|Rakuten Group kabushiki kaisha|
|Formerly||MDM, Inc. (1997–1999)|
TOPIX Large 70 Component
|Founded||7 February 1997|
|29 countries and regions|
(Chairman and CEO)
|Revenue||JPY¥ 1263.93 billion (2019)|
|JPY¥ 72.75 billion (2019)|
|JPY¥ -33.07 billion (2019)|
Number of employees
Rakuten Group, Inc. (楽天グループ株式会社, Rakuten Group Kabushiki-gaisha) (Japanese pronunciation: [ɾakɯ̥teɴ]), stylized as "Rakuten", is a Japanese electronic commerce and online retailing company based in Tokyo, founded by Hiroshi Mikitani in 1997. Centered around Rakuten Ichiba, its business-to-many EC platform and one of the largest e-commerce sites in Japan, its businesses include financial services utilizing fintech, as well as digital content and communications services such as messaging app Viber, e-book distributor Kobo, and Japan's fourth mobile carrier Rakuten Mobile. Rakuten has 14,826 employees worldwide, operating in 29 countries and regions, and its revenues totaled US$7.2 billion with operating profits of about US$347.9 million as of 2016. It is often referred to as "the Amazon of Japan".
Its major investments include Buy.com (now Rakuten.com in the US), Priceminister (France, now Rakuten.fr), Ikeda, Tradoria, Play.com, Wuaki.tv, Ebates, Viki, The Grommet. The company also has stakes in Ozon.ru, AHA Life, Lyft, Cabify, Careem, Carousell and Acorns.
The services constitute the Internet Services segment are as follows:
- Rakuten Ichiba
- Messaging app
- Food delivery
- Rakuten Delivery
- Travel booking
- Online cash-back
- Internet portal and digital content sites
- Marketing and data analysis
- Online Survey
- Rakuten insight
The FinTech segment operates the following businesses:
- Banking and securities
- Credit cards
- Life insurance
- Digital wallet
The services operating under the Mobile segment are:
- Telecommunications network & sale of mobile devices
- Rakuten Mobile
Early years (1997–1999)
Rakuten was founded as MDM, Inc. by Hiroshi Mikitani on 7 February 1997. The online shopping marketplace Rakuten Shopping Mall (楽天市場, Rakuten Ichiba) was officially launched on May 1, 1997. The company had six employees and the website had 13 merchants.
Harvard-educated former banker Mikitani envisioned the site as an online shopping mall, offering the opposite of what the larger companies like IBM were trying to do with similar services, by offering empowerment to merchants rather than trying to tightly control the virtual storefront. The service was offered for a smaller fee than the larger Internet malls were charging, and merchants were given more control, such as the ability to customize their storefronts on the site.
The company went public through an IPO on the JASDAQ market on April 19, 2000. At the time, the online marketplace had 2,300 stores and 95 million page views per month, making it one of the most popular sites in Japan.
In March 2001, the online hotel reservation service Rakuten Travel was launched.
In April 2002, a new system was introduced for merchants, combining monthly fixed fees with commissions on sales. That November, the Rakuten Super Point Program, a membership loyalty program, was introduced.
In September 2004, Rakuten grew its financial services businesses by acquiring consumer finance company Aozora Card Co., Ltd., later renaming it Rakuten Card Co., Ltd. The company began offering a Rakuten credit card in 2005. By November 2016, the Rakuten card was held by over 13 million people, and nearly 40% of Rakuten's revenue was from financial services, as it was operating Japan's largest Internet bank and third-largest credit company. Rakuten card holders are a part of a point-based membership program, and can use those points to make purchases on the Internet mall. In 2016, the company introduced Rakuten Pay, an app-based smartphone payment system.
In December 2005, Rakuten established the Rakuten Institute of Technology in Tokyo as its department in charge of research and development.
In a joint venture in February 2008, Rakuten and President Chain Store established Rakuten's first e-commerce site outside of Japan with Rakuten Ichiba Taiwan.
