Raipur, Bankura (community development block)

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Raipur
রায়পুর
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Raipur is located in West Bengal
Raipur
Raipur
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°48′N 86°57′E / 22.80°N 86.95°E / 22.80; 86.95Coordinates: 22°48′N 86°57′E / 22.80°N 86.95°E / 22.80; 86.95
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Bankura
Area
 • Total 364.40 km2 (140.70 sq mi)
Elevation 79 m (259 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 171,377
 • Density 470/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 722134 (Garhraipur)
722162 (Fulkusma)
Telephone/STD code 03243
Vehicle registration WB-67, WB-68
Literacy 71.33%
Lok Sabha constituency Bankura
Vidhan Sabha constituency Raipur
Website bankura.gov.in

Raipur is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Khatra subdivision of Bankura district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

From Bishnupur kingdom to the British Raj[edit]

From around 7th century AD till around the advent of British rule, for around a millennium, history of Bankura district is identical with the rise and fall of the Hindu Rajas of Bishnupur. The Bishnupur Rajas, who were at the summit of their fortunes towards the end of the 17th century, started declining in the first half of the 18th century. First, the Maharaja of Burdwan seized the Fatehpur Mahal, and then the Maratha invasions laid waste their country.[1]

Bishnupur was ceded to the British with the rest of Burdwan chakla in 1760. In 1787, Bishnupur was united with Birbhum to form a separate administrative unit. In 1793 it was transferred to the Burdwan collectorate. In 1879, the district acquired its present shape with the thanas of Khatra and Raipur and the outpost of Simplapal being transferred from Manbhum, and the thanas of Sonamukhi, Kotulpur and Indas being retransferred from Burdwan. However, it was known for sometime as West Burdwan and in 1881 came to be known as Bankura district.[1]

Red corridor[edit]

106 districts spanning 10 states across India, described as being part of the Left Wing Extremism activities, constitutes the Red corridor. In West Bengal the districts of Paschim Medinipur, Bankura, Purulia and Birbhum are part of the Red corridor. However, as of July 2016, there had been no reported incidents of Maoist related activities from these districts for the previous 4 years.[2]

The CPI (Maoist) extremism which started in the district in the mid-nineties was mainly concentrated in five police station areas of Khatra subdivision – Sarenga, Barikul, Ranibandh, Raipur and Simlapal. They also functioned across the adjoining areas of Paschim Medinipur and Purulia districts.[3]

The Lalgarh movement, which started attracting attention after the failed assassination attempt on Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, then chief minister of West Bengal, in the Salboni area of Paschim Medinipur district, on 2 November 2008 and the police action that followed, had also spread over to these areas.[4] The movement was not just a political struggle but an armed struggle that concurrently took the look of a social struggle. A large number of CPI (M) activists were killed. Although the epi-centre of the movement was Lalgarh, it was spread across 19 police stations in three adjoining districts – Paschim Medinipur, Bankura and Purulia, all thickly forested and near the border with Jharkhand. The deployment of CRPF and other forces started on 11 June 2009. The movement came to an end after the 2011 state assembly elections and change of government in West Bengal. The death of Kishenji, the Maoist commander, on 24 November 2011 was the last major landmark.[5][6]

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

Bankura district has been described as the “connecting link between the plains of Bengal on the east and Chota Nagpur plateau on the west.” The areas to the east and north-east are low lying alluvial plains, similar to the predominating rice lands in the adjacent districts of Bengal. To the west the surface gradually rises, giving way to undulating country, interspersed with rocky hillocks. Much of the area is covered with jungles.[7]


The western part of the district has poor, ferruginous soil and hard beds of laterite with scrub jungles. There are irregular patches of more recent alluvium. During the long dry season large extents of red soil with hardly any trees lend the country a scorched and dreary appearance. In the eastern part the eye constantly rests on wide expanses of rice fields, green in the rains but parched and dry in summer.[7]

There are two are two moderately high hills – Biharinath (in Saltora CD Block) and Susunia (in Chhatna CD Block). While the former rises to a height of 448 metres (1,470 ft), the latter attains a height of 440 metres (1,440 ft).[7]

Rivers[edit]

