This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Rain (Madonna song)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Rain"
A close-up image of brown curly haired Madonna with her body below neck being awash
Single by Madonna
from the album Erotica
B-side
Released July 6, 1993 (1993-07-06)
Format
Recorded 1992; Sound Works Studio
(Astoria, New York)
Genre Pop
Length 5:24
Label
Writer(s)
Producer(s)
  • Madonna
  • Shep Pettibone
Madonna singles chronology
"Fever"
(1993)
"Rain"
(1993)
"Bye Bye Baby"
(1993)
Music video
"Rain" on YouTube

"Rain" is a song by American singer Madonna from her fifth studio album Erotica (1992). The song was released on July 6, 1993 by Maverick Records as the album's fifth single internationally and the fourth single in North America. It was later included on her ballad compilation album Something to Remember (1995). The song was written and produced by Madonna and Shep Pettibone. A pop ballad with influence from trip hop and new-age music, "Rain" features a more "friendly" composition than the other singles released from the album. Lyrically the song likens rain to the empowering effect of love, and as with water's ability to clean and wash away pain. Like the other songs on Erotica, sexual contact is also a possible interpretation of the song.

"Rain" received positive response from music critics, who noted it as an exceptional ballad amongst the overtly sexual content on Erotica. It peaked at number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States, while becoming a top-ten hit in Australia, Canada, Ireland, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. The accompanying music video was shot in black and white by director Mark Romanek and colored manually with blue tones. It features Madonna singing the song against various backdrops on a set. The music video was praised by many critics for its innovation and cinematography. Madonna has only performed the song during The Girlie Show World Tour in 1993, while a remixed version of the song was used as a video interlude during her 2008–09 Sticky & Sweet Tour.

Background and release[edit]

After the completion of filming A League of Their Own, Madonna began working on her fifth studio album Erotica with Shep Pettibone. "Rain" was one of the first songs developed for the album, alongside "Deeper and Deeper", "Erotica", and "Thief of Hearts", during the writing session in October and November 1991. According to Pettibone, these songs were essentially Madonna's stories and the things she wanted to say.[1] "Rain" was written and produced together by Madonna and Pettibone. She had initially written the song for a musical version to be directed by Alek Keshishian based on the 1939 film, Wuthering Heights.[2] Pettibone also sequenced, programmed, and played keyboards for the song. The recording process was enginereed by P. Dennis Mitchell and Robin Hancock, while the mixing was engineered by Goh Hotoda. Another musician involved was Tony Shimkin, who provided the drum programming.[3]

"Rain" was released as the fifth single from Erotica on July 6, 1993.[4] The song served as the album's fourth single in the United States and Canada since the previous single, "Fever", was not commercially released there.[5] The single release featured a previously unreleased track, "Up Down Suite", which is a 12-minute dub version of "Goodbye to Innocence", an omitted track recorded during the Erotica sessions.[6] This version of the single also included a Danny Saber remix of the album track "Waiting" which features a rap by Everlast.[7] In the United Kingdom, the single included the 1986 track "Open Your Heart" which was being used in a Peugeot car commercial at the time.[8] "Rain" was later included on Madona's ballads compilation Something to Remember (1995) and has not appeared on any other compilation since.[7]

Composition[edit]

"Rain" is a pop ballad with influence from trip hop and new-age music.[9] Styled in adult contemporary format, the song is more "friendly" in its sound than the other singles released from Erotica.[7] According to the sheet music published by Alfred Music Publishing, the song is written in the key note of E major. The song's tempo is set in a moderate pace, but not too fast and has a metronome of 92 beats per minute. "Rain" begins with Madonna singing "I feel it, it's coming", and followed by the chord progression of Esus2–A6/9–Bsus in the chorus and later A–B–E in the verse.[10] A dark sounding C minor string and an echoing hi-hat accompanies Madonna's vocals, which are sung in her lowest register.[11] The song's arrangement captures turbulent elements associated with rain (such as thunder), orchestral stabs that invokes crisp lightning bolts, and a surging bridge segue driven by what sounds like electric guitar snarls.[9] A key change happens towards the end from B major to C major, followed by two spoken parts and a harmony along side it. The coda has another melody with it, and the song ends in a group chorus without the harmonies.[11]

