Rail transport in Indonesia

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Indonesia
KA Sri Tanjung Jemursari.jpg
Sri Tanjung train.
Operation
National railwayKereta Api Indonesia
Statistics
Ridership429.2 million (2019)[1]
Freight995.5 million tonnes (2015, as of October)[2]
System length
Total6,600 kilometres (4,100 mi) [3]
Electrified478 kilometres (297 mi)
Track gauge
Main3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)107.7 kilometres (66.9 mi)
Electrification
Main1.5 kV DC overhead line
Features
Longest tunnelSasaksaat Tunnel
949 m (3,114 ft)[4]
Longest bridgeCikubang Bridge
300 m (980 ft)[5]
Highest elevation848 m (2,782 ft)
 atNagreg railway station[6]
Lowest elevation1 m (3 ft 3 in)
 atSurabaya Pasar Turi railway station[6]

The majority of Indonesia's railways are on Java, used for both passenger and freight transport. There are three noncontinuous railway networks in Sumatra (Aceh and North Sumatra; West Sumatra; South Sumatra and Lampung) while two new networks are being developed in Kalimantan and Sulawesi.[7][8] Indonesia has finalized its plan for a national railway network recently. According to the plan, 3,200 km of train tracks that will criss-cross the islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi, it has been touted as the most extensive railway project in Indonesia since its independence from the Dutch in 1945.[9]

Urban railway exist in form of commuter rail in Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya. New mass rapid transit and light rail transit system are currently being introduced in Jakarta and Palembang.

Despite Indonesia having a left-hand running for roads, most of the railway lines use right-hand running due to Dutch influence.

Indonesia's rail gauge is 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in), although 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) and 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in) lines previously existed. Newer constructions in Sumatra including Aceh, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, along with the Jakarta LRT, are using the 1,435 mm gauge. Most of the Jakarta metropolitan area is electrified at 1500 V DC overhead.

Indonesia's railways are primarily operated by the state-owned Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI), its commuter subsidiary KAI Commuter, and the airport rail link subsidiary KAI Bandara. The infrastructure is state-owned, and companies[further explanation needed] pay a fee for using the railways.

Various narrow gauge industrial tramways operate in Java and Sumatra, serving the sugarcane and oil palm industries.

History[edit]

Locomotive and train of the Dutch Indies Railway Company (Nederlands-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij), Java, c. 1900s.

The first railway line in Indonesia opened in 1867 and was initially laid to standard gauge size. The railways were gradually expanded by both the state and private companies.

The Japanese occupation and the Indonesian War of Independence left Indonesia's railways in a poor condition. A batch of 100 steam locomotives were ordered in 1950, and dieselisation started in 1953. By the 1980s most mainline services had been dieselised. Electric multiple units were obtained from Japan beginning in the 1970s, replacing 60-year-old electric locomotives.

Since the independence era, all mainline railways in Indonesia have been managed by the state. The owners of the private railway were compensated first, but the system was fully nationalised in 1971.

Construction of new railway lines has been scarce, and most new construction is concentrated on double- and quad-tracking of existing railway lines. Most of the former tramway lines have been closed, reducing the mileage from about 7000 km to only 3000 km.

Operators[edit]

Rail infrastructures by region[edit]

Java[edit]

Map of Java's transportation network

The first railways in Indonesia were built on the island of Java, using 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge. During the Japanese occupation, they were converted to 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge. At its greatest extent, the Javanese network had a length of 4,807 kilometres (2,987 mi), connecting most parts of the island.[10] The Javanese network train (in Java Island) is divided into nine operating divisions.