In 2011, Rakuten launched Indonesia's Rakuten Belanja Online.
By late 2012, Rakuten had moved into online retail in Austria, Canada, Spain, Taiwan and Thailand and into the online travel markets in France—with Voyager Moins Cher.com—and China, Hong Kong, Korea and Taiwan—with its Tokyo-based international Rakuten Travel platform. In North America, Rakuten Golf made booking tee time online possible. To increase its global competitiveness, and to better incorporate non-Japanese speakers, Rakuten decided to adopt English as the company's official language starting in 2012. By 2016, nearly 40% of the company's engineers in Japan were non-Japanese.
In March 2015, Rakuten announced that it would begin accepting bitcoin across its global marketplaces, shortly after investing in San Francisco–based bitcoin payments-processing startup Bitnet Technologies. Rakuten has been a strong supporter of bitcoin's potential, and was one of the first major companies to accept bitcoin for payment.
In 2016, Rakuten shut down retailing websites in the UK, Spain, Austria, Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia. In that year, the company lost its long status as the largest e-commerce site in Japan to Amazon Japan.
On November 16, 2016, Rakuten announced it had agreed to a four-year partnership with the La Liga football club FC Barcelona, one of the most successful football teams in Europe. The agreement would see Rakuten become FC Barcelona's main global partner beginning with the 2017-18 season, with its name appearing on match-day jerseys. The deal was worth at least €220 million and includes an option for a one-year extension.
Rakuten partnered with California-based Blackstorm Labs to launch an online social gaming platform called R Games in April 2017, going live with 15 free games optimized for smartphones, including Pac-Man and Space Invaders. The games are based on HTML5, which can be played across any device and on any platform, and Rakuten will tap into its worldwide database of 114 million online shoppers. Rakuten plans to integrate R Games into its messaging app Viber.
Rakuten partnered with Walmart for a late push on e-books in January 2018. The company announced plans to launch its own cryptocurrency in March. In May 2018, Rakuten announced the fourth wireless mobile network of Japan, named Rakuten Mobile.
In September 2019, negotiations with Lamigo Monkeys to acquire the team closed successfully. With the sale, Rakuten became the first foreign company to own a Chinese Professional Baseball League team. Terms of the sale were not disclosed. The team name was formally changed to the Rakuten Monkeys on 17 December 2019. New uniforms, similar in design to those of the Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles were released.
In July 2020, Rakuten announced that it would be closing its online shop/marketplace in the United States, which formerly went under the name Buy.com. The marketplace closed to new orders on 15 September, and shut down after all remaining orders have been fulfilled.
In September 2020, Rakuten launched its wireless carrier service's 5G network in some areas in Japan after it has started 4G service in April. The company named its network technology the Rakuten Communications Platform (RCP) which makes use of cloud computing to lower the price and started sales activity abroad, gaining at least fifteen international customers by the spring of 2021.
On September 24, 2020, Rakuten announced that they would shut down their online marketplace in Germany. As of October 15, 2020, they no longer accept new orders while all orders prior to that date were to be fulfilled.
In March 2021, Rakuten announced at a joint press conference attended by CEO Mikitani and the President of Japan Post Holdings that Rakuten would allot a more than 8 percent stake to Japan Post Holdings for 150 billion yen, accepting Japan Post Holdings as the third-largest shareholder after the Mikitani family in the first-ever major capital tie-up for Rakuten, in order to be financially equipped to spend billions on installing telecommunications infrastructure across Japan in competition with rival Amazon Japan. Tencent and Walmart, the previous owner of Seiyu Group now partially-owned by Rakuten, also took stakes of 3.65% and 0.9% respectively.
Acquisitions and investment
In September 2002, the company acquired MyTrip.net, which was merged with Rakuten Travel the following year.
In 2005, Rakuten bought New York City-based LinkShare, later rebranded as Rakuten Marketing then as Rakuten Advertising, offering performance-based online sales and marketing programs. The acquisition spearheaded Rakuten's new global focus.