Lyrically, Madonna compares rain with feelings of love.[12] Just as rain washes away dirt, love washes clean the sorrows of the past, leaving a person and their lover to focus on their feelings of the present moment. Richard Harrington from The Washington Post described "Rain" as "an optimistic Peter Gabriel-like ballad in which water is a metaphor for love ('Wash away my sorrow, take away my pain')."[12] According to Stephen Sears from music website Idolator, "the synths turbo-charge at 2:46 into a sleek middle eight that features dueling Madonnas reciting lines of poetry out of the left and right channels [play it on earbuds]. 'By sheer force of will / I'll raise you from the ground', she says softly, 'And without a sound, you'll appear and surrender to me, to love'."[13] Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine thought lyrically the ballads on Erotica to be primarily concerned with sex, saying that some might even view "Rain" as an extended metaphor for ejaculation, though he didn't subscribe to that knee-jerk interpretation.[14]

Critical reception[edit]

Madonna and her backup singers, Niki Haris (right) and Donna De Lory (left), performing "Rain" during The Girlie Show World Tour in 1993

Upon release, "Rain" received generally positive feedback. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic called "Rain" among "Madonna's best and most accomplished music."[15] Jose F. Promis from the same media credited the song in "paving the way for the "softer" Madonna to emerge in the mid-'90s."[7] Arion Berger from Rolling Stone described the song as a "yearning ballad".[16] Tony Power from Blender picked it as one of the stand-out tracks from Erotica.[17] Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine wrote, "Madonna's rarely acknowledged harmonies glide atop the frosty beats, thunder-claps of percussion, and skyward drone of the sonorous 'Rain'."[14] Annie Zaleski from The A.V. Club stated that "Rain" established Madonna as "a sensual New Age goddess."[9] Stephen Holden from The New York Times described it as "one happy, open-hearted love song."[18] While reviewing the album for Billboard, Paul Verna called the song "a lovely pop ballad."[19] In a separate review of the single on the magazine, Larry Flick wrote:

A georgeous, romantic moment from [Madonna]'s sorely underappreciated Erotica opus. A slow and seductive rhyme base surrounded by cascading, sparkling synths inspires a sweet and charming vocal. Though not as lyrically daring as the previous "Bad Girl", this is a wonderfully constructed, memorable tune that deserves as much attention (and airplay) as it can garner.[20]

Writing for The Huffington Post, Matthew Jacobs placed the track at number 43 of his list "The Definitive Ranking Of Madonna Singles" and felt the track was a departure from the previous "carnal" releases from Erotica; "It's not terribly distinctive from the other ballads Madonna released in the early '90s, but then there's the sultry chorus with the uplifting lilt 'Here comes the sun'."[21] Stephen Sears from music website Idolator called the song as "the album's sole expression of pure love", which "revisits the oceanic sonic landscape of her epic 1986 ballad "Live To Tell".[13] Charles Aaron from Spin wrote that the song "works a timeless, wrenching scenario: Our heroine waits on a mountaintop for love to wash away her sorrow."[22] Scott Kearnan from website Boston.com felt that the song is an example of "what she lacks in [singing] technique she's always tried to make up for with earnestness." He also praised her phrasing, saying that "Madonna sings like she believes in every word."[23]

