Jump to content

Rajnath Singh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rajnath Singh
29th Union Minister of Defence
Assumed office
20 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded byNirmala Sitharaman
30th Union Minister of Home Affairs
In office
26 May 2014 – 30 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded bySushilkumar Shinde
Succeeded byAmit Shah
28th Union Minister of Agriculture
In office
24 May 2003 – 22 May 2004
Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Preceded byAjit Singh
Succeeded bySharad Pawar
34th Union Minister of Surface Transport
In office
22 November 1999 – 27 October 2000
Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Preceded byNitish Kumar
Succeeded byB. C. Khanduri
19th Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh
In office
28 October 2000 – 8 March 2002
Preceded byRam Prakash Gupta
Succeeded byPresident's rule
Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
Assumed office
16 May 2014
Preceded byLalji Tandon
ConstituencyLucknow, Uttar Pradesh
In office
16 May 2009 – 16 May 2014
Preceded byconstituency established
Succeeded byVijay Kumar Singh
ConstituencyGhaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha
In office
26 November 2002 – 25 November 2008
ConstituencyUttar Pradesh
In office
3 April 1994 – 19 April 2001
Succeeded byKalraj Mishra
ConstituencyUttar Pradesh
8th National President of Bharatiya Janata Party
In office
24 January 2013 – 8 July 2014
Preceded byNitin Jairam Gadkari
Succeeded byAmit Shah
In office
31 December 2005 – 19 December 2009
Preceded byL. K. Advani
Succeeded byNitin Gadkari
4th President of Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha
In office
1988–1990
Preceded byPramod Mahajan
Succeeded byJagat Prakash Nadda
Deputy Leader of the House, Lok Sabha
In office
30 May 2019 – 4 June 2024
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
LeaderNarendra Modi
Speaker of LSOm Birla
Preceded bySushma Swaraj
Succeeded byNitin Gadkari
Personal details
Born (1951-07-10) 10 July 1951 (age 73)
Bhabhaura, Uttar Pradesh, India
Political partyBharatiya Janata Party
Other political
affiliations
Bharatiya Jana Sangh (before 1977)
Spouse
Savitri Singh
(m. 1971)
Children3, including Pankaj Singh
Residence(s)17, Akbar Road, New Delhi, Delhi, India
EducationM.Sc. in Physics
Alma materGorakhpur University
Profession
  • Politician
  • lecturer
Websitewww.rajnathsingh.in

Rajnath Singh (Hindi pronunciation: [ɾɑːd͡ʒnɑːt̪ʰ sɪŋɡʱ] ; born 10 July 1951) is an Indian politician and lecturer, and the 25th Defence Minister of India since 2019. He was also the Deputy Leader of the House, Lok Sabha from 2019 to 2024. He was the 8th President of the Bharatiya Janata Party from 2005 to 2009 and again from 2013 to 2014. He is a veteran leader of the BJP who started his career as a swayamsevak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.[1]

Singh has previously served as the 19th chief minister of Uttar Pradesh from 2000 to 2002 and a Cabinet Minister for Road Transport and Highways in the Vajpayee Government from 1999 to 2000 and the minister of Agriculture from 2003 to 2004. He was the 30th Home Minister in the first Modi ministry from 2014 to 2019, making him the first person born after India obtained independence to hold that position.[2][3][4] He was the President of Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha from 1988 to 1990. He was a member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly from Haidergarh (assembly constituency) twice, and held the office of chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.[5] He was a member of Lok Sabha from Lucknow since 2014 and Ghaziabad from 2009 to 2014. He was also a member of Rajya Sabha from 2002 to 2008 and from 1994 to 2001.He was the close aide of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Early life[edit]

Rajnath Singh was born in Bhabhaura village of Chandauli district, Uttar Pradesh to father Ram Badan Singh and mother Gujarati Devi.[6][7][8] He was born into a family of farmers. He received his primary education from a local school of his village and went on to secure a master's degree in physics, acquiring first division results from Gorakhpur University.[9] From childhood he was inspired by the ideology of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.[10] He worked as a lecturer of Physics at K.B. Post-Graduate College Mirzapur, UP.[7] He also has a brother, Jaipal Singh.[11]

Early political career[edit]

Entry into politics[edit]

Singh had been associated with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh since 1964, at the age of 13 and remained connected with the organisation. He also became Shakha Karyavah (General Secretary) of Mirzapur in the year 1972.[7] After 2 years in the year 1974, he entered politics.[12] Between 1969 and 1971 he was the organizational secretary of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (the student wing of the RSS) in Gorakhpur. He became the general secretary of the RSS's Mirzapur branch in 1972.[13] In 1974, he was appointed secretary for the Mirzapur unit of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, predecessor of Bharatiya Janata Party.[14] In 1975, aged 24, Singh was appointed District President of the Jana Sangh.