Sumatra[edit]

Medan railway station, serving intercity trains as well as Railink airport train service to Kualanamu International Airport

In Sumatra as of 2013, there are 1,869 kilometres of track, of which 1,348 km are operational.[11] Several unconnected railway networks were built in the time of the Dutch East Indies:

Plans to connect up and fix these isolated lines are included in the Trans-Sumatra Railway plan. Railway services in Sumatra by operational is divided into three regional divisions, which are:

Regional Division 1
(North Sumatra and Aceh)
Regional Division 2
(West Sumatra)
Regional Division 3
(Palembang (South Sumatra))
Regional Division 4
(Tanjungkarang (Lampung) and South Sumatra)
  • Medan - Tebing Tinggi
  • Araskabu - Kualanamu
  • Tebing Tinggi - Kisaran
  • Kisaran - Kotapinang
  • Kisaran - Tanjungbalai
  • Tebing Tinggi - Siantar
  • Medan - Belawan
  • Medan - Besitang
  • Kutablang - Krueng Geukueh
  • Teluk Bayur - Sawahlunto (156.5 km)
  • Muara Kalaban - Padang Sibusuk (6.2 km)
  • Bukit Putus - Indarung (14.5 km)
  • Lubuk Alung - Pariaman (21.5 km)
  • Pariaman - Sungai Limau (15 km)
  • Padang Panjang - Payakumbuh (52.1 km)
  • Payakumbuh - Limbanang (20.2 km)
  • Padang Sibusuk - Muaro Sijunjung (19.9 km)
  • Padang - Pulau Air (5.5 km)
  • Duku - Minangkabau International Airport
  • Kertapati - Prabumulih
  • Simpang - Indralaya
  • Prabumulih - Lubuk Linggau
  • Tarahan - Prabumulih

Kalimantan[edit]

The first railway network in Kalimantan island was opened in 1908, serving the oil refinery and port of Balikpapan. It was closed in 1950.[13] In 2010, plans were announced for Kalimantan to get a 122 km long 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge railway for the transport of coal between the Muara Wahau [id] mine and the port of Bengalon.[14] In January 2016, Russian Railways reported that its construction of a railway in Kalimantan will finish in 2019.[15]

Lesser Sunda Islands[edit]

In 2019 it was reported in Gapura Bali that Wayan Koster, governor of Bali, Railways on Bali will be built with 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge, "is keen to improve Bali's transportation infrastructure and is considering plans to build an electric rail network across the island".[16]

Sulawesi[edit]

Invitation to the 30 June 1922 opening of the Makassar-Takalar line

The first railway network in Sulawesi was opened in 1922 connecting Makassar and Takalar, but was closed in 1930 due to poor revenue.[17][18] The Trans-Sulawesi Railway is[when?] under construction, and will be built with 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge which is wider than the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) cape gauge used in Java and older lines in Sumatra to accommodate more weight and speed.[19][20]

Papua[edit]

A 440 km railway from Manokwari to Sorong in West Papua province is planned. Railways in Papua the Indonesia-Papua New Guinea Border with Standard Gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) from Railways of New Guinea (Indonesia-Papua New Guinea).[21]

Rolling stock[edit]

Preserved locomotives[edit]

Indonesia had various types of locomotives, being the legacy of the many different companies. Surprisingly, only three steam locomotives remain in operable condition, all located in the Ambarawa Railway Museum. On the other hand, static steam locomotive displays are located in the Transportation Museum (under the auspices of the Department of Transportation) in Jakarta's Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park) and Ambarawa Railway Museum (managed by PT Kereta Api) in Central Java. Plinthed locomotives can also be found in most cities and towns. Somewhat surprisingly, few non-locomotive rolling stock were preserved.

With the Asian economic crisis of 1997, remaining hulks of steam locomotives formerly standing in former depots became valuable for their scrap value, and by 2000, most locomotives not already plinthed or sent to museums were scrapped, presumably illegally.

Four operable industrial steam locomotives are present, with two more preserved, at the Cepu Forest Railway. This currently represents the largest concentration of active preserved steam locomotives in Indonesia.