Matthew Rettenmund, author of Encyclopedia Madonnica complimented the vocals on the song, calling them "elegantly layered... and an inventive, overlapping vocal rap that makes it a standout production".[2] Chris Wade, author of The Music of Madonna felt that "Rain" was placed in the perfect sequence on Erotica, "to lift the album from its arguable slight drop in quality [with previous tracks 'Waiting' and 'Words']".[24] Rikky Rooksby, author of The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna complimented the radio friendly sound of the song, but felt that the lyrics "had been used in countless songs", rendering them incoherent.[11] Chris Willman from Los Angeles Times criticized the song's lyrics, saying: "Despite having crafted some of the best singles of the '80s, and despite being a genuine wit, Madonna can tend toward terribly banal rhymes."[25] Alfred Soto from Stylus Magazine dismissed the song as a "slushy rewrite of that year's 'This Used to Be My Playground', itself a slushy rewrite of Like a Prayer's 'Promise to Try'."[26]

Chart performance[edit]

In the United States, "Rain" peaked at number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100 and spent a total of 20 weeks on the chart.[27] On its component chart, the song reached number 11 on the Hot 100 Airplay and number 31 on the Hot Singles Sales.[28][29] "Rain" was a considerable hit on Top 40 and adult contemporary radio stations, reaching number seven on both the Mainstream Top 40 and the Adult Contemporary charts. Additionally, the single also peaked at number 38 on the Rhythmic Top 40 and number 13 on the Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales.[30] The song was eventually allocated the number 67 position on the Billboard Hot 100 year-end chart for 1993. In 2013, Billboard ranked it as the 40th Madonna's biggest hit in the United States.[31] In Canada, "Rain" achieved its highest chart placement, peaking at number two on the weekly Top Singles chart compiled by RPM magazine on September 18, 1993.[32] It also became a top-ten hit on the RPM's Adult Contemporary chart, reaching number seven on October 23, 1993.[33] It became the 15th best-selling single of 1993 in Canada.[34]

"Rain" also found commercial success on several countries outside North America. In Australia, the song debuted at number 21 on the charts before rising and peaking at number five.[35] The song remained her longest-charting single, staying in the charts for 20 weeks, until "Hung Up" (2005) remained on the charts for a total of 23 weeks. It was certified gold by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) for shipments of 35,000 copies.[36] In the United Kingdom, the song was also a success, peaking at number seven on the UK Singles Chart.[37] According to the Official Charts Company, "Rain" has sold 130,771 copies in the United Kingdom as of August 2008.[38] "Rain" also reached the top ten in Ireland and Italy, as well as the top twenty in New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland.[39][40]

Music video[edit]

Madonna's completely new persona for the "Rain" music video. The blue tone of the video was done manually after being shot in black and white.

The music video for "Rain" was filmed by director Mark Romanek during May 16–19, 1993 at a Santa Monica Airport hangar in Santa Monica, California.[41] Other production crews include Krista Montagna as the producer, Harris Savides as the director of photography, Jon Peter Flack as the production designer, Robert Duffy as the editor, and David Bradshaw as the wardrobe stylist.[42] The video was entirely shot in black and white and then hand-painted with blue tones. It displays Madonna during a filming process with Ryuichi Sakamoto as a director and a group of Japanese technicians. Romanek and Madonna initially wanted to get Jean-Luc Godard or Federico Fellini to play the director in the video.[41] Romanek commented: "I came up with the basic idea of setting it in Tokyo and showing the film crew. It was very Zen, very stripped away. She was this accessible, vulnerable creature surrounded by the high-tech and the global."[43] The director's primary inspiration came from watching a commercial by Jean-Baptiste Mondino, starring actress Catherine Deneuve. Madonna was also seen reclining on a riveted aluminium chaise lounge known as the Lockheed Lounge, designed by then unknown Marc Newson.[2]

The video begins with Madonna in a studio, lying on a sofa with headphones on her ears composing a song, following a sequence in which she sings in front of a microphone, which alternates with those of her receiving instructions from the director. She then appears in front of a background of bright lights, representing the sun-lit sky, and also in a scene of her kissing a man behind glass on which water falls. The video ends with an air view of open umbrellas covering the entire floor. Madonna introduced another completely new persona for the video. She wore a wig which provides "a waif-like cap of short black hair with spiky bangs."[43] She also removed her trademark mole and got her eyebrows back, which had been virtually invisible in her previous videos. The look took inspirations from Paris in the 1940s, cabaret singer Édith Piaf and ingenues in general. Rei Kawakubo of Comme des Garcons provided the minimalist black clothes in the video, while the ethereal white clothes was designed by Vivienne Westwood.[43]