JP Movement and Emergency[edit]

In the 1970s, Singh was influenced by the JP Movement of Jayaprakash Narayan. He was also arrested in the year 1975 during the state of National Emergency for associating with JP Movement and was detained for a time period of 2 years.[15]

Entry into electoral politics[edit]

After being released from jail, Singh joined the Janata Party founded by Jayprakash Narayan and contested legislative assembly elections from Mirzapur in 1977. He successfully fought the election and was elected as a Member of Legislative Assembly from Mirzapur.

Rise within BJP[edit]

At that time he gained the popularity in State (politics) and then joined BJP in the year 1980 and was one of the initial members of the Party.[16] He became the State President of the BJP youth wing in 1984, the National general secretary in 1986 and the National President in 1988. He was also elected into the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council.[14]

Early ministerial roles[edit]

Education Minister (1991–1992)[edit]

In 1991, when the Bharatiya Janata Party formed its first government in Uttar Pradesh under chief minister Kalyan Singh, he was appointed education minister of Uttar Pradesh. He held the education portfolio for a tenure of two years.[17] Major highlights of his tenure as education minister included the controversial Anti-Copying Act, 1992, which made copying a non-bailable offence,[18] modernising science texts, and incorporating vedic mathematics into the curriculum.[5]

Anti-Copying Act, 1992[edit]

Singh helped push the controversial Anti-Copying Act in response to perceived widespread cheating in schools and colleges in Uttar Pradesh.[15][19][20] when Mulayam Singh Yadav became the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, heading Bahujan Samaj Party in the year 1993 he repealed the Act.[21][22]

Modernising the education system[edit]

In 1991, Singh led a partial rewrite of history textbooks used in government schools and introduced vedic mathematics into the curriculum.[5] Seen as loyal to the RSS, a Hindu nationalist organisation, Singh's changes to state education policy were widely perceived to have been motivated by his RSS affiliation and ideological kinship with the organisation's leadership.[23] As minister, he also focused on promoting the usage of Indian languages instead of English in courses and instruction. At the same time, he stated his appreciation for knowledge of modern languages.[24]

Union Transport Minister (1999–2000)[edit]

In April 1994, he was elected into the Rajya Sabha (Upper House of the Parliament) and became involved with the Advisory Committee on Industry (1994–96), Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Agriculture, Business Advisory Committee, House Committee and the Committee on Human Resource Development.[25] On 25 March 1997, he became the President of the BJP's Uttar Pradesh unit and in 1999 became the Union Cabinet Minister for Surface Transport.[14]

Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh (2000–02)[edit]

In 2000, he became chief minister of Uttar Pradesh and was twice elected as MLA from Haidergarh in 2001 and 2002.[18] He was preceded by Ram Prakash Gupta and succeeded by Mayawati after 56 days of President's rule.[26] Contributing to his appointment as state minister were his prior experience as education minister and his grassroots support from his involvement in the anti-corruption JP Movement in the 1970's.[27][28] At that time there also many leaders in BJP from Uttar Pradesh, but very few had a strong support at the ground level.[29] He was at that time very much close to Atal Bihari Vajpayee and had a very clean image among the people of the State.[30] He also popular among Rajputs (Thakur), a significant community in the state,[31][32] like Bhairon Singh Shekhawat. Even unlike, L. K. Advani and Kalyan Singh, he was not a leader of Firebrand Hindutva ideology and was a very soft-spoken person.[33]

Notable reforms as chief minister[edit]

As chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, he accused the Samajwadi Party of favouring certain communities for jobs. Singh had said that discrimination in job opportunities should end in the state.[34] He tried to rationalise the reservation structure in government jobs by introducing the most Backward Classes among the OBC and SC, so that the reservation system could favour those at the bottom of society..[35]

When Singh took office as chief minister, Uttar Pradesh had the highest state crime rate in India. Singh thus made establishing law and order a key part of his policy.[36][37] However, after the 2002 Gujarat riots a large portion of the Indian public saw the BJP as complicit in the riots, which undermined the image of Singh's party and contributed to the loss of his position..[38][39]

On 7 February 2001, Singh inaugurated the DND Flyway which connects Delhi to Noida.[40]

Resignation[edit]

In the year 2002, Singh resigned from the position of chief minister after a 2 year tenure because at that time, the state BJP Government held only a minority government. After his resignation, the state was under President's rule for 56 days, until the 14th Legislative Assembly appointed Mayawati to the position of chief minister for the 3rd time.[12]

Rise in national politics[edit]

Union Agriculture Minister (2003–04)[edit]

In 2003, Singh was appointed as the Minister of Agriculture and subsequently for Food Processing in the NDA Government led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, and was faced with the difficult task of maintaining one of the most volatile areas of India's economy.[41] During this period he initiated a few epoch-making projects including the Kisan Call Centre and Farm Income Insurance Scheme.[42] He brought down interest rates on Agriculture loans and also established Farmer Commission and initiated Farms Income Insurance Scheme.[43]

National President of the BJP[edit]

First time (2005–2009)[edit]

Rajnath Singh in Washington at a summit.

