Rail transport in Romania
The first railway in the Kingdom of Romania opened in 1869 and linked Bucharest and Giurgiu. The first railway on current Romanian territory opened in 1854, between Oraviţa and Baziaş in Banat, however that region was under the administration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time.
Since then, the Romanian railway network has been significantly expanded, and is now the fourth largest in Europe by total track length, comprising 22,298 km (13,855 mi). Of these, some 8,585 km are electrified. The route length is 10,788 km.
The network used to be operated by Căile Ferate Române, the state railway company, but since 1998, a number of private companies have begun operations in passenger and/or freight transport.
CFR's rail freight division became CFR Marfă.
- Same gauge:
- Hungary - Multiple crossings (from North to South - Carei, Valea lui Mihai, Episcopia Bihor, Salonta, Curtici. Multiple daily passenger frequencies to Budapest and beyond (only to Gyor, Mosonmagyarovar, Hegyeshalom and Vienna for the moment) from Bucharest and from many cities within Transylvania(No voltage issues, both railroad systems electrified at 25 kV, 50 Hz AC (electrified crossing at Curtici/Lokoshaza only).
- Serbia - crossings at Jimbolia and Stamora Moraviţa. Indirect daily service from Bucharest to Belgrade via Timişoara and Vrsac. No voltage issues (crossings are not electrified).
- Bulgaria - crossings at Calafat, Giurgiu and Negru Vodă. Daily passenger service to Sofia and beyond (Athens and Istanbul) from Bucharest. No voltage issues (currently no electrified crossings, Calafat-Vidin crossing electrification is planned, same voltage, 25 kV, 50 Hz AC.
- Ukraine - Dual gauge crossing at Halmeu. No voltage issues (crossing is not electrified). Currently freight only. Dual gauge line enables standard gauge connections with Hungary and Slovakia through Chop.
- Ukraine - Break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in). Crossings at Vicşani, Valea Vişeului and Câmpulung-la-Tisa (including bogie conversion systems). Dual gauge (4 rail) track exists between Tereseva (Ukraine)/Câmpulung-la-Tisa - Sighetu Marmaţiei - Valea Vişeului, going back into Ukraine. Ukrainian trains (both freight and passenger services) occasionally use this route without stopping within Romania. International passenger services exists between Bucharest and Kiev (and onwards to Moscow) via Vicşani (operated by CFR, with UZ and RZD cars) and between Sighetu Marmaţiei and Teresva (operated by UZ). No voltage issues (crossings are not electrified).
- Moldova - Break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in). Crossings and bogie changers exist at Ungheni (Moldova) and Galaţi-Reni. No voltage issues (None of the tracks of the Moldovan Railways are electrified). Daily passenger service to Chişinău from Bucharest. Multiple daily services from Iaşi.
- "Reteaua feroviara" (in Romanian). cfr.to. Retrieved 2009-09-06.
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