The video premiered on June 21, 1993 on MTV, and later won two categories for Best Art Direction and Best Cinematography at the 1993 MTV Video Music Awards.[2][44] It was ranked number 70 on Slant Magazine's "100 Greatest Music Videos" list. Sal Cinquemani from the publication called it as one of Madonna's most beautiful music video and said, "The waterlogged clip was a simple and refreshing break from the singer's visually sex-drenched Erotica period." He also pointed out that despite its innocent look, "it's difficult to separate the images from the song's double entendres."[45] Jef Rouner from Houston Press called the video "one of Romanek's more light-hearted and definitely the most... purple of his work," as well as "a fascinating treatise on the act of creating a music video itself."[46] Bryant Frazer from Studio Daily described it as a futuristic, overexposed look influenced by Japanese fashion imagery." He noted that the video "pushed the boundaries of telecine work at the time."[47] Rettenmund called the video a "masterpiece about art and artifice". He noted that although Romanek expressed to create a video "devoid of nostalgia", instead the "Rain" clip "created a modern enigma [out of Madonna] who herself was no stranger to overexposure".[2] The video was later commercially available on Madonna's video albums The Video Collection 93:99 (1999) and Celebration: The Video Collection (2009).[48]

Live performances and covers[edit]

The video interlude of "Rain" during the Sticky & Sweet Tour, featuring the Japanese dancing duo Hamutsun Serve.

Madonna has only performed the song during The Girlie Show World Tour in 1993. For the performance, Madonna and her back up singers, Niki Haris and Donna De Lory, appeared onstage wearing long black see-through robes. Haris recalled in Lucy O'Brien's book Madonna: Like an Icon, "that was the first time [on stage] we sat down together and felt our harmonies. Madonna's voice was starting to get strong and she was into trying new things."[49] During the bridge, they performed a fragment of Motown group The Temptations' 1971 hit "Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)". In his review of the concert in New York City, The New York Times's Jon Pareles felt that during the performance the music was reminiscent of "Motown, girl groups and James Brown."[50] After the song was finished, an interlude, featuring a pierrot and several dancers dressed in black outfits and holding umbrellas began. Set to an instrumental version of the song, the interlude featured a choreography partially inspired in the classic Gene Kelly musical Singin' in the Rain.[50] According to author Michelle Morgan, Kelly himself advised Madonna on some of the choreography.[51] The performance on the November 19, 1993 show at Sydney Cricket Ground was recorded and released on VHS and Laserdisc on April 26, 1994, as The Girlie Show: Live Down Under.[52]

Fifteen years later, "Rain" was used as a video interlude for Madonna's Sticky & Sweet Tour. The song was remixed using elements of Eurythmics' 1984 hit "Here Comes the Rain Again" and featured the Japanese dancing duo Hamutsun Serve. The video featured a pixie finding shade under a petal during a rainstorm and witnessing the transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly.[53][54] This performance was included on the Sticky & Sweet Tour live CD and DVD release, recorded during Madonna's shows in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in December 2008.[54] In 2000, British gothic rock band Rosetta Stone covered "Rain" for Madonna's tribute album, Virgin Voices: A Tribute to Madonna, Vol. 2.[55] The following year, a hi-NRG/Eurodance cover by Who's That Girl! was released through Almighty Records.[56] In 2016, Madonna's former backup singers Niki Haris and Donna De Lory covered "Rain" and released it as a digital single. Their single release consists of the acoustic version and the Willie Ray Lewis remix version.[57]

Track listings and formats[edit]

Credits and personnel[edit]

