Rajah Sulaiman I

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Rajah of Tondo and Maynila
Naturales 5.png
An Artistic Depiction of Rajah Salalila and his consort on Boxer Codex.
Reign 1515–1558
Predecessor Dayang Kalangitan
Successor Rajah Sulaiman II (Maynila)
Lakan Dula (Tondo)
Spouse Princess Ysmeria
House Kingdom of Tondo
Religion Sunni Islam

Sulaiman I (c. 1515–1558[citation needed]) ,(शरीर syarirah Baybayin: ᜐᜓᜎᜌ᜔ᜋᜈ᜔ Abecedario: Súláiman from Arabic: sulaimanسليمان); also known as Salalila from the Sanskrit शरीर[citation needed]), was a Rajah of the Kingdom of Tondo.[citation needed] A son of Dayang Kalangitan and Rajah Lontok,[citation needed] he converted to Islam from animism[citation needed] due to the missionary efforts of the Sultanate of Brunei.[citation needed]

Sulaiman I was succeeded by his sons Rajah Matanda, who became king of Maynila, and Lakandula, who became Lakan of Tondo.[citation needed]


Little is known for sure about Salalila due to the lack of firsthand documentary sources covering the timeframe of his life and reign.[1] The little that is known for certain by scholars comes from the account given by his son "Prince" Ache[Notes 1] to Sebastian Elcano and the other surviving members of the Magellan expedition in 1521.[2] Some additional details can be gleaned from extant genealogical sources, such as the "Lakandula documents" deposited at the Philippine National Archives[1] but these accounts are often conflicting and present conflicts interest.[3] As a result, the factuality and accuracy of the details presented in these documents requires careful assessment by historiographers.[1][3]


Identification in historical documents as "Salalila"[edit]

The records of Ache's 1521 account before the crew of Sebastian Elcano's expedition did not identify Salalila by name. However, he is referred to using the name "Salalila" in the "Lakandula documents" deposited at the Philippine National Archives[1] as well as by apocryphal sources, such as the alleged 1539 "Will of Pansomun."[1]

Sulaiman theory[edit]

His supposed identification as "Sulaiman I" was presented as a theory in the 1950s, based on the similarities of "Salalila" and "Suleiman." However, this identification is the subject of debate among present-day historiographers.[1]

Known relations[edit]

Historically documented relations[edit]

A number of Salalila's relations are documented in Ache (Rajah Matanda)'s 1521 account.[2] This includes:

  • Ache (Rajah Matanda), Salalila's son - Self-acknowleged to be Salalila's son[2][3]
  • Salalila's widow, Ache's Mother - Not specifically named in the 1521 accounts of Aganduru Moriz, Gines de Mafra or Antonio Pigaffetta,[2][3] but sometimes named "Dayang Ysmeria" in 20th Century folk traditions.[Notes 2]
  • Ache's "cousin", the ruler of Tondo - Presumably also related to Salalila, this cousin is believed to be roughly Ache's age, but had already become Lakan of Tondo by 1521, when he was allegedly encroaching on the territory of Maynila, then ruled by Ache's Mother.[2][3] It is not known if "cousin" is a precise term, or a general term meaning a "relative."[1]
  • The Sultan of Brunei, Ache's "grandfather" - The 1521 accounts all specify that Ache had run away from Maynila as a young man to seek the political and military support of his grandfather, the Sultan of Brunei, against the Lakan of Tondo.[2][3] Salalila's exact relationship (by consanguinity or by law) with this Sultan of Brunei is not specified in the extant accounts,[2][3] and it is not known if "grandfather" is a precise term, or a general term meaning an "ancestor."[1]

Other Relations as told by Folk Traditions[edit]

20th Century folk traditions hold Salalila to be a son of Dayang Kalangitan and Rajah Lontok.[citation needed]

Death and Succession[edit]

According to Ache's 1521 account, Salalila died while Ache was still very young,[2] and was succeeded by his wife,[2] who was not named[2] in the accounts. By 1570, Salalila's wife had died and Ache had succeeded to Salalila's position himself, and introduced himself as "Rajah Matanda" to the forces of Martin de Goiti(in 1570) and Miguel Lopez de Legaspi(in 1571).


  1. ^ "Prince" was a title the Spanish used to describe Ache, since he was the son of the Paramount Ruler of Maynila. It is unknown what exact local title Ache used to introduce himself to the Spanish.
  2. ^ This "20th Century folk tradition" consists of traditions recorded on early local government websites whose provenance cannot be definitevely traced to earlier than the 20th Century

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Dery, Luis Camara (2001). A History of the Inarticulate. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-1069-0. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j de Aganduru Moriz, Rodrigo (1882). Historia general de las Islas Occidentales a la Asia adyacentes, llamadas Philipinas. Colección de Documentos inéditos para la historia de España, v.78-79. Madrid: Impr. de Miguel Ginesta. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-135-4. 

History of Pasig [1][dead link]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dayang Kalangitan
Rajah of Tondo and Maynila
Succeeded by
Rajah Sulaiman II of Maynila and Lakandula of Tondo