Rail transport in Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Spain
AVE Tarragona-Madrid.jpg
High-speed AVE train, Madrid-Barcelona line.
Operation
National railwayRenfe Operadora
Infrastructure companyAdif
Major operatorsRENFE, FEVE, EuskoTren, FGC, FGV
Statistics
Ridership487.88 million (RENFE, 2017)
84.54 million (FGC, 2017)[1]
System length
Total16,026 km (9,958 mi)
Electrified10,182 km (6,327 mi)
Track gauge
Broad gauge
1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in)
11,829 km (7,350 mi)
Standard gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
3,100 km (1,900 mi)
Metre gauge
1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)
1,926 km (1,197 mi)
Narrow gauge
914 mm (3 ft)
28 km (17 mi)
Electrification
3000 V DCMain network
25 kV ACHigh-speed lines, recent electrification
Features
Longest tunnelSierra de Guadarrama, 28.4 km (17.6 mi)
Map
Spain-Railways.png

Rail transport in Spain operates on four rail gauges and services are operated by a variety of private and public operators. The total route length in 2012 was 16,026 km (10,182 km electrified).[2]

Most railways are operated by Renfe Operadora; metre and narrow-gauge lines are operated by FEVE and other carriers in individual autonomous communities. It is proposed and planned to build or convert more lines to standard gauge,[3] including some dual gauging of broad-gauge lines, especially where these lines link to France, including platforms to be heightened.

Spain is a member of the International Union of Railways (UIC). The UIC Country Code for Spain is 71.

History[edit]

The first railway line in the Iberian Peninsula was built in 1848 between Barcelona and Mataró.[4] In 1851 the Madrid-Aranjuez line was opened. In 1852 the first narrow gauge line was built; in 1863 a line reached the Portuguese border. By 1864 the Madrid-Irun line had been opened, and the French border reached.[4]

In 1900 the first line to be electrified was the La Poveda-Madrid.[5]

In 1941 RENFE was created.[4]

The last steam locomotive was withdrawn in 1975, in 1986 the maximum speed on the railways was raised to 160 km/h, and in 1992 the Madrid-Seville high-speed line opened,[4] beginning the process of building a nationwide high-speed network.

The current plans of the Spanish government plans to link all the provincial capitals with high-speed rail, with a total estimated length of over 9000 km[6] of high-speed railways for 2020.

Operators[edit]

  • Renfe Operadora is a state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in) "Iberian gauge", 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge and 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge rail networks of the Spanish nationalized infrastructure company ADIF (Spanish: Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias). Both were formed from the break-up of the former national carrier RENFE (Spanish: Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Españoles, "Spanish National Railway Network") and subsequently of FEVE (Spanish: Ferrocarriles Españoles de Vía Estrecha, "Narrow-Gauge Spanish Railways").
  • Zamora station

  • Toledo station

  • Atocha station, Madrid

  • Estació del Nord, Valencia

  • Lleida-Pirineus station

Metro/light rail systems[edit]

Narrow gauge[edit]

In Spain there is an extensive 1,250 km (780 mi) system of metre gauge railways

High-speed standard gauge[edit]

Rail links with adjacent countries[edit]

Andorra has no rail system.

Subsidies[edit]

In 2004, the Spanish government adopted a new strategic plan for transportation through 2020 called the PEIT (Strategic Plan for Infrastructures and Transport). This detailed rail subsidies of around €9.3 billion annually on average from 2005-2020. In 2010, it rolled out a two-year plan to invest an extra €11 billion each year for two years, as a part of a financial stimulus in response to the global downturn.[7] In 2015, the federal budget for the railways was €5.1 billion.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Railway Statistics – 2017 Synopsis" (PDF). International Union of Railways, IUC. 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  2. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Spain
  3. ^ Verkehrsrundschau, 2007-04-30
  4. ^ a b c d Significant events in the history of Spanish infrastructures and railways Archived 2009-09-04 at the Wayback Machine www.fomento.es. See also www.biada.com
  5. ^ Ferrotransmadrid Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Descubre la Alta Velocidad Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Global Competitiveness in the Rail and Transit Industry p. 20-21" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Spanish railways battle profit loss with more investment". 17 September 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2016.

http://www.gosanangelo.com/news/2012/feb/03/thomas-sowell-getting-nowhere-but-very-fast-in/?preventMobileRedirect=1 http://jewishworldreview.com/cols/sowell013112.php3