Rail transport in the Philippines

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Philippines
Operation
Major operators Department of Transportation
Philippine National Railways
Light Rail Manila Corporation
Metro Rail Transit Corporation
System length
Total 77 km (48 mi)

Rail transport in the Philippines is used mostly to transport passengers within Metro Manila and the nearby province of Laguna. Freight transport is nonexistent, although there are plans for a revival from Port Area, Manila to Laguna.[1] Currently, the country has a railway footprint of only 77 kilometres (48 miles) through LRT Line 1, LRT Line 2, MRT Line 3 and the Philippine National Railways (PNR). It plans to expand its current footprint to more than 320 kilometers by 2022.[2] On-going railway projects include the 22.8-kilometer MRT Line 7 and the 4-kilometer LRT Line 2 East Extension Project.

The Philippine railway network consists of one commuter rail service provided by the PNR, and multiple mass rapid transit systems operated by the Light Rail Transit Authority and Metro Rail Transit Corporation. Within the last century, there were operating intercity rail lines extending from Manila both north and south, as well as on Panay and Cebu islands. The Philippine Railway Company, which operated both the Panay and Cebu lines, still exists but owns no rolling stock or rail, only property. Other shorter lines were built and operated on Negros island, serving sugar plantations and mills there, as well as elsewhere around the country. Some of those lines still operate seasonally.

History[edit]

Luzon[edit]

The "Ferrocarril de Manila a Dagupan" (ca 1885)

There has been rail transport in the Philippines for over 120 years.[3] On June 25, 1875, King Alfonso XII of Spain promulgated a Royal Decree directing the Office of the Inspector of Public Works of the Philippines to submit a general plan for railroads on Luzon.[4] The plan, which was submitted five months later by Don Eduardo Lopez Navarro, was entitled Memoria Sobre el Plan General de Ferrocarriles en la Isla de Luzón, and was promptly approved. A concession for the construction of a railway line from Manila to Dagupan City was granted to Don Edmundo Sykes of the Ferrocarril de Manila-Dagupan on June 1, 1887.[3] The construction and running of the railway was done by Manila Railway Company Ltd that was a British owned company.The first rail tracks were laid in 1891 and its first commercial run was in 1892.[3]

At the Tutuban Central Terminal in a bustling district of old Manila was the terminal of the Philippine National Railways for two lines, to the north and to the south. From the center of Manila towards Baguio in the north, the line ended in San Fernando, La Union while the south line stopped in Legazpi in the Bicol region. To and from these points it carried people and their goods, their trade and livelihood.

Most of the improvements on the rail network were destroyed during Japanese invasion of the Philippines during the World War II. Of the more than a thousand route-kilometers before the war, only 452 were operational after it. For several years after the war, work was undertaken on what could be salvaged of the railroad system.[4]

Panay[edit]

Engine of the Panay Railways on display in a plaza of Iloilo City
Locomotive No. 109 on a stopover at the Panay Railways' Central Train Station on Railway St., Passi City, circa 1980s.

From the beginning of the American colonial period of the Philippines, the new American colonial Insular Government was committed to building new railways. The Philippine Railway Company, predecessor of the current Panay Railways, was incorporated in Connecticut on March 5, 1906.[5] It was part of a "Manila syndicate", a collection of Philippine infrastructure companies including the Manila Electric Railway and Light Company, incorporated in New Jersey, the Manila Construction Company, and the Manila Suburban Railways Company.[6] Later the Philippines Railways Construction Company was added.[6] Cornelius Vanderbilt and William Salomon, among other leading American railwaymen sat on the board.

