Rail transport in Afghanistan
Currently there are only two small sections of railroad that are operated in Afghanistan (one, between Mazar-i-Sharif the Uzbek border and another between the Turkmen border and Towraghondi). Several plans have been proposed to expand Afghanistan's railway network since the early 2000s but little has come about, mainly as a result of the political corruption and political instability that has characterized Afghanistan during the ongoing War in Afghanistan. These plans include lines for cargo traffic (mainly in support of mining projects) as well as passenger transportation and have been proposed by foreign governments who have been improving their own railway networks during the early 21st century (e.g. China, India, Iran, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, etc.) as well as international development organizations such as the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank.
- 1 History
- 2 Track gauge
- 3 Railway stations
- 4 National Rail Authority
- 5 Current railways and future plans
- 6 Maps
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In the 1920s, King Amanullah bought three small steam locomotives from Henschel of Kassel in Germany, and these were put to work on a 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) long 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) roadside tramway linking Kabul and Darulaman. The tramway closed (date unknown) but the locomotives still exist at Kabul museum in Darulaman. December 1922 issue of the The Locomotive magazine mentions "Travellers from Afghanistan state a railway is being laid down for a distance of some six miles from Kabul to the site of the new city of Darulaman, and also that some of the rolling stock for it is being manufactured in the Kabul workshops". The August 1928 issue of The Locomotive magazine mentions "the only railway at present in Afghanistan is five miles long, between Kabul and Darulaman". Three small steam locomotives were acquired from Henschel of Kassel in Germany.
Over the last century and a half, plenty of proposals have been made about building railways in Afghanistan. In 1885, the New York Times wrote about plans for connecting the Russian Transcaspian Railway, then under construction, with British India via Sarakhs, Herat, and Kandahar. When completed, the project would allow British officers to travel from London to India, mostly by rail, in 11 to 12 days (crossing the English Channel, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea by boat).
About 1928, proposals were put forward for a railway to link Jalalabad with Kabul, eventually connecting to the (then) Indian system at Peshawar. Lines to join Kabul with Kandahar and Herat would follow later. Owing to political upheavals these plans were not implemented.
In the 1950s a hydroelectric power station was built at Sarobi, east of Kabul. Three Henschel four-wheel 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) narrow gauge diesel hydraulic locos built in 1951 (works numbers 24892, 24993, 24994) were supplied to the power station.
In 1979 mining and construction locomotive builder Bedia Maschinenfabrik of Bonn supplied five D35/6 two axle diesel-hydraulic 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) narrow gauge locomotives, works numbers 150-154, to an unknown customer in Afghanistan.
The fate of these locomotives is unknown.
Until the 21st century, there were fewer than 25 kilometres of railway inside the country, all of which is built to 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) Russian gauge. For strategic reasons, past Afghan governments preferred to discourage the construction of railways which could aid foreign interference in Afghanistan by Britain or Russia.
Iran to the west uses standard gauge, 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in), as does China to the east; to the south, Pakistan uses 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) Indian gauge, while to the north, the central Asian republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan use 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) gauge.
There are currently no passenger services or stations in Afghanistan. If any of the various cross-border links are completed and opened to passenger service, new stations would have to be built.
Details of the preliminary list of stations to be served, which circle the central mountains of Afghanistan are available.
National Rail Authority
The Afghan government is due to form a railway construction commission with technical cooperation provided by European commission, which was discussed in the G8 meeting in July 2011. The commission will be responsible to look after construction work of the railway networks in order to oversee the construction of a rail network within the country and their connection with the country's neighbors. In October 2011, the Asian Development Bank approved fundings for the Afghanistan's national rail authority.
Current railways and future plans
Afghanistan–Uzbekistan rail service
In the early 1980s, the Soviet Union built an approximately 15 kilometers rail line from Termez in Uzbekistan to Kheyrabad in Afghanistan, crossing the Amu Darya river on the Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge. In January 2010, construction began on a 75-kilometer (47 mi) extension line between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan; this line is also 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) gauge as the first one built by the Soviets. By December 2010, it began carrying construction materials for other reconstruction projects in Afghanistan.
The line, which starts from Hairatan to Maulana Jalaluddin Balkhi International Airport in the northern Afghan city of Mazar-i-Sharif, was completed and is operated by Uzbekistan's national railway Uzbekiston Temir Yullari for a three-year-term until Afghanistan's own railways department takes over. The first freight services began running around August 2011.
Afghanistan–Turkmenistan rail service
A 10-kilometer long line extends from Serhetabat in Turkmenistan to the town of Towraghondi in Afghanistan. An upgrade of this Soviet-built line, using Russian gauge, began in 2007. In April 2016, an agreement was reached for a technical feasibility study for a proposal to extend this line approx. 100 km to Herat, where it could connect to the standard-gauge line to Iran that is being built. In accordance to earlier decisions, the line is likely to be standard gauge, with break of gauge at Towraghondi.
Construction of another 330 km railway track from Balkh province in Afghanistan to the Aqina dry port in Faryab province was launched in June 2013. Estimated to cost 4 billion afs, the rail line will pass through Sheberghan in Jowzjan province and connect with Turkmenistan's rail at Aqina in the Andkhoy district of Faryab province.