Several "last" steam locomotives were built for Indonesia. E1060, a 1966-built rack steam locomotive (Esslingen 5316) is operable in Ambarawa railway museum. BB84, the last Mallet locomotive built for a non-tourist railway (according to Durrant) was built by Nippon Sharyo Keizo Kaisha in 1962 (works number 2007). This locomotive was plinthed in Banda Aceh and survived the December 2004 tsunami. The locomotive is in rather poor condition with its valve gear and cylinder pistons missing (as of March 2006).

Steam locomotive 1622 "Sri Gunung" (Mountain Queen), a 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) mallet built in 1928, preserved in the Dutch Railway Museum.

The Trangkil No. 4 (Hunslet 3902) was built in 1971, being the last steam locomotive built at Hunslet's Jack Lane Works in Leeds, England. The locomotive was used on the Trangkil sugar mill estate on Java. It has been repatriated to the UK in 2004.[22]

Diesel locomotives[edit]

As of 2016, PT Kereta Api operates about 350 units of diesel locomotives divided into classes in Java and Sumatra[23] used both for passenger and freight services. The first diesel locomotive owned by PT Kereta Api was CC200 class, built by General Electric in 1953.[24]

Electric trains[edit]

As of August 2017, PT Kereta Api's commuter subsidiary, Kereta Commuter Indonesia, operates 758 units of electric multiple units (EMU) in Greater Jakarta area.[25] Most EMUs operated in Jakarta are secondhand trains acquired from major urban railway operators in Greater Tokyo in Japan, such as East Japan Railway Company and Tokyo Metro.

Usage[edit]

Passenger services[edit]

Argo Wilis, a long-distance passenger train serves Bandung to Surabaya route

KAI provides extensive passenger services. Various classes are available, from argo class with reclining seats and plane - like facilities, executive class with air conditioner and reclining seat comparable to the better classes of other countries' railways, business coaches which recently have been equipped with air conditioner and reclining seats much like executive class, to the hard bench, but still air conditioned, economy class coaches for cheaper trains. In last couple of years, the business and economic class are in the process of being equipped with air conditioned system. The whole process was completed in early 2013.

Sleeper trains have existed in Indonesia. The last all-sleeper train service was Bima express train which ran from 1967 to 1984 when it was changed to mostly coach, leaving only one or two sleeping cars. It ran in this configuration until 1995, when the sleeper cars were withdrawn and modified into seating coach. Since 2018, sleeper trains have been re-activated for the Argo Bromo Anggrek (Jakarta to Surabaya), Taksaka (Jakarta to Yogyakarta), Argo Lawu and Argo Dwipangga (Jakarta to Solo), and Gajayana (Jakarta to Malang).[26]

Sawunggalih Premium Economy coach in 2017.

In Java, most trains connect Jakarta and the hinterland - regional (or "cross-country" services) have not been fully developed. Between pairs of important cities such as Jakarta and Bandung, intensive hourly services are provided.

Most passenger trains in Indonesia, except commuter locals, are named. The names varies from plainly descriptive such as Depok Ekspres (a former fast service between Jakarta and Depok), through Logawa (name of a river near Purwokerto, which is served by the train), Argo Lawu (Mt. Lawu, an extinct volcano near Solo, which is served by the said express train), to more or less meaningless, though romantic, names such as Bangunkarta (abbreviation of names of cities it serves: Jombang-Madiun-Jakarta) and Matarmaja (Malang-Blitar-Madiun-Jakarta).

Gumarang Business coach in 2009.

Railway passenger services experienced a renaissance in the 1995-1999 period, with the introduction of many new passenger express services. With the advent of cheap airplane tickets, KAI experienced a downturn in the number of passengers carried, though the number has stabilized and most trains remain at more than 50% occupancy rate.

Argo Network[edit]

Ka argo.svg

Note: K.A. Argo Gede no longer exists (and also K.A. Parahyangan). As a replacement, K.A. Argo Parahyangan trains operate the same routing as a merge of K.A. Argo Gede and K.A. Parahyangan.