After the BJP lost power in the 2004 general elections, it was forced to sit in the Opposition. After the resignation of prominent figure Lal Krishna Advani due to controversial statements over Muhammad Ali Jinnah,[44] and the murder of strategist Pramod Mahajan, Singh sought to rebuild the party by focusing on the most basic Hindutva ideologies.[45] He announced his position of "no compromise" in relation to the building of a Ram Temple in Ayodhya at any cost[45] and commended the rule of Vajpayee as Prime Minister, pointing towards all the developments the NDA made for the ordinary people of India.[46] He also criticised the role of the English language in India, claiming that most of Indian population is unable to participate in Indian economy and cultural discourse due to extreme preferences shown to English at the expense of native languages.[47] Singh also suspended Jaswant Singh from the party for praising Jinnah and disrespecting the policies of Jawaharlal Nehru, which also led to a wave of controversies as Jaswant Singh was a very senior leader of the party.[48] Singh had held many positions for the RSS and the BJP, including serving as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and the President of the BJP's youth wing. He advocated a return to a Hindutva platform. Singh resigned after the NDA lost the 2009 Indian general election.[49]

He became the BJP National President on 31 December 2005, a post he held till 19 December 2009. In May 2009, he was elected MP from Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh.[50]

A delegation of Rajnath Singh in Kerala with former Ministry of Defence of India, A. K. Antony and Alphons Kannanthanam.

Second time (2013–2014)[edit]

On 24 January 2013, following the resignation of Nitin Gadkari due to corruption charges, Singh was re-elected as the BJP's National President.[51]

Singh is on record shortly after the law Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code was re-instated in 2013, claiming that his party is "unambiguously" in favour of the law, also claiming that "We will state (at an all-party meeting if it is called) that we support Section 377 because we believe that homosexuality is an unnatural act and cannot be supported."[52] Singh was elected president for his second term after Gadkari stepped down in 2013. Singh played a large role in the BJP's campaign for the 2014 Indian general election, including declaring Narendra Modi the party's Prime Ministerial candidate despite opposition from within the BJP. After the party's landslide victory, Singh resigned the party presidency to assume the position of Home Minister.[53]

He contested the 2014 Lok Sabha elections from Lucknow constituency and was subsequently elected as a Member of the Parliament.[54]

Union Home Minister (2014–19)[edit]

Raj Nath Singh taking charge as the Union Minister for Home Affairs, in New Delhi on 29 May 2014.
Rajnath Singh holding a bilateral meeting with Russian delegation led by the Minister for Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Kolokolstsev, in Moscow

He was appointed the Union Minister of Home Affairs in the Narendra Modi government and was sworn in on 26 May 2014.[55] At that time he was the former president of the party and was the one who named Narendra Modi as the Prime Minister Candidate for the party. After the win of the party in 2014 Lok Sabha Election he took over the position from Sushilkumar Shinde as the Minister of Home Affairs (India) from the year 2014–2019. And he is also the Current Deputy Leader of Lok Sabha from the year 2019.[56][23]

JNU incident[edit]

He triggered controversy amid the protests over the police action at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), on 14 February 2016, claiming that the "JNU incident" was supported by Lashkar-e-Taiba chief Hafiz Saeed.[57] He gave the statement when there was an Anti-National speeches in the JNU Delhi over the anniversary of hanging of Kashmiri Separist Maqbool Bhat and Afzal Guru on 9 February 2016.[58] After the statement there was also a vast protest against Singh and after the arrests of Umar Khalid and Kanhaiya Kumar, he made meeting with many left leaders.[59][60] He also assured the citizens that what he said was right and he also people assurance of not tolerating the Anti-National Acts.[61] Singh at that time also appointed an SIT for the investigation of the matter.[62]

In May 2016, he claimed that infiltration from Pakistan declined by 52% in a period of two years.[63]

Bharat Ke Veer App[edit]

On 9 April 2017, he launched Bharat Ke Veer Web portal and Application with Bollywood actor Akshay Kumar. This was an initiative taken by him for the welfare of Martyrs' family.[64] Bharat Ke Veer is a fund-raising initiative by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India on behalf of members of the Indian paramilitary Forces.[65] Singh himself praised the app and at that time was the first donor of the app.[66]

