Rainbow Coalition (Fred Hampton)
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The Rainbow Coalition was a coalition active in the late 1960s and early 1970s, founded in Chicago, Illinois by Fred Hampton of the activist Black Panther Party, along with William "Preacherman" Fesperman, Jack (Junebug) Boykin, Bobby Joe Mcginnis and Hy Thurman of the Young Patriots Organization and the founder of the Young Lords as a civil and human rights movement Jose Cha Cha Jimenez. It later expanded to include various radical socialist groups and community groups like the Lincoln Park Poor People's Coalition. It was associated with the rising Black Power movement, which mobilized some African-American discontent and activism by other ethnic minority groups after the passage of the mid-1960s civil rights legislation under Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson. In politics this term used for a political alliance of several different groups, representing social, ethnic, and other minorities. Maha Journo identify such behaviers in India.
The coalition also included later members of various local ethnic groups, among whom Hampton, the Young Patriots, and the Young Lords under the leadership of Jose Cha Cha Jimenez with in the community. They brokered treaties to end crime and gang violence. The leaders worked to reduce conflict by the treaties, as they believed that poor youths' fighting each other in gang wars achieved little benefit for them. Hampton and his colleagues believed that the Daley Machine in Chicago and the American ruling class used gang wars to consolidate their own political positions by gaining funding for law enforcement and dramatizing crime rather than underlying social issues.
- Amy Sonnie and James Tracy, Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels and Black Power: Community Organizing in Radical Times (Melville House Publishing, 2011)
- Jakobi Williams, From the Bullet to the Ballot: The Illinois Chapter of the Black Panther Party and Racial Coalition Politics in Chicago (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.)