Women only carriages[edit]

As a response to many reports of sexual harassment in public places, including commuter trains and bus, KAI launched women-only carriages in some KRL Jabodetabek commuter trains in Jakarta metropolitan area in August 2010.[27] On May 13, 2013 KAI changed women-only trains to regular trains which at the front and back of the train has a coach for women only. This rule apply in KRL Jabodetabek.[28]

Priority seat[edit]

KAI designates priority seats to elderly passengers, pregnant women, disabled passengers and mother with infant to ride public transport with an equal degree of access and comfort as other people. Priority seat not only in the first and end of the train like in women only carriages, but eight seats in each carriage are designated as priority seats. This apply in KRL Commuterline.

Priority Class (Sleeper Train)[edit]

KAI relaunched the Sleeper Train service on June 11, 2018.[29][30] This sleeper train is equipped with excellent facilities even in the same class as a first class aircraft cabin. The first route for sleeper train is from Gambir Jakarta to Surabaya.[31] The Luxury Sleeper Train is managed by another KAI subsidiary, KAI Wisata.

Freight services[edit]

A CC 201-47 Locomotive hauling Gottwald Crane .[when?]

The railway system in Java is more or less a passenger-oriented system, and there are few freight services, due to the limited capacity of the tracks. Some notable freight service in Java include the Kalimas container train and the Parcel train between Jakarta and Surabaya, petroleum trains between refineries or oil pipe terminals and oil depots, and quartz sand trains in Central Java.

But in recent years, there has been many efforts to increase freight traffic in Java by introducing the GE CC206 locomotives, as well as building double track lines that connect Jakarta and Surabaya on North Coast line to increase the number of container trains between both cities. Many container ports have also been built on intermediate cities and towns. This effort already attract some customers who normally shipped their products via roads.

A GE CC206 Locomotive departs with empty coal train.[when?]

The system in South Sumatra is rather freight-oriented. Coal unit trains, carrying coal for an electricity plant are given priority over passenger trains. In West Sumatra, the remaining railway line serves the cement plant at Indarung, near Padang, and in North Sumatra, several oil palm and rubber plantations are served by freight trains.

Urban rail and rail-based rapid transit[edit]

A KRL Commuterline electric train takes curve on the elevated railway near Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta, December 2015.

Trams formerly existed in Jakarta, Surabaya and Semarang before their service was closed after independence.

In Greater Jakarta, KRL Commuterline is one of operational urban rail network, serving commuter routes which comprises cities of DKI Jakarta, Depok, Bogor, Bekasi, Tangerang, and South Tangerang as well as regencies of Bogor, Bekasi, and Lebak. The other operational urban rail networks are Jakarta provincially-owned Jakarta MRT, Jakarta LRT, and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link to support the public transport network in the area.

Regional rail functions as commuter rail in Greater Surabaya, so technically there is no urban rail network. However, there are plans for a mass rapid transit network in and around Surabaya. Surabaya MRT planned with Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) in Dupak line (Manyar-Dupak-Juanda), Rungkut line (Dupak-Rungkut-Waru-Sidoarjo), Krian line (Manyar-Krian-Sidoarjo), Tanjung Perak line (Tanjung Perak-Wonokromo-Sidoarjo), Juanda line (Juanda-Sidoarjo) and Other Loop line (Dupak-Rungkut-Krian-Dupak).[32] A 32 km diesel line from Mojokerto to Sidoarjo has been put into service, with 6 daily return trips.[citation needed]

Greater Medan is served by Kualanamu Airport Rail Link. Sri Lelawangsa commuter train connects Medan and nearby Binjai.

In Palembang, Palembang Light Rail Transit had operate in June 2018, before the 2018 Asian Games.[33]

In greater Yogyakarta and Surakarta, KRL Commuterline Yogyakarta–Solo operates between Yogyakarta, Klaten and Surakarta. Prambanan Express connects Yogyakarta with Purworejo. Yogyakarta International and Adisumarmo Airport Rail Links exists in Yogyakarta and Surakarta, respectively.