In October 2005, Rakuten bought a 15% stake in Tokyo Broadcasting System, raising its stake in the broadcaster to 19%. Rakuten later withdrew its bid and sold its shareholding back to Tokyo Broadcasting.
In 2010, Rakuten bought French online retailer PriceMinister for €200 million and US-based Buy.com for US$250 million. The group had been a significant shareholder in Ctrip, a Chinese travel site until it sold its stake in the company in August 2007 and, in 2010, it announced a joint venture with Baidu in China (Lekutian).
In June 2011, Rakuten acquired Brazilian e-commerce firm Ikeda — since renamed Rakuten Brazil. In July, it bought German e-commerce start-up Tradoria and rebranded it Rakuten Deutschland, and in September UK online retailer and e-commerce marketplace Play.com for £25 million (almost $41 million), which was converted into the points-based loyalty program Rakuten.co.uk.
In September 2011, Rakuten took a minority equity stake in Russian online retailer Ozon.ru, dubbed "Russia's Amazon", which had reported 2010 sales worth US$137 million. A four-company-strong consortium, led by the Japanese group, invested US$100 million. Rakuten's stake was not revealed. Rakuten announced an agreement to buy Canadian e-book reader company Kobo from Indigo Books and Music, operated by Heather Reisman (founder, Chair and CEO), in November, with the deal finalized in January 2012. The price was said to be US$315 million.
In July 2012, Rakuten led a $100 million investment in Pinterest, at a $1.5 billion valuation. Its partners were existing investors Andreessen Horowitz, Bessemer Venture Partners, and FirstMark Capital, and a number of investment “angels”. That investment marked the start of a drive to expand Pinterest's presence in Japan and Rakuten's 17 other global markets.
On 13 June 2012, Rakuten bought Wuaki.tv, a Spanish video on demand (VOD) service/company that is one of the largest in Europe and the market leader in Spain; as of July 2017, it has 5 million users across 12 markets in Europe. The purchase opened new opportunities, directly challenging Amazon, Netflix and others for domination of the VOD market, starting in Europe. In July 2017, wuaki.tv was rebranded to Rakuten TV. In November 2012, Rakuten bought French online retail delivery company Alpha Direct Services, to increase speed and quality of delivery.
On 10 October 2012, Rakuten acquired French electronic publishing company Aquafadas via its Kobo subsidiary to strengthen its position in rich media categories. In November 2020, the subsidiary was rebranded as Rakuten DX.
In May 2013, Rakuten acquired a majority share in "citizen commerce" site Daily Grommet, since rebranded as The Grommet. In June 2013, Rakuten announced its acquisition of U.S.-based logistics and services company Webgistix, specializing in fulfillment technology for e-commerce retailers. The acquisition was Rakuten's second logistics investment outside Japan and enables prompt fulfillment in the U.S.
In September 2013, Rakuten acquired Singapore-based video streaming site Viki. In November 2013, Rakuten led a US$800,000 seed round of funding for Singapore-based consumer-to-consumer marketplace app Carousell.
On February 13, 2014, Rakuten announced the acquisition of Tel Aviv-based web messaging company Viber Media for $905 million, to link up messaging with e-commerce. The Viber app is for making phone calls and sending free messages.
On May 29, 2014, Rakuten Marketing acquired DC Storm, a UK-based technology company which specializes in marketing attribution modeling and data-driven marketing.
In August 2014, Rakuten announced its purchase of Slice, a US company that provides online shopping services and sells business intelligence based on digital commerce measurement, for an undisclosed sum.
In September 2014, it was revealed that Rakuten would acquire US rebate site operator Ebates Inc. for approximately US$952 million to give the company more access to US consumers and help it grow abroad, as it takes on rivals such as Amazon.com and Alibaba. Ebates offers coupons and cash rebates to customers who shop at its more than 1,700 partner retailers.
