near Padang, and in North Sumatra, several oil palm and rubber plantations are served by freight trains.

In Papua, Freeport Indonesia uses underground trains to carry ore from mine to mill.[39]

Urban rail and rail-based rapid transit[edit]

A KRL Commuterline electric train takes stop on the Tugu Yogyakarta station, Yogyakarta, December 2020.

Trams formerly existed in Jakarta, Surabaya, Malang, and Semarang before their service was closed after independence. In Jakarta the tram lines are operated using track gauge 1,188 mm (3 ft 10+2532 in) operated by Bataviasche Verkeers Maatschappij and Pengangkutan Penumpang Djakarta, while in other areas track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) were used.

In Greater Jakarta, KRL Commuterline is one of operational urban rail network, serving commuter routes which comprises cities of DKI Jakarta, Depok, Bogor, Bekasi, Tangerang, and South Tangerang as well as regencies of Bogor, Bekasi, and Lebak. The other operational urban rail networks are Jakarta provincially-owned Jakarta MRT, Jakarta LRT, and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link to support the public transport network in the area.

Regional rail functions as commuter rail in Greater Surabaya, so technically there is no urban rail network. However, there are plans for a mass rapid transit network in and around Surabaya. Surabaya MRT planned with Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) in Dupak line (Manyar-Dupak-Juanda), Rungkut line (Dupak-Rungkut-Waru-Sidoarjo), Krian line (Manyar-Krian-Sidoarjo), Tanjung Perak line (Tanjung Perak-Wonokromo-Sidoarjo), Juanda line (Juanda-Sidoarjo) and Other Loop line (Dupak-Rungkut-Krian-Dupak).[40] A 32 km diesel line from Mojokerto to Sidoarjo has been put into service, with 6 daily return trips.[citation needed]

Greater Medan is served by Kualanamu Airport Rail Link. Sri Lelawangsa commuter train connects Medan and nearby Binjai.

In Palembang, Palembang Light Rail Transit had operate in June 2018, before the 2018 Asian Games.[41]

In greater Yogyakarta and Surakarta, KAI Commuter Yogyakarta Line operates between Yogyakarta, Klaten and Surakarta. Prambanan Express connects Yogyakarta with Purworejo. Yogyakarta International and Adisumarmo Airport Rail Links exists in Yogyakarta and Surakarta, respectively.

In Padang, Minangkabau Express is in operation.

Tourist rail[edit]

In Indonesia, there are several train lines that were built for tourist destinations, such as the Gamplong tram line in Sleman Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta using 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) track gauge,[42] the Ancol mini train line in Jakarta using 620 mm (2 ft 1332 in) track gauge, and the Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (TMII) tourist mini train line in Jakarta using 670 mm track gauge. In addition to operating mini trains, TMII also operates SHS-23 Aeromovel Indonesia or Titihan Samirono, a light rail which was initially a wind-powered aeromovel.[43]

Industrial railway[edit]

Sugar cane[edit]

The use of trains as transport from plantations dates back to the 1800s. In the past, to transport sugar cane from plantations to sugar factories, sugar mill companies used narrow gauge trains to transport their sugar cane products. Around the 1970s, the transportation of sugarcane from plantations to factories began using trucks. Since the early 90s, transportation of sugarcane from plantations in Indonesia has been almost entirely using trucks due to lower operational costs, time efficiency, and the reduction in sugarcane land around the sugar factory area.

In addition, due to the increasingly rapid development of transportation, road infrastructure is getting better, and lorries are getting old and slow, over time the use of lorry trains is no longer used, although until now there are still some sugar factories that still operate trains to sugarcane plantations. In addition, some of the train lines are used for tourism, some use steam locomotives and also diesel locomotives. Most of the sugarcane rail lines are operated by PT. Perkebunan Nusantara IX[44]

The use of track gauges in sugar factories in Indonesia varies from place to place, for example:

  • Track gauge 600 mm (1 ft 11+58 in), used in PG Djatiwangi Majalengka, PG Djatibarang Brebes, PG Pangka Tegal, PG Cepiring Kendal, PG Soedhono Ngawi, PG Tulangan Sidoarjo, PG Gendhing Probolinggo, and PG Pandji Situbondo.
  • Track gauge 670 mm, only used in PG Kadhipaten Majalengka.
  • Track gauge 700 mm (2 ft 3+916 in), used in PG Gempol Cirebon, PG Tersana Baru Cirebon, PG Ketanggungan Barat Brebes, PG Soemberhardjo Pemalang, PG Rendeng Kudus, PG Kalibagor Banyumas, PG Gondang Winangoen Klaten, PG Kartasoera Surakarta, PG Rejosarie Magetan, PG Poerwodadie Magetan, PG Arasoe Bone Sulawesi, PG Sragie Pekalongan, and others (almost all sugar factories in Java use this track gauge).
  • Track gauge 720 mm, only used in PG Sindanglaut Cirebon.
  • Track gauge 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in), used in PG Bandjaratma Brebes, PG Pakis Baru Pati, PG Trangkil Pati, PG Ceper Baru Klaten, PG Tjolomadoe Solo, and PG Tasikmadu Karanganyar.

Palm oil[edit]

In Indonesia there are several palm oil companies that operate trains to transport palm fruit, either from oil palm plantations to mills or just as a means of passing. The oil palm carriage is commonly referred to as "Lori Muntik". The palm oil mills are spread across Sumatra and Kalimantan. The track gauge used is 700 mm (2 ft 3+916 in). Several large palm oil companies that use this train, including PT. Socfindo, PT. BSP, PTPN II, PTPN IV in Sumatra, and several other palm oil mills.[45]

Rubber plantations[edit]

In North Sumatra there is a rubber factory that still operates trains to transport rubber latex to the factory, one of which is PT. Bakrie Sumatra Plantations. The train was pulled by a small diesel locomotive made by Hokuriku, Schoma, and several other small locomotives. The track gauge used is 700 mm (2 ft 3+916 in).

Mining & oil transport[edit]

PT Freeport Indonesia, which is a mining company, operates underground mining trains to facilitate the transportation of copper, gold and silver ore materials to the processing plant location at Mile 74, Tembagapura, Mimika, Papua. The locomotive used is the MMT-M-270-BDE diesel locomotive made by Schalker Eisenhütte Maschinenfabrik, Germany.[46]

Cikotok, Banten formerly known as one of the gold mining areas in Indonesia operated by PT. Antam. In order to smooth the flow of raw gold distribution, a railway line was operated. The train used is a small train with a track gauge of about 700mm. However, because the gold stock here ran out, in 2016 the mine was closed and only ruins were left, as well as the Cirotan mine monument which contained an artificial diesel locomotive Deutz-Fahr on display at that place. Apart from Cikotok, PT Antam also operates mining rail lines in other areas, one of which is in Bogor, West Java[47]

In Sebelimbingan, Pulau Laut, South Borneo there is a relic Dutch coal mine. At that time, a railway line was built from the mine site which was used to transport coal to the port and later brought it to the Netherlands. Now the mines and railroad tracks are just ruins. In addition, in several other areas in South Kalimantan mining railway lines have also been built, such as in Amuntai, Martapura, several other places.[48]

Until around the 1950s, the oil refinery that is now owned by Pertamina in Balikpapan still operated mini trains with small track gauges to transport oil from the refinery to the port. Currently there is no relic left.[49]

High-speed rail[edit]

CR400AF proposed by China.

In recent decades, Javan transportation backbones — north coast road and railway system that serves Jakarta-Surabaya corridor, has suffered greatly from both freight and passenger congestion.[50] The plan to build a high-speed railway system in Java has been around for many years. However, it was not until 2008 that the idea had been contemplated seriously. It was Japan International Cooperation Agency's proposal that initiated the idea to build high-speed rail for the Indonesian island of Java, linking up the densely populated corridor from the capital Jakarta to Surabaya city (covering 730 km) in East Java.[51][52] Japan is eager to export their Shinkansen high-speed rail technology abroad. Following up JICA's initial study in 2012, the detailed feasibility study was concluded in 2014. In recent years, Indonesia has been undergoing a revival in railway expansion and upgrades. The high-speed rail corridors have been proposed but not implemented yet, since it was deemed too costly.

In April 2015, China had entered the race with a counter-offer to build the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail in Indonesia.[53] A bid which alarmed Japan that has been nurtured the idea for years.