In Padang, Minangkabau Airport Rail Link is operational.

High-speed rail[edit]

CR400AF proposed by China.

In recent decades, Javan transportation backbones — north coast road and railway system that serves Jakarta-Surabaya corridor, has suffered greatly from both freight and passenger congestion.[34] The plan to build a high-speed railway system in Java has been around for many years. However, it was not until 2008 that the idea had been contemplated seriously. It was Japan International Cooperation Agency's proposal that initiated the idea to build high-speed rail for the Indonesian island of Java, linking up the densely populated corridor from the capital Jakarta to Surabaya city (covering 730 km) in East Java.[35][36] Japan is eager to export their Shinkansen high-speed rail technology abroad. Following up JICA's initial study in 2012, the detailed feasibility study was concluded in 2014. In recent years, Indonesia has been undergoing a revival in railway expansion and upgrades. The high-speed rail corridors have been proposed but not implemented yet, since it was deemed too costly.

In April 2015, China had entered the race with a counter-offer to build the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail in Indonesia.[37] A bid which alarmed Japan that has been nurtured the idea for years.

In July 2015, the Indonesian government announced their plan to build the high-speed rail system connecting Jakarta and Bandung, and devised a competition between Japan and China train-makers as potential bidders. Japan and China have expressed their interest in the project; both countries had done comprehensive studies of the project.[38]

In late September 2015, Indonesia awarded this multibillion-dollar railway project to China over Japan.[39][40]

The proposed high-speed rail will connect the nation's capital Jakarta with Bandung city in neighboring West Java province, covering a distance of 150 kilometers, and is also expected to expand further, connecting to Indonesia's second largest city, Surabaya in East Java.[38]

The project has been delayed several times, first due to careless construction that affected nearby roads, then due to coronavirus pandemic restrictions.[citation needed]