In March 2015, Rakuten announced the acquisition of OverDrive, Inc., a wholesale distributor of e-books and other digital content that serves libraries and retailers, based in Cleveland, Ohio. The acquisition price was $410 million in cash. In 2019 private equity firm KRR announced it would be purchasing Overdrive from Rakuten. In June 2020 the acquisition was finalized.
Since 2015, Rakuten has invested in several ride-hailing services. In March 2015, Rakuten led a $530 million round of venture financing for Lyft, spending $300 million for a 12% stake in the company. In April 2016, Rakuten announced it would invest an additional $92 million in Cabify, which was founded in 2012 in Spain and is one of the largest ride-hailing services in Latin America. Rakuten previously invested $3 million in Cabify in 2015. Rakuten led a $500 million Series E round of funding in Middle Eastern transportation startup Careem, which closed out in June 2017.
In April 2016, Rakuten participated in a $30 million round of financing for investing app Acorns.
In August 2016, Rakuten confirmed that it had acquired the assets of bitcoin wallet startup Bitnet, with the assets to be used to create a research facility, Rakuten Blockchain Lab, based in Belfast that will explore the potential of the blockchain.
In April 2017, Rakuten invested US$2.4 million in Singapore-based MetroResidences, which allows homeowners to rent their properties out to companies and corporate tenants.
In January 2018, the Group purchased Asahi Fire and Marine from Japanese bank Nomura for an estimated 45 billion yen. This will be the first foray for Rakuten into the general insurance market, and Asahi will become a wholly owned subsidiary. The company provides fire, automotive and accident insurance to consumer and corporate clients.
In June 2018, Rakuten purchased Palo Alto based retail pickup startup, Curbside Inc. In October 2018, CafeX Communications announced that Rakuten Communications Corp., the telecommunications company within Japan-based Rakuten Group, has launched 'Connect Live', a cloud service powered by CafeX that enables business users to collaborate more easily in web browsers and mobile devices. Employees, customers and online visitors can simply click a link in a web browser to connect without needing to download new software or step through a sign-in process. Attendees can also join from mobile devices too.
In December 2019, Rakuten was reportedly selling OverDrive to private equity investment firm KKR. The price of the sale was not disclosed, though Rakuten said it would recognize about $365.6 million in profit from the sale in the first quarter of 2020. OverDrive's purchase from Rakuten was engineered by KKR’s Richard Sarnoff, a one-time executive at Random House who also was president of Bertelsmann Digital Media Investments until leaving for KKR in 2011.
In February 2020, Rakuten Marketing was rebranded as Rakuten Advertising. That month, Rakuten also sold its US$1.4 billion worth of stakes in various tech companies, including its entire shares in Pinterest.
In March 2014, the UK-based Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) named the company as the world's biggest online retailer of whale meat and elephant ivory, calling on the company to stop selling the items. As a result of this, in April 2014, Rakuten announced that it was ending all online sales of whale and dolphin meat by the end of the month. In July 2017, Rakuten announced that it was also banning ivory sales on its sites.
- Forbes Top 100 Digital Companies 2019
- Forbes Top Regarded Companies 2019 
- Linkedin Best companies to work for in Japan 2019 
- Forbes World’s Most Innovative Companies 2017 
- Japan Open Tennis Championships
- Rakuten Monkeys
- Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles
- Vissel Kobe
- Yukihiro Matsumoto
- FC Barcelona
- "Earnings Release for Q4 of FY2019 Financial Results (PDF)" - Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Rakuten set to launch a wireless mobile network in Japan - Tamebay". tamebay.com. Retrieved 2019-05-22.
- "Gross Merchandise Sales & Number of Employees", Rakuten
- Andy Gensler, "Napster Partners With Japan's Rakuten Music", Billboard, May 31, 2017.
- Evelyn M. Rusli, "Pinterest on Wish List of Rakuten, Japan's Amazon", The New York Times, July 12, 2012.
