Location of Rajouri district in Jammu and Kashmir
|Coordinates (Rajouri): Coordinates:|
|Union Territory||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Tehsils||1.Rajouri 2.Manjakote 3.Darhal 4.Qila Darhal 5.ThanaMandi 6.Kotranka 7.Khawas 8.Teryath 9.Kalakote 10. Beri pattan 11.Sunderbani 12.Nowshera 13.Siot|
|• Vidhan Sabha constituencies||4 seats|
|• Total||2,630 km2 (1,020 sq mi)|
|• Density||240/km2 (630/sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||860|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
Rajouri (or Rajauri) is a district of Jammu region in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Line of Control lies to its west, Poonch to its north, the Reasi district to the east and the Jammu district to its south. Rajouri is famous for its "Kalari" (made from milk). Representing an ancient principality, Rajouri was a joint district, along with Reasi, at the time of princely state's accession to India in 1947. The two tehsils were separated and Rajouri was merged with the Poonch district. Rajouri again became a separate district in 1968.
The Rajouri district comprises 13 tehsils (boroughs). The land is mostly fertile and mountainous. Maize, wheat and rice are the main crops of the area and the main source of the irrigation is the river Tawi that originates from the mountains of Pir Panjal.
The Rajouri district is bordered on the west Pakistan-controlled Azad Kashmir's Kotli district, on the north by the Indian part of the Poonch district, on the east by the Reasi district and on the south by the Mirpur and Jammu districts.
The northern parts of the Rajouri district are in the Pir Panjal range, especially the Thanamandi and Darhal tehsils. However, The Rajouri Tawi River (also called Naushera Tawi) and its many tributaries flow throw the mountain valleys, making them habitable. The Ansi river similarly waters the Budhal tehsil. In the south, there is a wide valley between the Tain Dhar and Kali Dhar ranges (part of the Outer Hills of Himalayas), which is called either Naushera valley or Lam-Khuiratta valley. In between these two ranges, there is a lower range called Koti Dhar, which divides the valley into two parts. The Line of Control between the Indian-administered and Pakistani-administered Kashmir regions runs along the Kali Dhar range for part of the way and the Koti Dhar range for the rest.
The old Mughal Road into the Kashmir Valley used to come up from Bhimber and run via the Naushera and Rajouri towns to the Pir Panjal Pass. This is now cut off by the Line of Control. Also cut off is the roadway between Sunderbani and Kotli, which used to run in the Lam-Khuiratta valley.
According to some historians, a second branch of Aryan emigrants crossed the Himalayas in the north and west and settled in Rajouri and Poonch area. Rajouri, BhimberGali and Naushera were integrated within the territory of Abhisar, which was one of the hill states of the Punjab Kingdom. Early records of incomplete nature show that in the 4th century B.C.E., there existed in the north west of India a federal type of political set up in which Abhisar with its capital Rajouri was also incorporated. At the time of Alexander's invasion, Rajouri was at the summit of its splendour. In the Mauryan period, the town of Rajouri was a great trade centre.
Early modern history
During the Mughal rule, the Muslim Jarral Rajput rulers or Raja agreed to a treaty with the Mughal Empire and thus, were given the title 'Raja' and 'Mirza'. Descendants of the Jarral Rajput Dynasty continue to use these titles. Albaruni visited Rajouri with Sultan Masud (Son of Sultan Mahmud) in 1036 C.E. In his book "India" he wrote name of Rajouri as Raja Vari. Srivar, the writer of 'Raj Tirangini' written during the administration of Sultan Zain-Ul-Abdin, also named this area as Raja Vari. It is believed that Raja Vari is a variant of Rajapuri. Mirza Zafarulla Khan, the writer of 'Tarikh Rajgan-E-Rajour' illustrated in his book that this place was in the beginning known as Raj-Avar and then altered from Rajour to Rajouri. But the old people in the villages still label the place as Rajour. With the course of time the name changed from Raja's Raj Avar to Raja Puri, Rajpuri to Raj Vari, Raj Vari to Raj Vara, Raj Vara to Raj Avar, Raj Avar to Rajour and then Rajour to Rajouri. As per Rajtirangini of Kalhan, Rajouri emerged as principality in about 1003 C.E. The first ruler of this kingdom was Raja Prithvi Paul. From 1033 to 1194 C.E. Raja Prithvi Paul defended Pir Panchal Pass at the time of incursion of Sultan Mehmud in 1021 C.E. Raja Sangram Paul safeguarded his Principality Rajouri when Raja Harash of Kashmir attacked his country in 1089 A.D. Sangram Paul fought so courageously that Raja Harash was obliged to return from Prithvi Paul fort without capturing Rajouri. Jaral Muslim Rajas rebuilt Rajouri city at the time of their rule. A number of forts, sarais, mosques and baradaris were constructed.