On May 28, 1906, the Philippine Commission granted to the Philippine Railway Corporation a concession to construct railways on the islands of Panay, Negros and Cebu.[7]

Construction began on a railroad from Iloilo City to Roxas City in Capiz with crews working from both cities and meeting in the middle in 1907.[5] Operations began immediately upon completion.[5] In 1985 passenger operations ceased and in 1989 freight operations ceased.[8]

Cebu[edit]

The Philippine Railway Company, along with operating the Panay line, operated a line in Cebu from 1911 to 1942, when operations ceased because of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II.[9] The line ran from Danao south through Cebu City to Argao.[10] The line was built by the related Philippine Railways Construction Company.[11]

Rehabilitation[edit]

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's Administration worked to rehabilitate rail transportation in the country, including the Philippine National Railways, through various investments and projects.[3][12] Total reconstruction of rail bridges and tracks, including replacement of the current 35-kilogram (77-pound) track with newer 50-kilogram (110-pound) tracks and the refurbishing of stations, were part of the rehabilitation and expansion process. Much of those plans such as the Northrail Project were controversial and were never completed.

Commuter rail[edit]

A former JR East 203 series hauled by a diesel locomolive at Vito Cruz station.

The Philippine National Railways is a state-owned railway system in the Philippines, organized under the Department of Transportation (DOTr) as an attached agency. Established during the Spanish colonial period, the modern PNR was developed only in 1984. It formerly operated around 479 kilometres of track on the island of Luzon, where most Philippine rail infrastructure is located. Because of this, PNR has become synonymous with the Philippine rail system.

A portion of the PNR network, specifically the Metro Manila portion of the network called the Philippine National Railways Metro Commuter Line, is part of the Strong Republic Transit System (SRTS),[13] and overall public transport system in the metropolis. It forms the backbone of all of Metro Manila's regional rail services, which extend to its suburbs and to provinces such as Laguna. However, other than reducing growing traffic congestion due to the rising number of motor vehicles in Metro Manila,[14] PNR also aims to link key cities within the Philippines efficiently and to serve as an instrument in national socio-economic development.[15]

However, the meeting of that goal has been beset with problems regarding degraded infrastructure and a lack of government funding,[16] problems that are being rectified with current rehabilitation efforts. The rehabilitation of PNR, which has been touted by various administrations, seeks to not only tackle those problems, but also to spur Philippine economic growth through an efficient railway system. In 2007 the Philippine government initiated a rehabilitation project aiming to remove informal settlers from the PNR right-of-way, revitalize commuter services in Metro Manila, and restore the Manila-Bicol route as well as lost services in Northern Luzon. In July 2009, PNR unveiled a new corporate identity and inaugurated new rolling stock.[17]

Rapid transit[edit]

An LRT-1 train of the LRTA System at the Blumentritt Station
A LRT-2 train at the platform of the J. Ruiz Station
A MRT-3 train at the platform of the North Avenue Station

LRTA System[edit]

The Manila Light Rail Transit System is the main metropolitan rail system serving the Metro Manila area of the Philippines. There are two lines to the system: LRT-1, called the Yellow Line, and LRTA Line 2, called the Purple Line. Although the system is referred to as a "light rail" system, arguably because the network is mostly elevated, the system is more akin to a rapid transit (metro) system in European-North American terms. The Manila LRTA system is the first metro system in Southeast Asia, earlier than the Singapore MRT by three years.[18] Quick and inexpensive to ride,[according to whom?] the system serves 605,000 passengers each day. Every day around 430,000 passengers board the Yellow Line, and 175,000 ride the Purple Line.[19][20]

Its 31 stations along over 31 kilometers (19 mi) of mostly elevated track form two lines. LRT Line 1, also called the Yellow Line, opened in 1984 and travels a north–south route. All of the stations of the LRT-1 and LRT-2 are elevated, except for the Katipunan Stations (which is underground). They follow one of two different layouts. Most Yellow Line stations are composed of only one level, accessible from the street below by stairway, containing the station's concourse and platform areas separated by fare gates.[21]

Many passengers who ride the system also take various forms of road-based public transport, such as buses, to and from a station to reach their intended destination.[22] Beep, a contactless smart card, is used to pay fares for the lines.

The system is not related to the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, or the Yellow Line, which forms a completely different but linked system.

MRT Line 3[edit]

The Manila Metro Rail Transit System has a single line, MRT-3 or the Blue Line. Although it has characteristics of light rail, such as the type of rolling stock used, it is more akin to a rapid transit system. It is not related to the Manila Light Rail Transit System, a separate but linked system.

