Raji–Raute languages

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Raji–Raute
Geographic
distribution
Nepal
Linguistic classification Sino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
Glottolog raji1239[1]

Raji–Raute is a postulated branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family which includes the poorly documented and closely related languages Raji, Raute and apparently Rawat, spoken by hunter-gatherers in the Terai region of Nepal. Their relationship within the Sino-Tibetan languages is unclear.

Classification[edit]

Schorer (2016)[edit]

Schorer (2016:293)[2] classifies Raji–Raute as part of his newly proposed Greater Magaric group.

Greater Magaric

Fortier (2012)[edit]

A database of 700 words for items from households of Raute and Ban Rawat speakers (Fortier 2012) indicates a largely Sino-Tibetan language ancestry. Deep Root[clarification needed] items include 58 words of Sino-Tibetan origin and 7 of Austroasiatic origin. Proto-family[clarification needed] items include 281 morphemes of Proto-Tibeto-Burman origin. Meso-root,[clarification needed] or subfamily items include 34 words of Proto-Kuki-Chin origin, 23 of Proto-Tani origin, 6 of Proto-Tangkulic origin, and 1 of Northern Chin origin. The database omits most loans of Indo-Aryan origin although 43 items were of Sanskrit origin. Work remains on identifying etymologies of the remaining 247 items in the Raute–Rawat database.

Vocabulary[edit]

The comparative vocabulary lists of Raji and Raute below are from Rastogi & Fortier (2005). Rastogi & Fortier (2005) also provide Purbia Raji and Janggali Raute forms.

Swadesh list[edit]

The following is a 100-word Swadesh list from Rastogi & Fortier (2005).

No. English gloss Rawati (Raji) Khamci (Raute)
1 I naa ngaa
2 you, thou nang naa, nhhang
3 we naani jammaa ngaa, na, nani
4 this ai ii
5 that aiyaa he
6 who chuin 'se; tse, nhhamʔ
7 what hu hai, hang
8 not haa nai, nā (as verb suffix: -re/rai)
9 all jammaa ~ jammal mwalyae
10 many jikkal bo-kani, bo, buoh
11 one daa, ga daa
12 two nii ~ nhii nhi
13 big bai-inaa ghaare
14 long lang
15 small ʈuhaa, chui-ce lhhaʔ
16 woman maʈhialaa umaakhala, umaa
17 man manjha ba, s'ye; s'yela, māukyaa
18 person manca mi: mur; murka, mukala
19 fish boraa gaah, gap
20 bird gidhaa bwaah, buaʔ
21 dog kuii kwui
22 louse sira shuhroh
23 tree shiing s'iu; tsiu, shing
24 seed biye
25 leaf huwaah, huwaa-aa, khuaa hwaah, waʔ
26 root jadao goy, nyuri (wild yams), dz'ra
27 bark siing khallaw thaapa, thakpa
28 skin khallyai kiri; kriakaa, kirikyae
29 flesh (meat) sya s'yaa, yaa, pyaa, s'iu, shiaeʔ
30 blood khui s'ui, ks'ap
31 bone haɖang haare, haar'm
32 grease ge; gela
33 egg anɖaa bhi; bhibhiya, bhiya
34 horn sioang sikk'm
35 tail pucheraa muahta, mukyae
36 feather pakhaa phakaa, pwohx
37 hair haamuu rung
38 head gaɽaa garaah, g'rhha
39 ear ghunaa, hunaa gunaah
40 eye mhiike, niike mikaah; mhiiga
41 nose shinaa 'sinaah, shinga
42 mouth khaaber chyu(re), mu
43 tooth daaɽo s'wāah, tshwa
44 tongue jibaiɽo laale, muuhm, mhhwOm
45 fingernail nhiang leehm, lhhel
46 foot bhaa, panjaa bhaah
47 knee puhai phukh, gaʈho
48 hand hakai aakhaa
49 belly (stomach) laado guduu, gudong, photo ('entrails')
50 neck gardhan manto, m'nthu, ghaature
51 breast cucca susi
52 heart paatii, mutu
53 liver mulyaa kharabdaah, bara
54 drink tung jhum, jaaya, hum, ti-I, tì
55 eat jaako, jale, jaa-aa jaa; jaaku; jaaya, ka; kaare
56 bite kai ka; kaiyaa, k'I
57 see guhe bigaap, bighhae
58 hear huung-ye guno, gunaare
59 know dahau
60 sleep iishe s'ii; s'iyaah, seh, kwih
61 die shiiya s'i; s'iya
62 kill haate-ko ath-oh
63 swim raa pe kha-buwa, bou-kha-buwa, bowti
64 fly bo bwaah (n.?), pharaei (v.?)
65 walk hwaa-I, khwa
66 come biir/hi-ir bi; biye, bi-e, pi-ye
67 lie jhuʈi-haa-syaa lat (lie down)
68 sit khuung yaa sweh, sweh guni; aysapha, dzuye
69 stand yeki phuyo; phayaah, phuyu
70 give bai-y, baiko nyaa; bayaa, khaalu
71 say neko khaama (to speak); thi-i, shi dhaami
72 sun diiho bel, berh, dhāmu
73 moon dunnaa jhyunna, bair, berh (not exact terms for moon, not comp.)
74 star taaraa tui-tui
75 water tii, chi tsi
76 rain barkhaa s'gyae, tii-i
77 stone
78 sand ballyaa bolyaa
79 earth dexa desha [< Nepali], samsar
80 cloud diiho dewaah, dewaʔ
81 smoke dhukaāh, dhuma
82 fire bhåoy / mhai mhe:h, muhèi
83 ash dhuli kuhli, duhri, dhulo
84 burn lung (vi.)
85 path yong yaun-khyaa-nu, yung
86 mountain biʈʈaa; dhaɽe (peak) manam (hill); malam, kheɖ'
87 red ʈulhariyaa tui, sha
88 green hariyo / hariya hwaa (dark green - gagina), kamaiyo, k'm'iu
89 yellow pero, piilè byaalo, hwi-byelo, p'rhho
90 white dhaurya dhyaulyaa, dhyaurya, dhauɽia, ghouraya
91 black tuknahaa tokaanye, namaro
92 night gaire gadhir
93 hot gamma [< IA] chunu, ghohnohw
94 cold ʈhanɖa [< IA] jungha, dzung
95 full bharata jimai (filled), bwohb
96 new nong niu, nhu; n'u
97 good nhikah namar (person), lagalo
98 round baʈulo
99 dry kaarau we (vi.) karaao
100 name naam miĩhga