Afghanistan–Pakistan rail service
Two broad gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) Pakistan Railways lines with steep gradient terminate on the border at Chaman and Torkham. In July 2010, Pakistan and Afghanistan signed a Memorandum of understanding for going ahead with the laying of rail tracks between the two countries. Work on the proposed project is set to start in the next four months. The rail tracks would link Quetta in Pakistan with Kandahar in Afghanistan and Peshawar in Pakistan with Jalalabad in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan–Tajikistan rail service
There is also a rail link planned between Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
In September 2010, China Metallurgical Group Corporation (MCC) signed an agreement with the Afghan Minister of Mines to investigate construction of a north-south railway across Afghanistan, running from Mazar-i-Sharif to Kabul and then to the eastern border town of Torkham. MCC was recently awarded a copper mining concession at Mes Aynak which would be linked to this railway. MCC is constructing a 921 km long 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) gauge railway line that will link Kabul with Uzbekistan in the north and Pakistan in the east.
Afghanistan–Iran rail service
The nearest railhead in Iran is a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge freight line which terminates at Mashhad. This line is currently being extended 202 kilometers east to Herat. On April 17, 2007 Afghan Foreign Minister Rangin Dadfar Spanta said that the executive operations of the Khaf-Herat railway (freight only) project had begun in 2006. There is also a plan for a railway from Chabahar port in Southern Iran to the Hajigak region of Afghanistan - see Hajigak-Chabahar railway, below. In September 2012, Herat in Afghanistan to Khawaf in Iran railway, 70 km of which is inside Afghanistan and 60 km is inside Iran, was 90% complete. In May 2015, it was announced to operationalize it by April 2016.
In May 2016, during Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's trip to Iran, agreement was signed to develop two berths at Chabahar port and to build new Chabahar-Zahedan railway, as part of North–South Transport Corridor, by Indian Railway's public sector unit Ircon International.
The establishment of the port of Chabahar's connection to the country’s railway plan, is under study and consideration. With the completion of the Kerman–Zahedan railway and its connection to the port of Chabahar, this port will connect to the Trans-Iranian Railway.
Breaks of Gauge
- Kandahar 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Khyber Pass 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Towraghondi 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Mazar-i-Sharif 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Sherkhan Bandar 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Transport in Afghanistan
- Khyber Pass Railway
- Eurasian Land Bridge
- North-South Transport Corridor
- Ashgabat agreement, a Multimodal transport agreement signed by India, Oman, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, for creating an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.
- "First major Afghan railway opens". Railway Gazette International. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- Kabul to Darulaman railway, Railways of Afghanistan
- "To India In Eleven Days.; Russia's Transcaspian Railway And The Time Necessary To Complete It", The New York Times, 1885-05-03
- http://web.archive.org/web/20070430101935/http://www.ajg41.clara.co.uk/afghanistan.html#sdfootnote40sym Railways in Afghanistan, past and future
- Railways in Afghanistan, past and future
- "Answering the Afghan rail question". Railway Gazette International: 63 (with map). October 2010.
- Railway Gazette International May 2012, p76
- Pajhwok Afghan News - ADB to give $222m for roads, rail tracks. Abdul Qadir Siddiqui. October 19, 2011.
- "Aid train reaches Afghanistan". Railway Gazette International. 2002-01-01.
- Ben Farmer (13 June 2010). "Afghanistan to complete first railway by end of year". London: Daily Telegraph.
- "Railway Gazette: News in Brief". Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- "Afghan railway: First train runs on new line in north". BBC News. 2011-12-21.
- Afghan railway: First train runs on new line in north, BBC, 2011-12-11
- "Afghan rebuild underway". Railway Gazette International. 2007-07-12.
- "Herat railway feasibility study contract signed". Railway Gazette. 18 April 2016.
- "Work on Afghanistan-Turkmenistan railroad begins". The Gazette of Central Asia (Pajhwok Afghan News). 16 June 2013.
- Kakar, Javed Hamim (2010-07-07). "Pakistan, Afghanistan ink MoU on rail links". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
- Railway Gazette International, July 2012, p30
- "Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan Sign Railway MoU". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 21 March 2013.
- "Agreement signed for north-south corridor". Railway Gazette International. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Construction on Kabul-Torkham Railway to Start Soon, Ministry of Mines Says. Tamim Shaheer, October 18, 2011.
- "Modern construction methods mastered on Mashhad - Bafgh line". Railway Gazette International. 2007-07-01.
- "Rail Link With Herat". Iran Daily. 2007-02-27.
- Murray Hughes (2008-01-29). "Opening up Afghan trade route to Iran". Railway Gazette International.
- Herat-iran railway 90% complete
- India-Iran sign key agreements, Published: 23 May 2016
- "Pointers". Railway Gazette International. 2008-06-15.
- The Hans India - India accedes to Ashgabat agreement
- Grantham, A. Railways in Afghanistan
- Waters, Paul E (2002). Afghanistan: A Railway History. Bromley: PWA. ISBN 0948904097.
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