- "Rakuten abandonne la marque PriceMinister", Le Monde, November 6, 2019
- Bureau, Telecomdrive (2020-03-28). "Rakuten Joins Open Invention Network". Telecom Drive. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
- "Rakuten, Inc". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
- "The World's Biggest Public Companies: #855 Rakuten", Forbes, May 2017.
- Willis Wee, "The History of Rakuten, Japan's Largest E-Commerce Site", Tech In Asia, June 13, 2011.
- "Our History - Rakuten, Inc".
- "Rakuten". Jeffrey's Japanese English Dictionary Server. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Hiroshi Mikitani, "E-Commerce Lessons From The Early Days Of 'Virtual Shopping Malls'", Fast Company, March 19, 2013.
- Stephanie Strom, "Online Overseas", The New York Times, June 7, 2000.
- Phred Dvorak, "Japan's Highly Popular Rakuten Plans IPO Despite Shaky Market", The Wall Street Journal, April 18, 2000.
- Michiyo Nakamoto, “Rakuten agrees to purchase Aozora Card,”[permanent dead link][permanent dead link] Financial Times, August 30, 2004.
- Kiyoe Minami and Chana R. Schoenberger, "A Taste of What's in Store", Forbes, July 11, 2008.
- Alexander Martin and Takashi Mochizuki, "Rakuten Banks on Credit-Card Business Growth", The Wall Street Journal, November 10, 2016.
- "Profile: Rakuten, Inc."Rakuten abandonne la marque PriceMinister", Bloomberg
- Hiroko Tabuchi, "As War for Web Messaging Users Grows, Rakuten Buys Viber for $900 Million", The New York Times, February 14, 2014.
- ""Rakuten to hold all formal internal meetings in English"". Archived from the original on 2016-03-26. Retrieved 2020-04-23.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Japan Press, May 18, 2010
- "Rakuten to make English official language inside company by end of 2012", The Mainichi Daily News, July 1, 2010 (archived 2010)
- Mayumi Negishi, "Japan's Rakuten Set to Buy U.S. Shopping Website Ebates", The Wall Street Journal, September 7, 2014.
- Patience Haggin, "Why a Japanese E-Tailer Requires Workers to Speak English", The Wall Street Journal, October 2, 2016.
- Jon Russell, "Rakuten Buys Japanese Soccer Team Vissel Kobe, Mirroring Recent Alibaba Move", TechCrunch, December 7, 2014.
- Takashi Mochizuki, "Rakuten Starts Accepting Bitcoin", The Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2015.
- "Amazon's scale in Japan challenges rivals and regulators". FT.
- "Rakuten ups its brand game with €220m Barcelona sponsorship", Financial Times, November 16, 2016.
- Shotaro Tani, "Japan's Rakuten seeks reboot through online gaming", Nikkei Asian Review, April 4, 2017.
- "Rakuten wants to disrupt the App Store", Business Insider, April 5, 2017.
- Darren Rovell, "Warriors sign jersey-patch advertising deal with Rakuten", ESPN, September 12, 2017.
- Corkery, Michael (2018-01-26). "Walmart Makes a Late Entry into the E-Book Market". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Malik, David (March 2, 2018). "Rakuten to launch e-commerce cryptocurrency".
- Shan, Shelley (19 September 2019). "Taoyuan Lamigo Monkeys sold". Taipei Times. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- Yeh, Joseph (19 September 2019). "Rakuten buys Taiwan baseball team, will officially run it next year". Central News Agency. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- Shan, Shelley (20 September 2019). "Lamigo Monkeys officials discuss post-sale future". Taipei Times. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- Hsieh, Ching-wen; Yeh, Joseph (17 December 2019). "Japanese owners rename Taoyuan baseball team Rakuten Monkeys". Central News Agency. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- Coldewey, Devin (30 July 2020). "Rakuten is shuttering the online shop formerly known as Buy.com". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
- "Rakuten is shuttering the online shop formerly known as Buy.com – TechCrunch". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
- Morris, News Analysis Iain; Editor 9/30/2020, International. "Rakuten is off to a slow 5G start". Light Reading. Retrieved 2020-11-17.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Rakuten counts 15 international customers for communications platform". Light Reading. Retrieved 2021-03-13.