The area of Rajouri principality included proper Rajouri, Thanna, Bagla Azim Garh, Behrote, Chingus, Darhal, Nagrota and Phalyana etc.
In 1813, Gulab Singh of Jammu captured Rajouri for the Sikh Empire of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, by defeating Raja Agar Ullah Khan. After this, Rajouri became part of the Sikh Empre. But parts of it were given as jagirs to Rahim Ullah Khan (a half-brother of Agar Ullah Khan) and other parts to Gulab Singh.
Following the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Treaty of Amritsar (1846), all the territories between the Ravi River and the Indus were transferred to Gulab Singh, and he was recognised as an independent Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. Thus Rajouri became a part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Gulab Singh changed the name of Rajouri to Rampur. He appointed Mian Hathu as Governor of Rajouri, who remained in Rajouri up to 1856. Mian Hathu constructed a stunning temple in between Thanna Nallah in close proximity to Rajouri city. He also built Rajouri Fort at Dhannidhar village.
After the Partition of India and the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India in October 1947, there followed the First Kashmir War between India and Pakistan. The Pakistani raiders, along with the rebels and deserters from the western districts of the state, captured Rajauri on 7 November 1947. The 30,000 Hindus and Sikhs living in Rajauri were reportedly killed, wounded or abducted. Rajauri was recaptured on 12 April 1948 by the 19 Infantry Brigade of the Indian Army under the command of Second Lieutenant Rama Raghoba Rane. Rane, despite being wounded, launched a bold tank assault by conveying the tanks over the Tawi river bed in order to avoid the road blocks along the main road. When the Indian Army entered the town, the captors had fled, having destroyed most of the town and killing all its inhabitants. After the arrival of the Army, some 1,500 refugees that had fled to the hills, including women and children, returned to the town.
The ceasefire line at the end of the War ran to the west of the Rajouri district.
Soon after the war, the Rajouri and Reasi tehsils were separated. The Rajouri tehsil was merged with the Indian-administered Poonch district to form the Poonch-Rajouri district. The Reasi tehsil was merged with the Udhampur district.
On 1 January 1968, the two tehsils were reunited and the resulting district was named the Rajouri district.
The Reasi tehsil was also separated out in 2006 into a separate Reasi district. The present Rajouri district comprises the 1947 Rajouri tehsil.
Pakistan Air Force airstrike
On 27 February 2019, Pakistan air force (PAF) crossed the Line of Control (LoC) and carried out airstrike against multiple targets in Indian controlled Kashmir. Pakistan air force officials asserted that their target was supply depot of Indian military and had struck at 6 locations in Indian controlled Kashmir. PAF officials also claimed that they have successfully achieved their targets. Indian military officials confirmed that airstrike took place and had identified Nadian, Lam Jhangar and Kerri in Rajouri district as the area where the strike took place. They also claimed that Hamiphur area of Bhimber Ghali in Poonch was also targeted. Indian military officials further stated that the bombs landed in deserted area and caused no damage. Indian army 25 division headquarters, ammunition and supply depot were target of Pakistan air force as per Indian military officials claims.
The Rajouri district comprises the subdistrict sunderbani, nowshera, Kotranka, kalakote & tehsils are Rajouri, Darhal, Sunderbani, Budhal, kotranka, khawas, Manjakote Nowshera, Thanamandi, and Kalakot.
