Raising a flag over the Reichstag
Raising a flag over the Reichstag is a historic World War II photograph, taken during the Battle of Berlin on 2 May 1945. It is symbolic of the Soviet victory and occupation in east Germany in the closing months of the war; several Soviet troops are shown raising the flag of the Soviet Union atop the German Reichstag building. The photograph was reprinted in thousands of publications and came to be regarded around the world as one of the most significant and recognizable images of the war. Owing to the secrecy of Soviet media, the identities of the men in the picture were often disputed, also that of the photographer, Yevgeny Khaldei, who was only identified after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Erected in 1894, the Reichstag's architecture was magnificent for its time. The building contributed much to German history and was considered by the Red Army to be the symbol of their fascist enemy. However, to the Nazis, the Reichstag was a symbol of democracy and representative government and consequently they left it closed and damaged ever since the infamous Reichstag fire in 1933. Instead of being a center of fascist power, the Reichstag had been closed down for 12 years, essentially the entirety of the Nazi era, with subsequent meetings of the Reichstag "legislative body" convening at the nearby Kroll Opera House instead during the Third Reich's existence. After very bloody and fierce combat within its walls, the Soviets finally captured the Reichstag on 2 May 1945, drawing closer to the end of a war that had cost the lives of many millions of Germans and Soviets.
The Battle of Berlin was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II and was designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union.[A 1] Starting on 16 April 1945, the Red Army breached the German front as a result of the Vistula–Oder Offensive and rapidly advanced westward through Germany, as fast as 30–40 kilometres a day. The battle for Berlin lasted from late 20 April 1945 until 2 May and was one of the bloodiest in history.
Taking the photo
The Reichstag was seen as symbolic of, and at the heart of, the "fascist beast." It was arguably the most symbolic target in Berlin. The events surrounding the flag-raising are murky due to the confusion of the fight at the building. On 30 April there was great pressure from Stalin to take the building, in time for the International Workers' Day, 1 May. Initially, two planes dropped several large red banners on the roof that appeared to have caught on the bombed-out dome. Additionally, a number of reports had reached headquarters that two parties, M. M. Bondar from the 380th Rifle Regiment and Captain V. N. Makov of the 756th might have been able to hoist a flag during the day of 30 April. These reports were received by Marshal G. K. Zhukov, who issued an announcement stating that his troops had captured the Reichstag and hoisted a flag. However, when correspondents arrived, they found no Soviets in the building, but rather they were pinned down outside by German fire. After fierce fighting both outside and inside the building, a flag was raised at 22:40 on 30 April 1945, when 23-year-old Rakhimzhan Qoshqarbaev climbed the building and inserted a flag into the crown of the mounted female statue of "Germania", symbolizing Germany. As this happened at night, it was too dark to take a photograph. The next day the flag was taken down by the Germans. The Red Army finally gained control of the entire building on 2 May.
On 2 May 1945, Khaldei scaled the now pacified Reichstag to take his picture. He was carrying with him a large flag, sewn from three tablecloths for this very purpose, by his uncle. The official story would later be that two hand-picked soldiers, Meliton Kantaria[A 2] (Georgian) and Mikhail Yegorov[A 3] (Russian), raised the Soviet flag over the Reichstag, and the photograph would ofter be used as depicting the event. Some authors state that for political reasons the subjects of the photograph were changed and the actual man to hoist the flag was Alyosha Kovalyov,[A 4] a Ukrainian, who was told by the NKVD to keep quiet about it. However, according to Khaldei himself, when he arrived at the Reichstag, he simply asked the soldiers who happened to be passing by to help with the staging of the photoshoot; there were only four of them, including Khaldei, on the roof: the one who was attaching the flag was 18-year-old Private Alexei Kovalyov from Kiev, the two others were Abdulkhakim Ismailov from Dagestan and Leonid Gorychev (also mentioned as Aleksei Goryachev) from Minsk.