One of its original purposes was to decongest Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), one of Metro Manila's main thoroughfares and home to the MRT-3, and many commuters who ride the system also take road-based public transport, such as buses, to reach the intended destination from a station. The system has been only partially successful in decongesting EDSA, and congestion is further aggravated by the rising number of motor vehicles.[14] The expansion of the system to cover the entire stretch of EDSA is expected to contribute to current attempts to decongest the thoroughfare and to cut travel times. The single line serves 13 stations on 16.95 kilometres (10.5 mi) of line.[23] It is mostly elevated, with some sections at grade or underground. The line commences at North Avenue and ends at Taft Avenue (Taft on the map), serving the cities that EDSA passes through: Quezon City, Mandaluyong, Makati, and Pasay. By 2004 MRT-3 had the highest ridership of the three lines, with 400,000 passengers daily.[24]

Planned or Proposed[edit]

Automated Guideway Transit System[edit]

UP Diliman AGT[edit]

The automated guideway transit system in UP Diliman will be the first of its kind to be built in the Philippines. Plans for the system were revealed as early as December 2010. The groundbreaking ceremony was held on July 18, 2011. It is still currently under construction and it will be developed within the campus of the University of the Philippines Diliman in Quezon City. It will serve as test track for the first mass transit system to be built and developed in the country by local engineers.[25]

Bicutan AGT[edit]

The Bicutan Automated Guideway Transit System is an automated guideway transit (AGT) system under construction and development as of 2011 within the City of Taguig the Philippines. It will serve as test track for the second mass transit system to be built and developed in the country by local engineers.

Monorails[edit]

Baguio-La Trinidad monorail[edit]

In December 2013, the Metals, Industry, Research, and Development Center of the DOST and the Baguio City government entered into a memorandum of understanding for the conduct of a study on the possible use of mass transport system in the city, particularly tramline and monorail.[26] The project feasibility study is now on its final stages and that appropriate validation and evaluation are being undertaken by technical personnel it is finalized and ready for submission to concerned local governments for approval and consideration. He also said that the DOTr will help in sourcing out funds for the eventual realization of the new transport project in the city.[27]

Davao Monorail[edit]

A 28-kilometer monorail project has been endorsed by the City Government of Davao to the Department of Transportation (DOTr) and Philippine National Railways (PNR).[28]

Iloilo Monorail[edit]

BYD, a Shenzhen-based company is conducting a two-month feasibility study to construct a monorail in Iloilo. They expect the first phase of the 20-kilometer (12-mile) system to start operations in 2019.[29][30]

Philippine National Railways[edit]

East-West Rail Project[edit]

The East-West Rail (EWR) Project is a proposed 9.4-kilometer railway line from Diliman, Quezon City up to Lerma Street in the City of Manila. EWR is planned to have 11 stations. The proposal was submitted by the consortium of East West Rail Transit Corporation and AlloyMTD.[citation needed]

PNR South Commuter Reconstruction and South Long Haul Project[edit]

Along with the Mega Manila Subway project, the National Economic Development Authority also approved the construction of a new commuter line between Manila (Tutuban) and Los Baños, the Manila-Los Baños Railway, the construction of the Manila–Matnog railway, and reconstruction of the railway line into Batangas City, the latter being part of the PNR Long-haul Railway system.[31] The Manila-Calamba Railway project will be built as a standard gauge, electrified railway with several sections built on at-grade, elevated, and depressed sections, and will serve at about 300,000 passengers at its initial year of operation. The Long-Haul Railway will involve reconstruction of the old line to Bicol and also reconstruction of the line to Batangas City, both as standard-gauge lines initially to operate on single-track configuration. The project is set on 2021.[31]

PNR North 2 (PNR Clark Phase 2/Malolos-Clark Railway)[edit]

Department of Transportation (DOTr) secretary Arthur Tugade approved the construction of a railway line connecting Manila with Clark Freeport. The initial plan for the line involves construction of five stations, and completion is expected by 2021, or 2020. The project revived a previous plan to reconstruct the railway line north of Manila, the Northrail project, which has been since the Arroyo administration, but was plagued by controversy and eventually stopped. In January 2018, JICA started the detailed engineering design for PNR North 2.[32]