In December 2015 discussion for the Jakarta-Surabaya high-speed rail was commenced by the Indonesian Coordinating Minister of Maritime and Resources. Academicians from two major universities in Indonesia, and employees from Japan International Cooperation Agency, were invited to attend the discussion.[41][42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Indonesia's Railway Renaissance - The Diplomat". The Diplomat. 19 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  2. ^ "Jumlah Barang Melalui Transportasi Kereta Api Menurut Pulau, 2006-2015 (Ribuan Ton)". Badan Pusat Statistik. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  3. ^ Mohammad, Yandi (30 September 2015). "Jalur kereta yang kian menyusut". beritagar.id. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  4. ^ Teguh, Irfan (6 January 2019). "Kisah Terowongan Sasaksaat dan Lampegan". Tirto.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  5. ^ Kautsar, Nurul Diva (31 May 2020). "Jadi Jembatan Kereta Api Terpanjang di Indonesia, Ini 4 Fakta Cikubang yang Melegenda". Merdeka.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Stasiun Pasar Turi Surabaya Terendah di Indonesia, Kok Bisa?". Liputan6.com (in Indonesian). 30 January 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  7. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Central Kalimantan's $2.8b coal railway to kick off early next year". The Jakarta Post.
  8. ^ "Jokowi promises more funding for Trans-Sulawesi rail project". www.thejakartapost.com. Retrieved 2015-12-28.
  9. ^ "Indonesia's national rail network aims for more growth, less inequality". The Strait Times. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  10. ^ Black, John (2016). "3. National Railway System". In Loo, Becky P. Y.; Comtois, Claude (eds.). Sustainable Railway Futures. Routledge. p. 42. ISBN 9781409452430.
  11. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (10 December 2013). "Pemerintah Bangun Jalur KA Trans Sumatra Mulai 2014". KOMPAS.com.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-14. Retrieved 2012-03-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Railways in Kalimantan". sinfin.net. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  14. ^ Railway Gazette International November 2010, p56
  15. ^ "RZD to finish building Kalimantan railway in 2019". 12 January 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  16. ^ "All aboard! Is an electric rail network in Bali feasible?". Gapura Bali. 22 May 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  17. ^ "Gevonden in Delpher - Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië". www.delpher.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  18. ^ Nasrul, Fadli; Najamuddin, Najamuddin; Asmunandar, Asmunandar (2019-02-28). "Transportasi Kereta Api Rute Makassar- Takalar (1922- 1930)". Pattingalloang. 5 (3): 1–11. doi:10.26858/pattingalloang.v5i3.8514 (inactive 2021-11-22). ISSN 2686-6463.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2021 (link)
  19. ^ "Proyek Kereta Api Sulawesi Lebih Cepat dari Jawa". Tribun Jateng (in Indonesian). 24 October 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  20. ^ Bintang, Amri (30 November 2017). "Buatan PT INKA! Inilah Kereta Inspeksi Trans Sulawesi Milik Kemenhub". KAORI Nusantara (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  21. ^ "Papua railway, on the priority list of projects". Railway Pro. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  22. ^ "Trangkil No.4". Statfold Barn Railway. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  23. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (28 June 2016). "KAI dan GE Teken Kerja Sama Pemeliharaan Lokomotif Selama Delapan Tahun". KOMPAS.com.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-10. Retrieved 2017-12-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ Situs Resmi PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia
  26. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (11 June 2018). "Kereta "Sleeper" Beroperasi Besok, Harga Tiket Promo Rp 900.000". KOMPAS.com.
  27. ^ Indonesia Railway Company Launches Women-Only Carriages Archived 2010-08-21 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "Dahlan: yang dihapus kereta khusus wanita, bukan gerbong". May 15, 2013.
  29. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (11 June 2018). "Luxury Sleeper Train Mulai Beroperasi, Ini Harga Promonya". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  30. ^ Exist, Exist In. "Kereta First Class Hadir di RI, Harga Tiket Rp 900.000". news. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  31. ^ "KAI121 on Instagram: "Bisa senyaman inikah kamu menikmati perjalanan #Mudik2018? Bisa dong! Dapatkan tiket KA #ArgoBromoAnggrekLuxury #SleeperTrain rute Gambir-…"". Instagram. Archived from the original on 2021-12-24. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  32. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Railway line to connect airport with downtown Surabaya". The Jakarta Post.
  33. ^ Siregar, Raja Adil (20 May 2017). "Menhub Tinjau LRT Palembang, Pastikan Rampung Sebelum Asian Games". detikfinance. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  34. ^ Zakir Hussain, The Straits Times/ANN (28 October 2013). "Jakarta mulls high-speed rail system". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta.
  35. ^ "Java High Speed Railway Development Project (Phase I)". Japan International Cooperation Agency. 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  36. ^ Robin Harding in Tokyo, Avantika Chilkoti in Jakarta and Tom Mitchell in Beijing (1 October 2015). "Japan cries foul after Indonesia awards rail contract to China". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  37. ^ "Japan loses Indonesian high-speed railway contract to China". The Japan Times. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  38. ^ a b "Indonesia Plans 'Beauty Contest' Between China and Japan for High-Speed Train". Jakarta Globe. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  39. ^ "Indonesia to award fast train contract to China - Japanese embassy official". Reuters. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  40. ^ "Indonesia awards multi-billion-dollar railway project to China over Japan". ABC. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  41. ^ Ardan Adhi Chandra - detikFinance (2017-09-12). "Mengintip Kajian Rute Kereta Kencang Jakarta-Surabaya". Finance.detik.com. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  42. ^ S, Ari (20 October 2016). "Dengan Kereta Kencang, Jakarta-Surabaya Cuma 4 Jam".

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Regulator
Operators