The district has hilly streams originating in the highland in the east and flowing from the north-east to the south-west. The Damodar forms the northern border with Bardhaman district and then flows into that district. The Sali is a tributary of the Damodar. Amongst the other rivers (flowing paralelly from the north) are: the Dwarakeshwar, the Shilabati and the Kangsabati. The Gandheswari is an important tributary of the Dwarakeshwar.[7]

The Kangsabati Project consists of a dam across the Kangsabati in Khatra CD Block and three pick-up barrages – Shilabati, Bhairabbanki and Tarafeny.[8]

Location[edit]

Raipur is located at 22°48′N 86°57′E / 22.80°N 86.95°E / 22.80; 86.95.

Raipur CD Block is bounded by Khatra CD Block on the north, Sarenga CD Block on the east, Binpur II CD Block, in Paschim Medinipur, on the south and Ranibandh CD Block on the west.[9][10]

It is located 57 km from Bankura, the district headquarters.[9]

Area and administration[edit]

Raipur CD Block has an area of 364.40  km2.[11]Raipur police station serves this CD Block. Raipur panchayat samity has 10 gram panchayats. The block has 197 inhabited villages.[12]Headquarters of this block is at Gar Raipur.

Gram panchayats[edit]

Gram panchayats of Raipur block/ panchayat samiti are: Dundar, Dhanara, Dheko, Mandalkuli, Matgoda, Melera, Phulkusma, Raipur, Shyamsundarpur and Sonagara.[13]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Raipur CD Block had a total population of 171,377, of which 165,097 were rural and 6,280 were urban. There were 87,339 (51%) males and 84,038 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 19,702. Scheduled Castes numbered 37,457 (21.86%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 47,398 (27.66%).[14]

As per 2001 census, Raipur block had a total population of 151,274, out of which 77,184 were males and 74,090 were females. Raipur block registered a population growth of 40.13 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the district was 13.79 per cent.[11] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[15]

Census Towns and villages[edit]

Census Towns in Raipur CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Raipur Bazar (6,280).[14]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Raipur CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Matgoda (5,197), Mandankuli (4,011) and Phulkusma (4,003).[14]

Other villages in Raipur CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Melera (2,066), Shyamsundarpur (2,268), Sonagara (2,395), Dundar (1,677), Dhanara (1,832) and Dheko (1,537).[14]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Raipur CD Block was 108,188 (71.33% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 63,645 (82.53% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 44,543 (59.74%) of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 22.79%.[14]

As per the 2011 census, literacy in Bankura district was 70.26%, up from 63.44 in 2001 and 52.00% in 1991.[16]Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[17]Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[17]

As per the 2001 census there were 11 CD Blocks in Bankura district where the female literacy rate was below 50%. These blocks are Saltora, Hirbandh, Chhatna, Ranibandh, Mejia, Patrasayer, Indpur, Bishnupur, Gangajalghati, Onda and Sonamukhi. These CD Blocks come uner the National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level and special programmes have been taken up for the education of girl children.[18]

Normally villages have a primary school within the mouza. However, there is no primary school or sishu siksha kendra within 1 km in 64 mouzas of Bankura district.[18]

Similarly, a upper primary school or a madhyamik shiksha kendra is more than 3 km away in 23 mouzas. There are ouzas such as Gosaindihi in Puddi panchayat and Lep-am in Barikul panchayat of Ranibandh CD Block where upper primary schools are 13-14 km away.[18]

The Midday Meal Scheme covered all primary schools and sishu siksha kendras by March 2005. Efforts were on to cover the upper primary and high schools. The number of children provided with cooked miday meals was 344,746 in 3,460 primary schools and 453 sishu siksha kendras.[18]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Languages[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[9]

There is a tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali is spoken by around 10% of the population in the district. Some people also speak Mundari.[19]

Sabars are the most backward amongst the tribals. The concentration of Sabar people is high in Ranibandh and Raipur CD Blocks.[20]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Raipur CD Block
Hindu
  
70.76%
Muslim
  
1.30%
Christian
  
0.05%
Others
  
27.90%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 121,261 and formed 70.76% of the population in Raipur CD Block. Muslims numbered 2,221 and formed 1.30% of the population. Christians numbered 82 and formed 0.05% of the population. Others numbered 47,813 and formed 27.90% of the population.[21]Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[22]and other religious communities.[21]