An official anthem was launched on 20 January 2018 for the cause 'Bharat Ke Veer' by him along with film star Akshay Kumar, and other ministers Kiren Rijiju, Hansraj Ahir.[67]

Doklam matter[edit]

The Urban Development Minister of Nepal, Arjun Narsingh K.C. calling on the Rajnath Singh, in New Delhi

Doklam is a disputed territory between Bhutan and China since the 1950s and when China unilaterally claimed Doklam as its own territory by trying to build a road in the disputed area, the Indian army stepped-in on behalf of Bhutan which created tensions between the Indian Army and Liberation Army of China.[68] Over the matter Singh assured Public to solve the matter and he had talks with officials of the Chinese Communist Party over relations between the two countries. Though the matter was between the Bhutan and China, but when Bhutan sought help from India, then India also indulged in the matter. Singh and Prime Minister Narendra Modi also openely opposed the matter and came in the support of Bhutan.[69] Later, the tension solved at large extent.[70][71] The main reason was also that Singh also threatened China to stop its import and start of Trade War.[70] On 9 October 2017 China announced that it was ready to maintain peace at frontiers with India reacting to Indian Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman and Rajnath Singh visit to Nathu La.[72]

Commissioning of Bastariya Battalion[edit]

On 21 May 2018, he commissioned Bastariya Battalion. As Union Home Minister, Rajnath Singh attended the passing out parade of 241 Bastariya Battalion of CRPF in Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh on 21 May 2018.[73]

Union Defence Minister (2019–present)[edit]

Rajnath Singh taking charge as the Union Minister for Defence, in the presence of Shripad Naik, Minister of State for Defence, in New Delhi on 1 June 2019.
Rajnath Singh takes office as the Minister of Defense of India for the second consecutive term, in New Delhi on June 13, 2024.

Singh became the Defence minister of India on 31 May 2019.[74] Singh was given Ministry of Defence (India) after Amit Shah was given the Ministry of Home Affairs (India). As Union Defence Minister now, Singh has indicated a subtle shift in India's strategic vision. Among the challenges that the Defence Minister is expected to address are the ever-increasing requirements of India's forces, including increased budgetary requirements, especially in the light of an unstable neighbourhood.[75]

Rajnath Singh, along with Prime Minister Modi inaugurates Asia's largest helicopter manufacturing sector (HAL) at Tumkur, in Karnataka in 2023.

After being Defence Minister he had focused mainly on increasing the defence budget of the nation and has focused on decreasing the import of weapons from other nations and making the nation an arms exporter with an arms industry.[76][77] He also stated that:

"India cannot put hand on hand in the issues of National Security. Now the time has come that India needs to emerge as major arms exporter."

— Economic Times, Rajnath Singh[77]

Rafale fighter plane[edit]

Rajnath Singh with the French Minister of Armed Forces, Florence Parly

Dassault Rafale is a fighter plane of French origin whose deal was signed by then Minister of Defence (India), Manohar Parrikar in 2016 to increase the strength of the Indian Air Force.[78] The Government of India had signed to buy 126 fighter jets costing $30 billion.[79]

The planes were received during his tenure as the Defence Minister of India. Though that was also a very controversial issue, Singh received and completed the deal after becoming Minister of Defence of India and the Indian Air Force received its first Dassault Rafale on 8 October 2019, when he personally went to France to receive it.[80] The first fleet of 5 fighter jets landed at Ambala Air Force Station.[81]

India received the second fleet of Rafale jets on 29 July 2020. Singh said that "Those wanting to threaten India's territorial Integrity should be aware of India's new capability."[82]

Indo-China border tension[edit]

Rajnath Singh on Galwan

China made transgression attempts on Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the western sector. This includes Kongka, Gogra, and the north bank of Pangong Lake. Our Army took necessary action against these attempts.

Singh.[83]

Rajnath Singh talk during 2020 standoff between Indian and Chinese officials.

Since May 2020, there has been tension between the Security forces of India and China over the border region of Ladakh.[84] This situation has seen tension increase as China has put pressure on India.[85][86][87] Singh met with officials of the Indian Army and also visited the Ladakh Range.[88] He also met with the Chief of the Defence Staff General Bipin Rawat, CNS Admiral Karambir Singh and COAS General Manoj Mukund Naravane to discuss about the situation.[89] After the martyrdom of 20 Indian soldiers during the 2020 China–India skirmishes in Galwan Valley, Singh met with the Indian soldiers.[90][91][92] He also said that he can not guarantee to what extent the tension would go.[93] Later the situation was handled.[94][95]