Body parts[edit]

Rastogi & Fortier (2005) list the following body part terms.

No. English gloss Rawati (Raji) Khamci (Raute)
1 arm pa:ti [< IA] arkha:, wa:u
2 belly la:do (Purbia Raji dang) 1. photo (belly); 2. gudu ~ gudong; (Janggali gudang) (“intestines”?)
3 blood khui 1. s'ui:; 2. kshap (kshap recorded by C. Bandhu (pers. comm.))
4 breast cucci susi
5 ear ghuna ~ huna guna:
6 eye ni:hke mi:hka
7 finger aguliya hubela
8 fingernail nihang lem ~ le:hng ~ li:hm
9 foot bhaa bhaa
10 hair haamu ~ hamo ~ ha ngo [< Nepali]
11 hand haake (Purbia Raji yak) a:khaa, la:ku (Janggali ha:kai)
12 head garaa garaa
13 hip, buttocks s'yi-li
14 goiter kok
15 knee, joint puhei ~ puhai ~ puher phuk
16 leg bhaa
17 lip autha [< IA] cyure; cyura
18 mouth khaaber 1. cyure; 2. mu ~ mu:hm: ~ mum
19 neck gardhan [< IA] (Purbia Raji tuk) 1. manto; mani; 2. ghaature [< Nepali]
20 nipple, breast chuchu
21 nose s'inna tsinaa ~ sinaa
22 nostrils dhodo
23 shoulders kadhang [< IA] kum [< Nepali]
24 skin khallyai kiriki ~ kiliki ~ kikaa
25 teeth, tooth swaa swaåh; chuwaa; miu
26 thighs jangaa 1. kare, 2. bhaa
27 vulva pi

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Raji–Raute". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Schorer, Nicolas. 2016. The Dura Language: Grammar and Phylogeny. Leiden: Brill.

References[edit]

  • George van Driem (2001) Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill.
  • Fortier, Jana (2012) "Annotated Dictionary of Raute and Rawat Languages" [1]
  • Rastogi, Kavita and Jana Fortier. 2005. Daa, Nii, Sum/Khung: Comparative Vocabulary of the West-Central Himalayan Languages Rawati (Raji) and Khamci (Raute). Indian Linguistics 66. 105-115.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fortier, Jana. A Comparative Dictionary of Raute and Rawat: Tibeto-Burman Languages of the Central Himalayas. Harvard Oriental Series 88. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674984349
  • Krishan, Shree. 2003. Darma, Chaudangsi, and Raji. In: Randy J. LaPolla (ed.), Tibeto-Burman Languages of Uttar Pradesh, pp. 139-272.