In 2011, Hindus numbered 3,033,581 and formed 84.34% of the population in Bankura district. Muslims numbered 290,450 and formed 8.08% of the population. Christians numbered 3,865 and formed 0.11% of the population. Others numbered 268,778 and formed 7.47% of the population. In West Bengal, Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[21]

Human Development Report[edit]

According to the District Human Development Report of Bankura: It is located in the western part of the state, which is popularly known as Rarh. The district is primarily rural with 92.63% of the population living in rural areas in 2001. It has 3 municipal towns – Bankura, Bishnupur and Sonamukhi – and 22 community development blocks. It had a density of population of 464 persons per  km2.[23]

The average size of holdings in the district is 1.02 acres. The marginal land holding class owning an average of 0.53 acres forms 67 per cent. Another 21.94 per cent forms the small land holding class. Add to this the poor irrigation facilities, low fertility and the resultant low productivity. All of it adversely affects the quality of life in a mainly agrarian economy. In 2001, 32.6% of the people in Bankura district were farmers, 37.1% were agricultural labourers and 30.3% were engaged in non-agricultural occupations.[23]

In Bankura district 41.52% of families were living below poverty line. It was much higher than the state level (27.02% in 1999-2000). There is an uneven distribution of poverty in the district. The economically backward areas are mostly located in the western and southern portions of the district. These are in the hilly and lateritic zone. Towards the north-west the undulations become more prominent. The annual rainfall varies between 1,100 mm and 1,400 mm, it comes mostly during a four-month period of June to September and is erratic. Fluctuating rainfall with inermittent spells of drought takes a heavy toll of the agricultural output. On the other hand, the entire Bishnupur subdivision and some of the CD Blocks in the eastern part of the district, such as Gangajalghati, Barjora, Onda, Simlapal and Taldangra, have extensive flat rice fields with the promise of rich harvests.[23]

Out of the total geographical area of 687,387 hecatares in the district 241,992 hectares are under single crop, 106,748 hectares are under double crop, 119,214 hectares are forested, 20,712 hectares have open forest, 50,784 hectares have degraded forests and 33,002 hectares have eroded lands. The primary source of ground water is rainfall. Both Kangsabati and Damodar irrigation projects provide good surface irrigation but with the passage of time the canal system has lost much of its efficiency. The 88 km long west bank canal from Durgapur Barrage passes through Barjora, Sonamukhi, Patrasayer and Indas police station areas. The Kangsabati Project, with a designed irrigable area of 153,462 hectares in Bankura district, covers 13 CD Blocks in Bankura district, 20 CD Blocks in Paschim Medinipur and 2 CD Blocks in Hooghly district. CD Blocks covered in Bankura are: Bankura, Bishnupur, Kotulpur, Joypur, Onda, Indpur, Khatra, Hirbandh, Raipur, Sarenga, Simlapal, Taldangra and Ranibandh. Under the minor irrigation programme, 2,703 hectares are irrigated from dugwells, 50,293 hectares from shallow tubewells, 3,496 hectares from deep tubewells, 59,787 hectares from surface flow, 10,758 hectares from surface lift in Bankura district.[23]

Migration has been observed in the following CD Blocks of Bankura district: Bankura I, Chhatna, Saltora, Indpur, Ranibandh, Hirbandh, Khatra, Raipur and Sarenga. Although authentic figures are not available, a sample survey has been done. According to the sample survey, around 54.5% to 85.4% of the families on an average migrate from these blocks. Another study shows that around 23 % of the people from the under-privileged blocks in the western and southern Bankura migrate. Those migrating belong mostly to the SC or ST population. They migrate for periods varying from 15 days to 6/8 months. Most people migrate to meet their food deficit and go to Bardhaman and Hooghly districts but some go to Gujarat and Maharashtra as construction labour.[23]

(Note: Certain topics, such as Geography, Literacy, Education, Healthcare etc., are not/not fully covered here and are covered elsewhere in this page.)


Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

In 2003-04 net area sown Raipur CD Block was 11,256 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 10,682 hectares.[24]

Upto 15 July 2006, Raipur CD Block had 2,882.4 hectares vested land, out of which 2,541.7 hectares was distributed amongst 10,898 persons.[25]

Handloom industry[edit]

The handloom industry engages the largest number of persons in the non farm sector and hence is important in Bankura district. The handloom industry is well established in all the CD Blocks of the district and includes the famous Baluchari saris. In 2004-05 Raipur CD Block had 251 looms in operation.[26]

Pottery[edit]

Bankura district is well-known for the artistic excellence of its pottery products that include the famous Bankura horse. The range of pottery products is categorised as follows: domestic utilities, terracota and other decorative items and roofing tiles and other heavy pottery items. Domestic utilities include cooking utensils, pitchers and water containers. These are produced in the following CD Blocks: Indpur, Gangajalghati, Ranibandh, Khatra, Hirbandh, Sonamukhi, Indus, Mejia, Raipur, Sarenga, Onda, Saltora, Chhatna, Joypur, Bankura I, Bankura II, Taldangra, Simlapal, Barjora, Bishnupur and Patrasayer. The terracotta and decorative items include horse, elephant, tiger, ox, flower vase, Mansa Saj, ash-tray and other items of religious use. These are produced in the following CD Blocks: Taldangra, Sonamukhi, Sarenga, Bankura I and Bankura II. Roofing tiles and well rings are produced in Saltora and Simlpal CD Blocks. Around 3,200 families were involved in pottery making in the district in 2002. 128 families were involved in Raipur CD Block.[27]

Transport[edit]

State Highway 4 (West Bengal) running from Jhalda (in Purulia district) to Digha foreshore (in Purba Medinipur district) and State Highway 9 (West Bengal) from Durgapur (in Bardhaman district) to Nayagram (in Paschim Medinipur) cross at Raipur Bazar.[28]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Raipur CD Block had 199 primary schools with 15,846 students, 15 middle schools with 2,229 students, 3 high schools with 1,506 students and 26 higher secondary schools with 18,346 students. Raipur CD Block had 1 general college with 1,084 students and 465 institutions for special and non-formal education with 8,013 students.[29]

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Raipur CD Block had 1 rural hospital and 3 prmary health centres with total 64 beds and 10 doctors. It had 33 family welfare sub centres and 1 family welfare centre. 7,658 patients were treated indoor and 153,930 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b O’Malley, L.S.S. "Bengal District Gazetteers: Bankura". Bankura District Authorities. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  2. ^ Singh, Vijayita. "Red Corridor to be redrawn". The Hindu, 25 July 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  3. ^ "Bankura District Police". Bankura Police District Authorities. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  4. ^ "Lalgarh Battle". Frontline. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  5. ^ "Lalgarh Battle". Frontline. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  6. ^ "Kishenji's death a serious blow to Maoist movement". The Hindu. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d O’Malley, L.S.S., ICS, Bankura, Bengal District Gazetteers, pp. 1-20, first published 1908, 1995 reprint, Government of West Bengal
  8. ^ "Kangsabati Reservoir Project". Irrigation and Waterways Department. Retrieved 22 August 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c "Raipur i Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 21 August 2016. 
  10. ^ "Tehsil Map of Bankura". CD Block/ Tehsil. Maps of India. Retrieved 21 August 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Bankura District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  12. ^ "District Statistical Handbook – 2004 – Bankura" (PDF). 2.1. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 21 August 2016. 
  13. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Bankura - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 August 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  15. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  16. ^ "Bankura District: Census 2011 data". 2016 Digital Trends. Census Population 2015 Data. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  18. ^ a b c d "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Pages: 150-120, 121-123, 131. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  19. ^ "Bengal District Gazetteers: Bankura by L.S.S.O'Malley, first published 1908, reprint 1995" (PDF). Language p. 51-52. Bankura District Administration. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  20. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page: 254. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  21. ^ a b c "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  22. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Pages: 1-8, 18, 27- 47, 237-243. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  24. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page: 58. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  25. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page: 104. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  26. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page: 85. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  27. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Pages: 83-84. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  28. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  29. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 4.4. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  30. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 25 August 2016.