Rajput

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For the 1982 film, see Rajput (film).
Rajput

Rajpoots 2.png

An 1876 engraving of Rajputs of Rajasthan, from the Illustrated London News
Classification Forward caste
Religions Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism
Populated States The Indian subcontinent, particularly North India, Surashtra (Gujarat)

Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king"[1]) is a member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and some parts of Pakistan. They claim to be descendants of ruling Hindu warrior classes of North India. Rajputs rose to prominence during the 9th[1] to 12th centuries. Until the 20th century, Rajputs ruled in the "overwhelming majority" of the princely states of Rajasthan and Surashtra, where the largest number of princely states were found.[2]

The Rajput population and the former Rajput states are found spread through much of the subcontinent, particularly in north, west and central India. Populations are found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu, Punjab, Sindh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.

History

During their centuries-long rule of northern India, the Rajputs constructed several palaces. Shown here is the Chandramahal in City Palace, Jaipur, Rajasthan, which was built by the Kachwaha Rajputs.

Origins

The origin of Rajputs is the subject of debate. Writers such as M. S. Naravane and V. P. Malik believe that the term was not used to designate a particular tribe or social group until the 6th century AD, as there is no mention of the term in the historical record as pertaining to a social group prior to that time.[3] One theory espouses that with the collapse of the Gupta empire from the late 6th century, the invading Hephthalites (White Huns) were probably integrated within Indian society. Leaders and nobles from among the invaders were assimilated into the Kshatriya ritual rank in the Hindu varna system, while others who followed and supported them — such as the Ahirs, Gurjars and Jats - were ranked as cultivators.[1] At the same time, some indigenous tribes were ranked as Rajput, examples of which are the Bundelas, Chandelas and Rathors. Encyclopaedia Britannica notes that Rajputs "... actually vary greatly in status, from princely lineages, such as the Guhilot and Kachwaha, to simple cultivators."[1] Aydogdy Kurbanov says that the assimilation was specifically between the Hephthalites, Gurjars, and people from northwestern India, forming the Rajput community.[4] Pradeep Barua says of their defining characteristic that

What makes the Rajputs stand out from the rest of Indian society was not their foreign origins but their fanatical attempts to assert their Kshatriya status. Over time, other Indian groups followed their example and claimed descent from the [mythological] solar and lunar races, establishing themselves as Rajputs in various parts of western and central India.[5]

Rajput kingdoms (9th to 11th centuries)

From the beginning of the 9th century, Rajput dynasties dominated northern parts of India, and the many petty Rajput kingdoms became the primary obstacle to the complete Muslim conquest of Hindu India. Even after the Muslim conquest of the Punjab and the Ganga River valley, the Rajputs maintained their independence in Rajasthan and the forests of central India. Later, Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Khilji dynasty took the two Rajput forts of Chitor and Ranthambhor in eastern Rajasthan but could not hold them for long.[1]

Maratha domination and British rule

The internal conflicts which existed among the Rajput communities were significant in enabling the Mughal invaders to achieve control over them,[when?] while nonetheless recognising the role of the Rajputs as a ruling class.[6]

British colonial period

Mayo College was established by the British government in 1875 at Ajmer, Rajputana to educate Rajput princes and other nobles.
A water reservoir inside Chittorgarh Fort as seen in 2006

James Tod, a British colonial official, was impressed by the military qualities of the Rajputs but is today considered to have been unusually enamoured by them. They venerate him to this day but he is viewed by many historians since the late nineteenth-century as being a not particularly reliable commentator.[7][8] Jason Freitag, his only significant biographer, has said that Tod is "manifestly biased".[9]

The Rajput practice of female infanticide and sati (widow immolation) was another matter of concern to the British colonialists. It was believed that the Rajputs were the primary adherents to these practices, which the Raj considered to be savage and which was the initial impetus for British ethnographic studies of the subcontinent that eventually manifested itself as a much wider exercise in social engineering.[10]

In reference to the role of the Rajput soldiers serving under the British banner, Captain A. H. Bingley states:

Rajputs have served in our ranks from Plassey to the present day (1899). They have taken part in almost every campaign undertaken by the Indian armies. Under Forde they defeated the French at Condore. Under Monro at Buxar they routed the forces of the Nawab of Oudh. Under Lake they took part in the brilliant series of victories which destroyed the power of the Marathas.[11]