Then again from the date of 30 August 2020, People's Liberation Army started the controversy of Ladakh area by putting a large number of troops over the controversial area and over this Chinese Communist Party leader Yang Jiechi and People's Liberation Army General Wei stated that the matter was started by the Indian Armed Forces.[96] Chinese General Wei Fenghe and his Indian counterpart Singh held a talk, on 4 September in Moscow, on the sidelines of a Shanghai Cooperation Organisation meeting.[97] On 10 September, the foreign affairs ministers of China and India met in Moscow. Five points were agreed upon in a joint statement, including new CBMs between the two countries. On 21 September, the sixth commander-level meeting took place at Chushul-Moldo BPM.[98] The Indian delegation consisted of Lt Gen Harinder Singh, Lt Gen P G K Menon, two major generals, four brigadiers and other officers.[99] The chief of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police was also a part of the delegation. During this meeting, for the first time, a Ministry of External Affairs representative from the Indian side was also present. Following the 14–hour talks, a joint statement was released, which included both sides have agreed to "stop sending more troops to the frontlines.[100][101]

After the news of the situation became known, Singh assured citizens that the situation is under control and that there is nothing to be worried about. Singh also stated that fake news and rumours were being spread. He also admitted that the Chinese Army has tried to cross the LAC.[102]

Singh at the SCO defence ministers' meeting in New Delhi on 28 April 2023

On 28 April 2023, Chinese Defense Minister Li Shangfu met with Rajnath Singh as part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation defence ministers' meeting in New Delhi, making it the first visit to India by a Chinese Defence Minister since the 2020 border skirmishes between Indian and Chinese troops.[103]

Agnipath Scheme[edit]

The Defence Ministry introduced a revolutionary army recruitment scheme called Agnipath (Agneepatha), for recruitment of soldiers under the rank of commissioned officers. The recruitment was pursued for all the three forces, and the selected candidates were termed as "Agniveers". This plan is a four-year termed enroll to candidates ageing between 18 - 24 of age.[104] Various protests and oppositions were held, against the scheme, questioning about the future of the candidates, procedure and other standards. Railways were set on fire and suffered losses in Bihar, Telangana and West Bengal;[105] the opposition also called it as an RSS agenda based scheme. The Ministry called it a long pending reform, in the defence field to lower the average of the total military age.[106] Further the Delhi High Court also stated that it finds no reason to interfere in the process and the government has brought this "In national Interest" of the country.[107]

Military exercises[edit]

He virtually inaugurated the four-day Indo-Pacific Military Health Exchange (IPMHE) conference.

International military exercises known as Vostok-2022 [ru] were launched in Russia's Far East in September 2022, with countries including Russia, India and China taking part in it.[108] On 28 April 2023, Singh met with Russian Minister of Defence Sergei Shoigu.[109]

Positions and offices[edit]

Offices held[edit]

S. No Office Constituency Year of elected
1. MLA in Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Mirzapur 1977
2. Member of Legislative Council (MLC) Uttar Pradesh 1988
3. MP in Rajya Sabha Uttar Pradesh 1994
4. MP in Rajya Sabha Uttar Pradesh 2000
5. MLA in Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Haidergarh (by-elections) 2001
6. MLA in Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Haidergarh 2002
7. MP in Rajya Sabha Uttar Pradesh 2002
8. MP in 15th Lok Sabha Ghaziabad 2009
9. MP in 16th Lok Sabha Lucknow 2014
10. MP in 17th Lok Sabha Lucknow 2019

Positions held[edit]

S. No. Position Tenure Preceded by Succeeded by
1. President of BJP Youth Wing 1984–1986
2. General Secretary of State(Uttar Pradesh) BJP Youth Wing 1986–1988
3. National President of BJP Youth Wing 1988–1989 Pramod Mahajan J. P. Nadda
4. Education Minister of Uttar Pradesh 1991–1992
5. President of BJP Uttar Pradesh 1997–1998
6. Union Minister of Transportation. 1999–2000 Nitish Kumar B. C. Khanduri
7. Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh 2000–2002 Ram Prakash Gupta President- rule

(then Mayawati succeeded the position)

8. Union Agriculture Minister 2003–2004 Ajit Singh Sharad Pawar
9. President of BJP 2005–2009 L. K. Advani Nitin Gadkari
10. President of BJP 2012–2014 Nitin Gadkari Amit Shah
11. Minister of Home Affairs of India 2014–2019 Sushilkumar Shinde Amit Shah
12. Minister of Defence of India 2019–Incumbent Nirmala Sitharaman Incumbent

Personal life[edit]