Credits adapted from the album's liner notes.[63]

Charts[edit]

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Australia (ARIA)[36] Gold 35,000^
United Kingdom 130,771[38]

^shipments figures based on certification alone

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pettibone, Shep (1993). "Erotica Diaries". ShepPettibone.com. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Rettenmund 2016, p. 424
  3. ^ "Madonna – Rain > Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  4. ^ "Madonna.com > Discography > Rain". Madonna.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2013. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Madonna.com > Discography > Fever". Madonna.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  6. ^ Flick, Larry (August 14, 1993). "Martin's Comeback Struggle; 'Clearly' Deborah". Billboard. 105 (33). p. 25. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d Promis, Jose F. "Madonna – Rain > Review". AllMusic. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Rain" (UK 12" / 12" Picture Disc / CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Maverick Records. 1993. W0190T / W0190TP / W0190CD. 
  9. ^ a b c Zaleski, Annie (April 19, 2016). "Madonna's 'Rain' established her as a sensual New Age goddess". The A.V. Club. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Madonna – 'Rain' – Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c Rooksby 2004, pp. 42–43
  12. ^ a b Metz & Benson 1999, p. 19
  13. ^ a b Sears, Stephen (October 19, 2012). "Madonna's Erotica Turns 20: Backtracking". Idolator. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  14. ^ a b Cinquemani, Sal (February 24, 2007). "Madonna: Erotica". Slant Magazine. Retrieved June 8, 2014. 
  15. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Madonna – Erotica". AllMusic. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  16. ^ Berger, Arion (November 26, 1992). "Erotica by Madonna". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 
  17. ^ Power, Tony. "Review: Madonna – Erotica". Blender. ISSN 1534-0554. 
  18. ^ Holden, Stephen (October 18, 1992). "Recordings View; Selling Sex and (Oh, Yes) a Record". The New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  19. ^ Verna, Paul (October 24, 1992). "Album Reviews – Spotlight: Madonna, Erotica". Billboard. 104 (43): 62. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved December 20, 2012. 
  20. ^ Flick, Larry (July 10, 1993). "Single Reviews – Pop: Madonna, Rain". Billboard: 62. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved December 20, 2012. 
  21. ^ Jacobs, Matthew (March 10, 2015). "The Definitive Ranking Of Madonna Singles". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  22. ^ Aaron, Charles (October 1993). "Singles: Review". Spin. 9 (7). p. 108. ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  23. ^ Kearnan, Scott (September 9, 2013). "The 30 ultimate Madonna singles". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  24. ^ Wade 2016, p. 73
  25. ^ Willman, Chris (October 18, 1992). "Madonna Struts Her New Pose". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  26. ^ Soto, Alfred (January 17, 2006). "On Second Thought, Madonna - Erotica". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  27. ^ a b "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Hot 100 for Madonna. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  28. ^ "Hot 100 Airplay > Rain" (PDF). Billboard. September 18, 1993. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  29. ^ "Hot Singles Sales > Rain" (PDF). Billboard. September 4, 1993. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  30. ^ "Madonna – Erotica > Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  31. ^ "Madonna's 40 Biggest Billboard Hits". Billboard. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  32. ^ a b "Top RPM Singles: Issue 2242." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  33. ^ a b "Top RPM Adult Contemporary: Issue 2271." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  34. ^ a b "The RPM Top 100 Hit Tracks of 1993". RPM. December 18, 1993. Retrieved May 13, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b "Australian-charts.com – Madonna – Rain". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  36. ^ a b Ryan 2011, p. 73
  37. ^ a b "Madonna: Artist Chart History" Official Charts Company. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  38. ^ a b Jones, Alan (August 19, 2008). "The immaculate guide to 50 years of Madonna". Music Week. Archived from the original on September 11, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 