Manila-Laguna Freight Rail Revival[edit]

The Department of Transportation said it plans to revive the operation of a container cargo rail from Port Area in Manila to Laguna province.[1] The tracks towards the berths of Manila International Container Terminal and Manila North Harbor to Laguna Gateway Inland Container Terminal in Calamba, Laguna will be revived to restart the container cargo service.[1]

Rapid transit[edit]

LRT Line 1 South Extension Project[edit]

A proposed extension of LRT Line 1 that will add 8 stations over some 11.7 kilometers (7.3 mi) of new line, starting from its southern terminus at Baclaran Station in Pasay up to Bacoor in the province of Cavite.

LRT Line 2 West Extension Project[edit]

There is a proposal for a 3.02-kilometer (1.88 mi) west extension for LRT Line 2. The construction of this said extension would add three stations, one in Tutuban near the Tutuban Centermall and the PNR Tutuban Station, one in Divisoria close to the district of San Nicolas, and its terminus would be near the North Port Passenger Terminal at Pier 4 in the Manila North Harbor. DOTr is aiming to finish the project by 2022. Construction is expected to begin in October 2018.[33]

Metro Manila Subway[edit]

MMDA Chairperson Francis Tolentino said that a proposal to build a subway from the Bonifacio Global City in Taguig to an area near a shopping mall in Quezon City. Tolentino also said that the proposal has been complete with geological study showing that a subway is feasible, and that the project is supported by DPWH Secretary Rogelio Singson.[34]

The subway system, costing about ₱358.25 billion (US$7 billion) was approved by the National Economic Development Authority in September 12, 2017.[31]

Makati Subway[edit]

On June 20, 2018, IRC Properties Inc. and its Chinese partners secured an ‘original proponent status’ from the city government of Makati for the proposed $3.7-billion Makati intra-city rail transport system.[35][36] Under the proposal, the project would consist of eight to 10 stations in Makati. Its length would be 11 kilometers. It will be interconnecting with MRT 3, the proposed Metro Manila Subway and Pasig River ferry.[35] The estimated total cost of the project is $3.7 billion.[35]

Mindanao railway system[edit]

President Rodrigo Duterte expressed his support for the establishment of a railway system in the entire island of Mindanao which may be in operation after his term ends. The railway system to be built in Mindanao will have about 2,000 kilometers of trackage, and considered one of Rodrigo Duterte's primary infrastructure projects. The first phase, which is 105 km, will start construction in the third quarter of 2018 and is expected to be completed by 2022.[37] The initial railway will connect the cities of Tagum, Davao City, and Digos in Davao Region, with planned extension to connect other major cities in Mindanao, such as General Santos, Cagayan de Oro, Zamboanga City, Cotabato City and Butuan.

Under construction[edit]

MRT Line 7[edit]

MRT Line 7 is an under construction rapid transit line in the Philippines. When completed, the line will be 22.8 kilometres (14.2 mi) serviced by 14 stations that runs from San Jose del Monte in the province of Bulacan up to the proposed Unified Grand Central Station in Quezon City. Construction started on April 2016, and its estimated completion date was 2019.

LRT Line 2 East Extension Project[edit]

An artist's perspective of Balagtas Station of PNR North 1 or NSCR

The current 13.8-kilometer long LRT Line 2 will be extended by another 4 kilometers eastward, starting from the eastern terminus of Santolan Station in Pasig up to Masinag, Antipolo in the province of Rizal. It will add two new stations. The estimated completion date was April 2019.