He married Savitri Singh on 5 June 1971, with whom he has two sons and a daughter.[110][17] His son Pankaj Singh is a politician and Member of the Legislative Assembly from Noida, Uttar Pradesh from BJP.[111] Singh is a devout Hindu and a religious man and is known for soft-spoken behaviour.[112]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Meet the men and women who will run India for the next 5 years – Ministry of utmost prowess". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Shri Rajnath Singh | Ministry of Defence". www.mod.gov.in. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  3. ^ "Rajnath Singh elected BJP president, vows to bring back party to power". www.indiatvnews.com. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  4. ^ Jain, B. M. (15 February 2021). The Geopsychology Theory of International Relations in the 21st Century: Escaping the Ignorance Trap. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 86. ISBN 978-1-4985-7360-3.
  5. ^ a b c "Who is Rajnath Singh?". India Today. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  6. ^ Kaushal, Pradeep (15 September 2009). "Jaswant is sacked without show-cause notice, but Vasundhara could defy directive to resign". Indian Express. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  7. ^ a b c "Biography – Rajnath Singh". rajnathsingh.in. 7 July 2014. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  8. ^ Singh, Ujjwal Kumar (11 January 2007). The State, Democracy and Anti-Terror Laws in India. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 978-81-7829-955-6. Archived from the original on 8 April 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  9. ^ "Rajnath Singh's biography tracing 5 decades in politics to hit stands in May". India Today. PTI. 10 April 2019. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  10. ^ "Shri Rajnath Singh" (PDF). Government of India. 11 March 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  11. ^ "Rajnath Singh celebrates Raksha Bandhan with children at his residence". The Financial Express. 29 August 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Rajnath Singh: Rajnath Singh BJP from LUCKNOW in Lok Sabha Elections | Rajnath Singh News, images and videos". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  13. ^ Chintamani 2019, pp. 17–18; Singh 2019, pp. 1–2.
  14. ^ a b c "Profile: Rajnath Singh". Zee News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  15. ^ a b "Did you know⁠? India's Defence Minister Rajnath Singh has a master's degree in physics⁠ — and other interesting facts about his life". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  16. ^ Chintamani 2019, p. 35.
  17. ^ a b "Shri Rajnath Singh Hon'ble Raksha Mantri" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  18. ^ a b Phadnis, Aditi. "How Rajnath Singh rose through the ranks". Rediff. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  19. ^ "PM Modi brings 'mass copying' issue into political discourse". Hindustan Times. 27 February 2017. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  20. ^ "UP Govt to challenge order against Anti-copying Act". rediff.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  21. ^ D. Gidwani (30 June 1994). "Mulayam Singh Yadav abolishes Anti-Copying Act in Uttar Pradesh". India Today. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  22. ^ "How students 'copying' in exams became an issue for the BJP in the early 90s". The News Minute. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 9 August 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  23. ^ a b Singh 2019, p. 2.
  24. ^ "Need to change present education system: Home Minister Rajnath Singh". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 8 April 2023. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  25. ^ "Rajnath Singh - from 'Physics lecturer' to 'Union Home Minister'". www.indiatvnews.com. 9 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  26. ^ List of chief ministers of Uttar Pradesh
  27. ^ Gupta, Moushumi Das (8 June 2019). "Modi's one move showed Rajnath Singh's 44 years of politics can become ineffective in a day". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  28. ^ "Rajnath Singh | New Defence Minister: Rajnath Singh to be the new Defence Minister, Naik to be MoS". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  29. ^ "The politics of Uttar Pradesh was like a Jungle trap"-The Betrayal of Indian Democracy.
  30. ^ ""A Man With No Enemies": Rajnath Singh Appointed Cabinet Minister Again". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  31. ^ "Modi accepts MLAs' choice Yogi Adityanath as U.P. CM". The Sunday Guardian Live. 19 March 2017. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  32. ^ "The Deep Caste Symbolism In Yogi Adityanath's Appointment As Uttar Pradesh CM". Outlook India. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  33. ^ "Yogi Adityanath a better Uttar Pradesh CM than I was: Rajnath Singh". The Times of India. 18 January 2021. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  34. ^ "3 big reforms Rajnath Singh is capable of bringing in Uttar Pradesh if he's appointed the CM". The Financial Express. 16 March 2017. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  35. ^ Gupta, Moushumi Das (8 June 2019). "Modi's one move showed Rajnath Singh's 44 years of politics can become ineffective in a day". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 29 January 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  36. ^ "Tone up law and order, Home Minister Rajnath Singh tells UP government". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 8 April 2023. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  37. ^ "Good improvement in law and order in UP: Rajnath". India.com. A. N. I. Feeds. 10 May 2018. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  38. ^ M, Harsh (24 April 2019). "One thing was distinctly rotten about 2002 Gujarat riots: use of rape as a form of terror". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  39. ^ "Why 2002 Gujarat riots still matter". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  40. ^ "'Noida jinx' to keep Akhilesh Yadav away from PM event". The Economic Times. 29 December 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2023. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  41. ^ "Courage, Mr Rajnath Singh". The Hindu. 11 June 2003. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