Independent India

On India's independence in 1947, the princely states, including those of the Rajput, were given three choices: join either India or Pakistan, or remain independent. Rajput rulers of the 22 princely states of Rajputana acceded to newly independent India, amalgamated into the new state of Rajasthan in 1949–1950.[12] Initially the maharajas were granted funding from the Privy purse in exchange for their acquiescence, but a series of land reforms over the following decades weakened their power, and their privy purse was cut off during Indira Gandhi's administration under the 1971 Constitution 26th Amendment Act. The estates, treasures, and practices of the old Rajput rulers now form a key part of Rajasthan's tourist trade and cultural memory.[13]

In 1951, the Rajput Rana dynasty of Nepal came to an end, having been the power behind the throne of the Shah monarchs figureheads since 1846.[14]

The Rajputs of India are today considered to be a Forward Caste in the country's system of positive discrimination. This means that they receive no favour from the administration.[15]

Subdivisions

Main article: Rajput clans

There are several major subdivisions of Rajputs, known as vansh or vamsha, the step below the super-division jāti[16] These vansh delineate claimed descent from various sources, and the Rajput are generally considered to be divided into three primary vansh:[17] Suryavanshi denotes descent from the solar deity Surya, Chandravanshi from the lunar deity Chandra, and Agnivanshi from the fire deity Agni.[18] The four prominent clans in the post-Gupta period - Chauhans, Paramaras, Pratiharas and Solankis — all claimed their mythological origin to have been from a sacrificial fire at Mount Abu.[5]

Lesser-noted vansh include Udayvanshi, Rajvanshi,[19] and Rishivanshi.[20] The histories of the various vanshs were later recorded in documents known as vamshāavalīis; André Wink counts these among the "status-legitimizing texts".[21]

Beneath the vansh division are smaller and smaller subdivisions: kul, shakh ("branch"), khamp or khanp ("twig"), and nak ("twig tip").[22] Marriages within a kul are generally disallowed (with some flexibility for kul-mates of different gotra lineages). The kul serves as primary identity for many of the Rajput clans, and each kul is protected by a family goddess, the kuldevi. Lindsey Harlan notes that in some cases, skakhs have become powerful enough to be functionally kuls in their own right.[23]

Culture and ethos

A talwar, developed under Rajputana Khanda in the Maharana Pratap's period

The Rajputs were a Martial Race in the period of the British Raj.[24] This was a designation created by administrators that classified each ethnic group as either "martial" or "non-martial": a "martial race" was typically considered brave and well built for fighting,[25] whilst the remainder were those whom the British believed to be unfit for battle because of their sedentary lifestyles.[26]

Rajput lifestyle

The double-edged scimitar known as the khanda was a popular weapon among the Rajputs of that era. On special occasions, a primary chief would break up a meeting of his vassal chiefs with khanda nariyal, the distribution of daggers and coconuts. Another affirmation of the Rajput's reverence for his sword was the Karga Shapna ("adoration of the sword") ritual, performed during the annual Navaratri festival, after which a Rajput is considered "free to indulge his passion for rapine and revenge".[27]

By the late 19th century, there was a shift of focus among Rajputs from politics to a concern with kinship.[28] Many Rajputs of Rajasthan are nostalgic about their past and keenly conscious of their genealogy, emphasizing a Rajput ethos that is martial in spirit, with a fierce pride in lineage and tradition.[29]