There are 19 blocks: Rajouri, Darhal, kotranka Sunderbani, Doongi, Nowshera, Kalakote, Manjakote, Thanamandi and Budhal Dhangri, khawas, Lamberi, Moghla, Panjgrain,Plangar,Qila darhal,Rajnagar,Seri,Siot,. Each block consists of a number of panchayats.
During recent reviews conducted by administration. It is planned to construct 400/132kv & 400/220 kv station at Rajori to resolve the electrical power supply to the statved[check spelling] area of Rajouri, Poonch Mendhar. This Grid station will be based on latest GIS technology of electrical technology.
The district has four assembly constituencies: Nowshera, Darhal, Rajouri and Kalakote.
According to the 2011 census Rajouri district has a population of 642,415. This gives it a ranking of 518th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 235 inhabitants per square kilometre (610/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 28.14%. Rajouri has a sex ratio of 863 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 68.54%.
The religious distribution, in accordance with the 2011 census, was 402,879 Muslim (62.71%), 221,880 Hindu (34.54%), 2.41% Sikhs and others.
Though Urdu and English are the main mediums of instruction, the main native languages are Pahari-Pothwari and Gujari. Pahari is mainly spoken by the Malik community that forms majority of Darhal Malkan. Gujari is mainly spoken by the Gujjar and Bakarwal which contribute much Muslim population of Rajouri .
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Cheema, Crimson Chinar 2015, pp. 75–77.
- Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, p. 31.
- Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, p. 40.
- Sudhir S. Bloeria, Militancy in Rajouri and Poonch, South Asia Terrorism Portal, 2001.
- Bloeria, Sudhir S. (2000), Pakistan's Insurgency Vs India's Security: Tackling Militancy in Kashmir, Manas Publications, p. 37, ISBN 978-81-7049-116-3
- Prasad, Sri Nandan; Pal, Dharm (1 January 1987). Operations in Jammu & Kashmir, 1947-48. History Division, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. pp. 49–50.
- V. K. Singh, Leadership in the Indian Army 2005, p. 160.
- Ramachandran, Empire's First Soldiers 2008, p. 171.
- Rama Raghoba Rane received a Param Vir Chakra for his gallantry.
- Sarkar, Outstanding Victories of the Indian Army 2016, pp. 37–40.
- "India say it doesn't want to further escalation after Pakistan air strike". Samaa Tv. 27 February 2019.
- "Pakistan Says It Has Captured One Indian Air Force Pilot And Not Two as Claimed Earlier". News18. 28 February 2019.
- "Inside story of India's airstrike and Pakistan's counter-attack". The Week. 2 March 2019.
- "Pakistan jets violate Indian airspace in Kashmir's Nowshera, drop bombs". The Week. 27 February 2019.
- "Pakistani jets violate Indian air space, enter border areas of Nowshera sector in J-K's Rajouri district". Daily Hunt India. 27 February 2019.
- Rajouri tehsil map, MapsOfIndia, retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Statement showing the number of blocks in respect of 22 Districts of Jammu and Kashmir State including newly Created Districts Archived 10 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine dated 2008-03-13, accessed 2008-08-30
- "ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP". rajouri.nic.in. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "C-1 Population By Religious Community". Census. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
- "J&K 2011 census".
- Cheema, Brig Amar (2015), The Crimson Chinar: The Kashmir Conflict: A Politico Military Perspective, Lancer Publishers, ISBN 978-81-7062-301-4
- Panikkar, K. M. (1930), Gulab Singh, London: Martin Hopkinson Ltd
- Ramachandran, D. P. (2008), Empire's First Soldiers, Lancer Publishers, pp. 171–, ISBN 978-0-9796174-7-8
- Sarkar, Col. Bhaskar (2016), Outstanding Victories of the Indian Army, 1947-1971, Lancer Publishers, pp. 40–, ISBN 978-1-897829-73-8
- Singh, V. K. (2005), Leadership in the Indian Army: Biographies of Twelve Soldiers, SAGE Publications, pp. 160–, ISBN 978-0-7619-3322-9