- The last offensive of the European war was actually the Prague Offensive on 6–11 May 1945, when the Red Army, with the help of Polish, Romanian, and Czechoslovak forces defeated the parts of Army Group Center which continued to resist in Czechoslovakia. There were a number of minor battles and skirmishes involving small bodies of men, but no other large scale fighting that resulted in the death of thousands of people, (see The end of World War II in Europe for details on these final days of the war).
- Alternately spelled: Kantariya, M. V. Kantaria, Meliton Kantaria
- Alternately spelled: M. V. Yegorov, M. A. Yegorov, Mikhail Iegorev
- Alternately spelled: Aleksei Kovalev
- Baumann 2010.
- Dallas 2006, p. 3.
- Tissier 1999, p. 168.
- Lucas 2010.
- Beevor 2003, pp. 390–397.
- Sontheimer 2008.
- Griffin, Michael (199). "The Great War Photographs: Constructing Myths of History and Photojournalism". In Bonnie Brennen & Hanno Hardt eds., Picturing the Past: Media, History & Photography. (pp. 122–157). Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-252-06769-X.
- Tissier 1999, p. 124.
- Antill & Dennis 2005, p. 76.
- Adams 2008, p. 48.
- Broekmeyer 2004, p. 130.
- Walkowitz & Knauer 2004, p. 83.
- "Legendäre Foto-Manipulation Fahne gefälscht, Uhr versteckt, Wolken erfunden - SPIEGEL ONLINE" (in German). Spiegel. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Remembering a Red Flag Day". Time. 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Знамя Победы над Рейхстагом". Сенсационная история фото (in Russian). The Epoch Times. 2006-05-08. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Prominent Russians: Yegorov and Kantaria". Russia Today. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- Adams, Simon (2008). The Eastern Front (2008 ed.). The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1-4042-1862-9. – Total pages: 48
- Antill, Peter; Dennis, Peter (2005). Berlin 1945: End of the Thousand Year Reich (when ed.). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-915-0. – Total pages: 96
- Baumann, Von Doc (2010-01-03). "Dramatische Rauchwolcken" (in German). Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- Beevor, Antony (2003). Berlin: The Downfall 1945. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-028696-0.
- Broekmeyer, M. J. (2004). Stalin, the Russians, and their war: 1941-1945 (2004 ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-19594-5. – Total pages: 315
- Conquest, Robert (1991). The Great Terror: A Reassessment (1991 ed.). Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-507132-8. – Total pages: 584
- Dallas, Gregor (2006). 1945: The War That Never Ended (2006 ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11988-7. – Total pages: 792
- Lenin, Vladimir (1929). Collected Works, Volume XX (1929 ed.). International Publishers. ISBN 1-4179-1577-3.
- Lindemann, Albert S. (2000). Esau's Tears: Modern anti-semitism and the rise of the Jews (2000 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79538-9. – Total pages: 568
- Lucas, Dean (2010-02-28). "Flag on the Reichstag". FamousPictures.org. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- Sontheimer, Michael (2008-07-05). "The Art of Soviet Propaganda: Iconic Red Army Reichstag Photo Faked". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- Tissier, Tony Le (1999). Race for the Reichstag: the 1945 Battle for Berlin (1999 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4929-5. – Total pages: 265
- Walkowitz, Daniel J.; Knauer, Lisa Maya (2004). Memory and the impact of political transformation in public space Radical perspectives (when ed.). Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3364-3. – Total pages: 326
- "За него Геринг получил по шее" ["Göring received a neckslap because of that man". Interview with Anna Haldey]. Interview (in Russian). Nizhny Novgorod: Moskovskij Komsomolets. 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- "Iconic WWII photo honored at Berlin exhibit". Associated Press. USA Today. 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Iconic WWII photo staged". Associated Press. USA Today. 2008-06-16. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "The Art of Soviet Propaganda Iconic Red Army Reichstag Photo Faked - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel. 2008-05-07. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Muere el último sobreviviente de la foto más famosa del fin de la II Guerra" (in Spanish). La Tercera. 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Soviet soldier pictured in iconic 1945 Reichstag photo dies". Associated Press. The Guardian. 2010-02-17. Retrieved 2012-05-20.