  42. ^ "Shri Rajnath Singh, MP (Ghaziabad)" Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. wikimapia.org
  43. ^ "Achievements" Archived 21 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. rajnathsingh.in
  44. ^ "Rajnath Singh". India Today. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  45. ^ a b Ghatak, Lopamudra (23 December 2006). "It's basic instinct for Rajnath Singh". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012.
  46. ^ Rajnath Singh is new BJP President Archived 11 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. indianewsdiary.com
  47. ^ "BJP chief claims English bad for India, triggers outrage." Archived 26 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine The Times of India. 20 July 2013
  48. ^ "Jaswant is sacked without show-cause notice, but Vasundhara could defy directive to resign". Indian Express. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  49. ^ Ghatak, Lopamudra (23 December 2006). "It's basic instinct for Rajnath Singh". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  50. ^ "Ministry of Home Affairs" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2017.
  51. ^ "Rajnath steps down, Gadkari takes over as BJP president". The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 19 December 2009. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  52. ^ Rameshan, Radhika (13 December 2011). "BJP comes out, vows to oppose homosexuality". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013.
  53. ^ "Rajnath Singh – from 'Physics lecturer' to 'Union Home Minister'". www.indiatvnews.com. 9 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  54. ^ "Rajnath Singh surpasses Vajpayee's victory margin in Lucknow" Archived 11 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine. The Hindu. 18 May 2014
  55. ^ "Portfolios of the Union Council of Ministers". pmindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  56. ^ "What is the role of Rajnath Singh? – Google Search". Google. Archived from the original on 28 February 2023. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  57. ^ "Understand the reality... Lashkar chief Hafiz Saeed backed JNU incident: Home Minister Rajnath Singh". 15 February 2016. Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  58. ^ "Afzal Guru: A martyr in JNU campus? Anti-India slogans raised, no arrests made". India Today. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  59. ^ "JNU row: Who said what on the issue". India Today. 16 February 2016. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  60. ^ "Left leaders meet Rajnath Singh over JNU issue". The Hindu. PTI. 13 February 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 12 September 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  61. ^ "Rajnath links LeT's Hafiz Saeed to JNU protest, Oppn demands evidence". Hindustan Times. 15 February 2016. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  62. ^ "Simply a hysterical farce: The 2016 JNU sedition row lingers lacking real evidence". www.dailyo.in. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  63. ^ "Narendra Modi's 56-inch chest not reduced an inch: Rajnath Singh". Deccan Chronicle. 28 May 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  64. ^ "Shri Rajnath Singh inaugurates Web Portal 'Bharat ke Veer'". pib.nic.in. Archived from the original on 11 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  65. ^ "'Bharat Ke Veer' initiative pays off, people donate generously". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  66. ^ Chintamani 2019, p. 247.
  67. ^ "Akshay Kumar, Rajnath Singh unveil official anthem of 'Bharat Ke Veer'". 20 January 2018. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  68. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (12 August 2020). "No progress made in India-China major general-level talks, all eyes now on diplomatic parleys". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  69. ^ "India-China dispute to be solved". Washington Post. 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  70. ^ a b "Both India and China exercising restraint in Doklam: Defence Minister Rajnath Singh". Zee News. 17 July 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  71. ^ "Solution To Doklam Standoff Will Be Found Soon, Says Rajnath Singh". Outlook India. Archived from the original on 24 September 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  72. ^ "Ready to maintain peace with India: China on Sitharaman's visit to Nathu La". Hindustan Times. 9 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  73. ^ "First ever graduation parade of 'Bastariya Battalion' held in Chhattisgarh". India Today. Archived from the original on 6 August 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  74. ^ "PM Modi allocates portfolios. Full list of new ministers", Live Mint, 31 May 2019, archived from the original on 2 June 2019, retrieved 2 June 2019
  75. ^ "Union Defence Minister Rajnath Singh In His 2.0 Avatar". BW Businessworld. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  76. ^ "Rajnath Singh: Latest News & Videos, Photos about Rajnath Singh". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  77. ^ a b "India to emerge as major defence exporter: Rajnath Singh – ET Government". ETGovernment.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  78. ^ P, Rajat (1 February 2012). "French jet Rafale bags $20bn IAF fighter order; India 'briefs' losing European countries". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  79. ^ Sagar, Pradip R. (26 January 2014). "dna exclusive: 100% price escalation on Rafale fighter aircraft to Rs 1.75 lakh crore likely to dent IAF's strike capability". DNA India. Archived from the original on 12 October 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  80. ^ "Rajnath Singh receives first Rafale in France; delivery in May 2020". The Hindu. 8 October 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  81. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (29 July 2020). "India's Rafale lands in Ambala, Rajnath warns those who threaten territorial integrity". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  82. ^ "Welcoming Rafale, Rajnath gives a veiled warning to China". Livemint. 29 July 2020. Archived from the original on 19 May 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  83. ^ "Rajnath Singh reviews as of 15 September 2020". ANI. 15 September 2020. Archived from the original on 13 May 2022. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  84. ^ "A timeline: India-China's deadliest border clash since 1975 explained". Hindustan Times. 17 June 2020. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  85. ^ Lintner, Bertil (1 July 2020). "China, India standoff more than a war over rocks". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  86. ^ "India China news Highlights (June 22): Indian Army's 14 Corps Commander & Chinese counterpart hold meeting, says report". The Financial Express. 22 June 2020. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  87. ^ "India now says 20 troops killed in China clash". BBC News. 16 June 2020. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  88. ^ "In 1st comment on Ladakh standoff, Rajnath Singh's pointed reference to Doklam". Hindustan Times. 30 May 2020. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  89. ^ "India-China standoff: Defence Minister Rajnath Singh meets CDS, Army Chief to assess LAC situation in Ladakh". timesnownews.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  90. ^ "3 staggered clashes took place in Galwan Valley". Hindustan Times. 21 June 2020. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  91. ^ "Galwan braves get a pat on the back from Rajnath Singh in Ladakh's Lukung". Hindustan Times. 19 July 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  92. ^ "Rajnath Singh personally conveyed appreciation to soldiers for displaying bravery in Galwan clash". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  93. ^ "Can Not Guarantee to What Extent India, China Border Dispute Can be Resolved, Says Rajnath Singh". India.com. 17 July 2020. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  94. ^ "India-China border dispute at Galwan valley: Top developments". The Times of India. 18 June 2020. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  95. ^ "India-China border tensions Live: World wants to know who India's braves are, says PM Modi". Deccan Herald. 16 June 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  96. ^ Krishnan, Ananth (5 September 2020). "India entirely responsible for current tensions, China's Defence Minister tells Rajnath Singh". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  97. ^ "At SCO meet, Rajnath Singh tells China to restore status quo at LAC". Hindustan Times. 5 September 2020. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  98. ^ "India, China to hold sixth Corps Commander-level talks today: Report". Business Standard India. 21 September 2020. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  99. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (22 September 2020). "India and China stick to demands, current ground positions in Ladakh could become status quo". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  100. ^ "China, India hold sixth round of commander-level talks – People's Daily Online". en.people.cn. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  101. ^ ""Must Continue Talks To Ensure Full Restoration Of Peace": Rajnath Singh To Chinese Counterpart". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 7 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  102. ^ "राजनाथ सिंह ने मान लिया, चीनी सैनिक लद्दाख में घुसे!". LallanTop – News with most viral and Social Sharing Indian content on the web in Hindi (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  103. ^ "SCO: China defence minister in India amid border tensions". BBC. 28 April 2023. Archived from the original on 25 January 2024. Retrieved 4 June 2023.
  104. ^ "Army recruitment rally under 'Agnipath'". The Hindu. 4 August 2022. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 5 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  105. ^ "Agnipath protests: Railways suffer losses over Rs 1,000 crore, highest in a decade". India Today. 23 June 2022. Archived from the original on 5 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  106. ^ "Agnipath protests Highlights: Agnipath a long-pending reform, govt concessions pre-planned, says Defence Ministry". The Indian Express. 18 June 2022. Archived from the original on 5 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  107. ^ "'In national interest': HC upholds Agnipath validity". The Times of India. 28 February 2023. ISSN 0971-8257. Archived from the original on 28 February 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  108. ^ "Explainers Explained: What does India's participation in Russia's military drills Vostok-2022 mean?". Firstpost. 2 September 2022. Archived from the original on 28 May 2023. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  109. ^ "India, Russia agree to boost longstanding defence ties". Reuters. 28 April 2023. Archived from the original on 3 June 2023. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  110. ^ "Members : Lok Sabha". 164.100.47.194. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  111. ^ Shukla, Ankita (17 November 2018). "राजनाथ सिंह जीवनी, इतिहास, जाति, शिक्षा, परिवार, पत्नी, माता, पिता !!". Oye Hero. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  112. ^ Lakshmi, Rama (12 October 2019). "With Rafale puja, Rajnath Singh was just Hindu Everyman. Criticising him is political suicide". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2021.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh
2000–2002
Succeeded by
Preceded by Union Minister of Agriculture
2003–2004
Succeeded by
Preceded by Union Minister of Home Affairs
2014–2019
Succeeded by
Preceded by Union Minister of Defence
2019–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by National President of the Bharatiya Janata Party
2005–2009
Succeeded by
Preceded by National President of the Bharatiya Janata Party
2013–2014
Succeeded by