In July 2015, the Indonesian government announced their plan to build the high-speed rail system connecting Jakarta and Bandung, and devised a competition between Japan and China train-makers as potential bidders. Japan and China have expressed their interest in the project; both countries had done comprehensive studies of the project.[54]

In late September 2015, Indonesia awarded this multibillion-dollar railway project to China over Japan.[55][56]

The proposed high-speed rail will connect the nation's capital Jakarta with Bandung city in neighboring West Java province, covering a distance of 150 kilometers, and is also expected to expand further, connecting to Indonesia's second largest city, Surabaya in East Java.[54]

The project has been delayed several times, first due to careless construction that affected nearby roads, then due to coronavirus pandemic restrictions.[citation needed]

In December 2015 discussion for the Jakarta-Surabaya high-speed rail was commenced by the Indonesian Coordinating Minister of Maritime and Resources. Academicians from two major universities in Indonesia, and employees from Japan International Cooperation Agency, were invited to attend the discussion.[57][58]

In May 2020, coordinating Economics Minister Airlangga Hartarto announced that the government had decided to extend the China-backed Jakarta-Bandung high-speed railway project to Surabaya. The line would run along a southern route to connect the Jakarta-Bandung project with Surabaya via Kertajati, where the government recently built a new airport, as well as via Surakarta and Yogyakarta. Meanwhile Japan is working on the Java North Line Upgrading Project, which would connect Jakarta and Surabaya with a route along the northern coast of Java via Cirebon in West Java and Semarang in Central Java. A proposed travel speed of 150 km per hour for the 720-km railway connection would allow for the use of existing tracks, hence resulting in the lower development cost of about $5 billion.[59]

Heritage railways[edit]

There are several railway lines that are currently only used as tourist train lines. Some of them in Java have the Tuntang-Bedono train line in the Ambarawa Railway Museum area which has a jagged train line. Tourist trains here are pulled using steam locomotives B25, B51 and diesel locomotive D 301.[60] Then in the Cepu, Central Java area there is a train line belonging to Perum Perhutani which was formerly used as a wooden carriage. Now it is only used as a tourist train line called Cepu Loco Tour or Cepu Forest Railway. This tourist train is pulled using a C-2902 steam locomotive and a diesel locomotive. This railway line operated by Perum Perhutani.[61]

The city of Surakarta has an active railway line which is adjacent to the main road of the city, Jalan Slamet Riyadi. The downtown rail line connects Purwosari Station with Wonogiri Station in Wonogiri Regency. The Jaladara train is served by the steam locomotive C12 18 and D14 10, which includes a small locomotive used for horizontal routes. This locomotive pulls two carriages made of genuine teak wood made in 1920 with the codes CR16 and CR144. The steam train was an old German-made train in 1896 and was sent to Indonesia that same year by the Dutch East Indies Government as a means of short-distance transportation.[62]

In Sumatra, the Sawahlunto Railway Museum is located on the Sawahlunto-Muaro Kalaban railway line. In the past, this route was used to transport coal from Sawahlunto to Padang. Currently the line has been deactivated, and the plan is for the Sawahlunto-Muarokalaban segment to be reactivated as a Mak Itam tourist train line which will later be towed by the Esslingen E10 steam locomotive. The line is listed as a world heritage by UNESCO.[63]

In Lebong Tandai, Bengkulu, there is a Molek train using a track gauge 700 mm (2 ft 3+916 in). Molek is not the first to be in Lebong Tandai. In fact, Molek was born from the limitations of residents in remote areas of the forest after the death of the Netherlands and an Australian-owned company that finished mining gold there. Previously, when the Dutch entered the bowels of the forest in Napal Putih Subdistrict, North Bengkulu to hunt for gold veins in 1901. The carriages and seats were made of long boards wrapped in leather and makeshift foam.[64]

List of all locomotives in Indonesia[edit]

This is a list of locomotives in Indonesia that have been/are/will be operated.[65][66]

Steam locomotives[edit]

All steam locomotives in Indonesia were operated during the Dutch colonial era to the PJKA era, during the 1980s era. In Greater Jakarta, steam locomotives were operated between 1930s and 1980-1990s (eg: steam trams were actually closed in the early 1980s electricity was actually closed at the end of the decade 1990s due to being displaced by electric rail train, diesel locomotive, city transportation and the emergence of ojek motorcycle ). The first locomotives in Indonesia were NIS 1 and 2 belonging to Nederlands-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij, to serve the Samarang NIS-Tanggung railway line. The following list of steam locomotives in Indonesia does not include all steam locomotives operated by all train operators in the Dutch East Indies. The following is a list of steam locomotives in Indonesia.[67]

Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)

Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

Track gauge 762 mm (2 ft 6 in)

Track gauge 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in)

  • Banjaratma No. 10
  • Ceper Baru No. 5
  • Colomadu No. 1
  • Pakis Baru No. 2
  • Tasikmadu No. 3 1908, build by Borsig
  • Tasikmadu No. 5
  • Tasikmadu TM 1, build by Orenstein & Koppel
  • Tasikmadu TM 5
  • Tasikmadu TM IV
  • Tasikmadu TM VI, build by Orenstein & Koppel
  • Tasikmadu TM IX (Lokomotiv Doon)
  • Tasikmadu TM X
  • Tasikmadu TM XIV
  • Trangkil No. 4, build by Hunslet

Track gauge 720mm

  • Sindanglaut No. 4
  • Sindanglaut No. 7
  • Sindanglaut No. 8
  • Sindanglaut No. 10
  • Sindanglaut No. 11
  • Sindanglaut No. 13

Track gauge 700 mm (2 ft 3+916 in)

  • Bromo No. 5 (owned by PG Olean)
  • Gempol No.2
  • Gondang Winangun No. 14
  • Kalibagor No. 20
  • Kartasura No.5
  • Kedawung No. 14
  • Ketanggungan No. 11
  • Olean No. 1
  • Olean No. 7
  • Pagottan No. 7
  • Purwodadi No. 1
  • Purwodadi No. 10
  • Rejosari No. 10
  • Rendeng No. 6
  • Semboro No. 14
  • Semboro No. 15
  • Semboro No. 29, build by Jungenthal
  • Semeru No. 4 (owned by PG Olean)
  • Sragi No. 16
  • Sumberharjo No. 3
  • Sumberharjo No. 4, build by Ducroo & Brauns Locmotieffabriek
  • Sumberharjo No. 10, build by ALCO
  • Sumberharjo No. 15
  • Tersana No. 2
  • Tersana No. 6
  • Wringinanom No. 06

Track gauge 660mm

Track gauge 610 mm (2 ft)

Track gauge 600 mm (1 ft 11+58 in)

Fireless steam locomotive[edit]

Track gauge 700 mm (2 ft 3+916 in)

Diesel locomotives[edit]

A diesel locomotive is a rail vehicle that uses the power of diesel to propel a whole series of trains.[67]

Electric diesel[edit]

Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)

Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

Hydraulic diesel[edit]

Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

Track gauge 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in)

Mechanic diesel[edit]

Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

Plantations diesel locomotive[edit]

Track gauge 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in)

  • Tasikmadu No. 21
  • Tasikmadu No. 25

Track gauge 720mm

  • Sindanglaut No. 19

Track gauge 700 mm (2 ft 3+916 in)

Track gauge 670mm

  • Kadipaten No. 19

Track gauge 600 mm (1 ft 11+58 in)

  • Pangkah No. 13
  • Pangkah No. 15

Electrical locomotives[edit]

Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

Hybrid locomotive[edit]

Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

Towing train[edit]

Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

Laws and regulations[edit]

Before creating their own laws and regulations, Indonesian rail transport laws and regulations were inherited from Dutch East Indies laws, including:[76]

  • Algemeene Regelen betreffende den Aanleg en de Exploitatie van Spoor en Tramwegen, bestemd voor Algemeen Verkeer in Nederlandsch-Indië (Dutch East Indies Construction and Operation of Railways and Tramways for General Traffic Act)
  • Algemeene Bepalingen betreffendede Spoor en Tramwegen (Railways and Tramways Act)
  • Bepalingen betreffende den Aanleg en het Bedrijf der Spoorwegen (Regulation on Construction and Operation of Railways)
  • Bepalingen voor de stadstramwegen (Regulation on Urban Tramways)
  • Bepalingen Landelijke Tramwegen (Regulation on Rural Tramways)
  • Bepalingen betreffende het Vervoer over Spoorwegen (Regulation on Transport by Rail)
  • Industriebaan Ordonnantie (Industrial Railways Ordinance)

On 1992, President Suharto passed the 1992 Indonesian Railways Act No. 13, replacing all the regulations above. On the end of March 2007, the People's Representative Council had passed the current law replacing 1992 act, the 2007 Indonesian Railways Act. In the current law, private and regional investors have a chance to manage rail transport, so the domination and monopoly of the KAI were abolished.[77]

See also[edit]


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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]