PNR North 1 (PNR Clark Phase 1/North-South Commuter Railway)[edit]

On December 22, 2017, DOTr Secretary Arthur Tugade signed a contract with JICA for the construction, supervision and bidding assistance of Phase 1 of the Philippine National Railways (PNR) Clark project linking Tutuban in Divisoria, Manila, to the City of Malolos in Bulacan province.[38] Construction commenced in January 2018.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "DOTr to revive Manila-Laguna cargo rail project". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  2. ^ Camus, Miguel R. (November 28, 2017). "PH railway footprint to quadruple by 2022". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "History". Philippine National Railways. Archived from the original on 2015-02-19.
  4. ^ a b "History highlights". Philippine National Railways. Archived from the original on 2013-04-30.
  5. ^ a b c Salvilla, Rex S. (July 28, 2006). "Panay Railways". The News Today.
  6. ^ a b Swaine, Robert T. (2005). The Cravath firm and its predecessors, 1819-1947. Clark, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange. ISBN 9781584777137.
  7. ^ "G.R. No. L-10045 March 25, 1916 (decision of the Supreme Court)". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  8. ^ Angelo, Francis Allan L. (October 30, 2005). "PANAY RAILWAY REHAB NEXT YEAR". The Daily Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  9. ^ "Ang kasaysayan ng Panay Railways Incorporated". Department of Trade and Communication via the Philippine Railways Blog (an advocacy website). June 5, 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  10. ^ "Cebu Is. PHILIPPINES RAILWAY Co". Retrieved 17 May 2014. Has map showing roughly the route. In Japanese.
  11. ^ Palmera, Erica Jean (15 May 2014). "The old Cebu Railway". The Freeman. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  12. ^ Olchondra, Riza T. (April 22, 2007). "PNR rail rehabilitation to start September". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Manila. Retrieved April 28, 2010. The Philippine National Railways (PNR) will start repairing and improving its North and South railways by September, PNR General Manager Jose Ma. Sarasola II said Friday.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ GMA Launches transit system Archived 2009-06-29 at the Wayback Machine., Philippine Star, July 15, 2003
  14. ^ a b NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES REGISTERED: Comparative, JAN.- DEC. 2003, 2004, 2005 Archived 2009-10-23 at the Wayback Machine., Land Transportation Office, January 23, 2006
  15. ^ Mission Statement Archived 2009-08-26 at the Wayback Machine., Philippine National Railways, retrieved April 19, 2007
  16. ^ The train to Legazpi, Lakbay TV, retrieved August 27, 2006
  17. ^ "PNR Official Site - Home".
  18. ^ "Manila Timeline". cityrailtransit.com.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
  21. ^ Mga Gabay sa Pasaherong Sasakay ng LRT [Tips for Passengers Riding the LRT]. [ca. 2010] (in Filipino). Light Rail Transit Authority. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
  22. ^ http://www.lrta.gov.ph/
  23. ^ Route Map, Metro Rail Transit Corporation Passenger Information, retrieved July 7, 2006 Archived June 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ MRT-3 Archived 2006-07-18 at the Wayback Machine., UrbanRail.Net. Retrieved July 7, 2006.
  25. ^ "New UP monorail coaches arrive".
  26. ^ Polonio, Jessa Mardy. "Monorail to ease traffic in Baguio City study". Rappler.
  27. ^ "P1.4 billion to build Baguio-La Trinidad monorail". Manila Standard Today.
  28. ^ Perez, Ace June Rell S. (October 21, 2015). "Davao City endorses monorail project". Sun Star. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  29. ^ "Buffett-Backed BYD Wins First Overseas Contract for Monorail". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  30. ^ "Chinese firm conducts Iloilo monorail study". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  31. ^ a b c Dela Paz, Chrisee (September 13, 2017). "NEDA Board approves Metro Manila Subway". Rappler. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  32. ^ "JICA begins detailed engineering design for PNR Clark North Phase 2". Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  33. ^ Arnaiz, Santiago Jose (2018-06-18). "Construction of LRT Cavite extension to start in October". BusinessWorld. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  34. ^ "Subway in Metro Manila? It can be done - MMDA chief". PHILStar.com. July 18, 2013.
  35. ^ a b c "IRC gets original proponent status for Makati subway". Manila Standard. June 20, 2018. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  36. ^ "IRC gains traction in $3.7-billion Makati rail project | Philstar.com". philstar.com. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  37. ^ "Build Build Build Presentation" (PDF). Build Build Build. 20 May 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  38. ^ Inquirer, Philippine Daily. "PNR-Clark phase 1 deal signed". Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  39. ^ "Clearing ops for Tutuban-Malolos railway start". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2018-06-22.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]