Rajput diet

The Anthropological Survey of India identified that in Gujarat, Rajputs are 'by and large' non-vegetarians, regular drinkers of alcohol, and also smoke and chew betel leaves.[30] These traits are also followed in Rajputs of Maharashtra with mutton, chicken, fish being consumed; and also pork (which historically dates back to the predilection for Rajput warriors and princes to hone their fighting skills by hunting and eating wild-pig).[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Rajput". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 November 2010. 
  2. ^ Singhji, Virbhadra (1994). The Rajputs of Saurashtra. Popular Prakashan. p. vi. ISBN 978-81-7154-546-9. 
  3. ^ Naravane, M. S.; Malik, V. P. (1999). The Rajputs of Rajputana: a glimpse of medieval Rajasthan. APH Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-7648-118-2. 
  4. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy. "The Hephthalites: Archaeological and Historical Analysis". p. 243. Retrieved 30 April 2013. "As a result of the merging of the Hephthalites and the Gujars with population from northwestern India, the Rajputs (from Sanskrit "rajputra" – "son of the rajah") formed." 
  5. ^ a b Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780803213449. 
  6. ^ Freitag, Jason (2009). Serving empire, serving nation: James Tod and the Rajputs of Rajasthan. BRILL. p. 25. ISBN 978-90-04-17594-5. 
  7. ^ Srivastava, Vijai Shankar (1981). "The story of archaeological, historical and antiquarian researches in Rajasthan before independence". In Prakash, Satya; Śrivastava, Vijai Shankar. Cultural contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash felicitation volume. Abhinav Publications. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-391-02358-1. Retrieved 2011-07-09. 
  8. ^ Meister, Michael W. (1981). "Forest and Cave: Temples at Candrabhāgā and Kansuāñ". Archives of Asian Art (Asia Society) 34: 56–73. Retrieved 2011-07-09. (subscription required)
  9. ^ Freitag, Jason (2009). Serving empire, serving nation: James Tod and the Rajputs of Rajasthan. BRILL. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-90-04-17594-5. 
  10. ^ Bates, Crispin (1995). "Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry". In Robb, Peter. The Concept of Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-19-563767-0. Retrieved 2011-11-30. 
  11. ^ Bingley, A. H. (1986) [1899]. Handbook on Rajputs. Asian Educational Services. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-206-0204-5. 
  12. ^ Claude Markovits (1 January 2002). A History of Modern India, 1480–1950. Anthem Press. pp. 406–. ISBN 978-1-84331-004-4. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  13. ^ Gerald James Larson (1 January 2001). Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment. Indiana University Press. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-253-21480-5. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  14. ^ Bishnu Raj Upreti (10 July 2002). Management of Social and Natural Resource Conflict in Nepal. Pinnacle Technology. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-61820-370-0. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  15. ^ Basu, Pratyusha (2009). Villages, Women, and the Success of Dairy Cooperatives in India: Making Place for Rural Development. Cambria Press. p. 96. ISBN 9781604976250. 
  16. ^ Shail Mayaram (13 August 2013). Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins. Columbia University Press. pp. 269–. ISBN 978-0-231-52951-8. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  17. ^ Rolf Lunheim (1993). Desert people: caste and community--a Rajasthani village. University of Trondheim & Norsk Hydro AS. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Maya Unnithan-Kumar (1997). Identity, Gender, and Poverty: New Perspectives on Caste and Tribe in Rajasthan. Berghahn Books. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-57181-918-5. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  19. ^ Makhan Jha (1 January 1997). Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-81-7533-034-4. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  20. ^ K. S. Singh (1 January 1998). Rajasthan. Popular Prakashan. pp. 276–. ISBN 978-81-7154-766-1. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  21. ^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries. BRILL. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-0-391-04173-8. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  22. ^ Mayaram, Shail (2003). Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins. Columbia University Press. p. 269. 
  23. ^ Lindsey Harlan (1992). Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives. University of California Press. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-0-520-07339-5. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  24. ^ Mazumder, Rajit K. The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab. pp. 99, 105. 
  25. ^ Rand, Gavin (March 2006). "Martial Races and Imperial Subjects: Violence and Governance in Colonial India 1857–1914". European Review of History (Routledge) 13 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1080/13507480600586726. 
  26. ^ Streets, Heather (2004). Martial Races: The military, race and masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857–1914. Manchester University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-7190-6962-8. Retrieved 20 October 2010. 
  27. ^ Narasimhan, Sakuntala (1992). Sati: widow burning in India (Reprinted ed.). Doubleday. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-385-42317-5. 
  28. ^ Kasturi, Malavika (2002). Embattled Identities Rajput Lineages. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-19-565787-X. 
  29. ^ Harlan, Lindsey (1992). Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives. University of California Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-520-07339-8. 
  30. ^ Singh K.S. (2002) People of India: Gujarat Part 3 Vol XXII Anthropological Survey of India. P.1174 . ISBN 81-7991-106-3(3852)
  31. ^ Singh K.S. (2004) People of India: Maharashtra Part 3 Vol XXX Anthropological Survey of India. P.1636 . ISBN 81-7991-102-0(3848)

Further reading

  • M K A Siddiqui (ed.), Marginal Muslim Communities In India, Institute of Objective Studies, New Delhi (2004)
  • Dasharatha Sharma Rajasthan through the Ages a comprehensive and authentic history of Rajasthan, prepared under the orders of the Government of Rajasthan. First published 1966 by Rajasthan Archives.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links