  39. ^ a b "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Rain". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  40. ^ a b "Madonna: Discografia Italiana" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. 1984–1999. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  41. ^ a b Romanek, Mark (2005). The Work of Director Mark Romanek (DVD) (Documentary). New York: Palm Pictures. OCLC 61717830. 
  42. ^ "Rain video credits". MarkRomanek.com. Archived from the original on June 2, 2007. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  43. ^ a b c Sajbel, Maureen (July 28, 1993). "Video Vogue: A Vulnerable Madonna". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  44. ^ "1993 MTV Video Music Awards". MTV. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  45. ^ Cinquemani, Sal; Gonzales, Ed (June 30, 2003). "The 100 Greatest Music Videos". Slant Magazine. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  46. ^ Rouner, Jef (September 18, 2012). "Top 10 Mark Romanek Videos". Houston Press. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  47. ^ Frazer, Bryant (October 11, 2012). "Madonna: 'Rain'". Studio Daily. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  48. ^ Basham, David (September 2, 1999). "Madonna Offers Up New Video Compilation". MTV News. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  49. ^ O'Brien 2008, p. 283
  50. ^ a b Pareles, Jon (October 16, 1993). "Review/Pop; From Madonna, a New Palatability but Still Spicy". The New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  51. ^ Morgan 2015, p. 253
  52. ^ Madonna (1993). The Girlie Show: Live Down Under (VHS). Warner Music Vision. 
  53. ^ Oseary 2009, p. 19
  54. ^ a b Madonna (2010). Sticky & Sweet Tour (CD/DVD). Warner Bros. Live Nation. Semtex Films. 
  55. ^ Phares, Heather. "Virgin Voices: A Tribute to Madonna, Vol. 2 – Various Artists". AllMusic. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  56. ^ "Who's That Girl! – Exposed". Almighty Records. Retrieved May 15, 2016. 
  57. ^ "Niki Haris & Donna De Lory – Rain". iTunes Store (US). Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  58. ^ "Rain" (US 7" / Cassette / CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Maverick Records. 1993. 5439-18505-7 / 5439-18505-4. 
  59. ^ "Rain" (US 12" / CD maxi-single liner notes). Madonna. Maverick Records. 1993. 9362-40988-2. 
  60. ^ "Rain" (US / Australian / Canadian Cassette Maxi-single liner notes). Madonna. Maverick Records. 1993. 9362-40988-4. 
  61. ^ "Rain" (German 12" / French CD Maxi Single liner notes). Madonna. Maverick Records. 1993. 9362-40983-0 / 9362-40984-9. 
  62. ^ "Rain" (Japanese / Australian EP Single liner notes). Madonna. Maverick Records. 1993. WPCP-5644 / 9362-45491-2. 
  63. ^ Erotica (Liner notes). Madonna. Maverick Records. 1992. 9362-45154-2. 
  64. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Madonna – Rain" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  65. ^ "Ultratop.be – Madonna – Rain" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  66. ^ "Eurochart Hot 100". Music & Media. Amsterdam. 8 (32). August 7, 1993. OCLC 29800226. 
  67. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Madonna – Rain". GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  68. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – Madonna search results" (in Dutch) Dutch Top 40. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  69. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Madonna – Rain" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  70. ^ "Charts.org.nz – Madonna – Rain". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  71. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Madonna – Rain". Singles Top 100. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  72. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Madonna – Rain". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  73. ^ "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Adult Contemporary for Madonna. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  74. ^ "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Pop Songs for Madonna. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  75. ^ "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Rhythmic Songs for Madonna. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  76. ^ "ARIA Charts – End Of Year Charts – Top 50 Singles 1993". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  77. ^ "The RPM Top 100 A/C Tracks of 1993" (PDF). RPM. December 18, 1993. Retrieved May 13, 2011. 
  78. ^ "I singoli più venduti del 1993". Federation of the Italian Music Industry. December 31, 1996. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Top 100 1993". UK Singles Chart. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  80. ^ a b "1993 The Year in Music, Special Double Issue" (PDF). Billboard. 105 (52). December 25, 1993. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 15, 2016. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]