- "Rakuten zieht bei deutschem E-Commerce-Marktplatz den Stecker (German)". t3n. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
- "Rakuten lands $2bn in capital from Tencent, Walmart and Japan Post". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 2021-03-13.
- Toto, Serkan, "Japan's Rakuten: Can The Biggest E-Commerce Site You Never Heard Of Become a Threat for Amazon Globally?", TechCrunch, Sunday, July 5th, 2009
- "Rakuten, Leading Japanese E-Commerce Portal, to Acquire LinkShare, Leading U.S. Performance-Based E-Commerce Company", PR Newswire, September 5, 2005
- Hyuga, Takahiko; Sekioka, Tomomi, "Rakuten to Acquire LinkShare for $425 Million", Bloomberg News, September 5, 2005
- "Rakuten LinkShare: Leading Performance Marketing Network Debuts New Logo", Business Wire, Feb 23, 2012
- Wauters, Robin (2010-06-17). "Rakuten to acquire France's PriceMinister for approximately €200 million". TechCrunch (Eu.techcrunch.com). Retrieved 2011-10-04.
- "Buy.com Gets Acquired By Japanese E-Commerce Giant Rakuten For $250 Million". TechCrunch. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
- "Japan's Rakuten to Acquire Buy.com", The Wall Street Journal, May 21, 2010
- Thibault, Marie, "Skyping With a Japanese Billionaire", Forbes, January 28, 2010
- "RAKUTEN starts new business in CHINA with BIDU-O" Archived 2012-04-19 at the Wayback Machine, Japan Press, January 27, 2010
- Published Wednesday, Sep 21 2011, 12:43 BST (2011-09-21). "Play.com bought by Japanese firm Rakuten for £25m — Media News". Digital Spy. Retrieved 2011-10-04.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Ozon.ru wins biggest Russian e-commerce investment, Reuters news agency, 8 September 2011.Retrieved: 27 December 2012.
- "японская школа торговли". Expert Magazine, Russia.
- Trout, Christopher, "Rakuten signs agreement to purchase Kobo", Engadget, Nov 8th 2011
- Martin, Rick, "Japanese Online Retail Giant Rakuten Set to Acquire eBook Service Kobo", Penn-Olson reports, November 9, 2011
- "Indigo Announces Completion of Kobo Sale", Bloomberg, Jan 11th 2012
- "$315-million Kobo takeover deal a windfall for Indigo" – via The Globe and Mail.
- "Exclusive: Japan’s Rakuten Wins the Heart of Pinterest in $100M Funding Race With $1.5B Valuation", All things digital, 17 May 2012
- Paul Sawers, "How Japanese ecommerce giant Rakuten is pushing its brand in the West", VentureBeat, July 24, 2017.
- "Rakuten adquiere Wuaki.tv [Spanish]" Archived 2014-11-15 at the Wayback Machine , Wuaki.tv Blog, 17 June 17, 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012
- Rakuten Acquires Alpha Direct Services, Rakuten corporate blog, 7 November 2012.Retrieved 27 December 2012
- "Kobo Acquires Aquafadas to bring more Comics and Kids Books into Digital Form". goodereader.com. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
- "Rakuten Launches 'Rakuten DX' to Drive Creativity and Innovation in Digital Experiences Ahead of Expected App Boom". MarTech Series. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- Japan's Rakuten Ups Its Stake in the Rebranded Grommet - Kara Swisher - Commerce. AllThingsD (2013-05-14). Retrieved on 2013-09-19.
- Online Marketplaces - Don’t call me ‘daily’: The Grommet drops the chronological element in its rebranding. Internet Retailer. Retrieved on 2013-09-21.
- Rakuten Acquires U.S.-based Logistics Company Webgistix | | Fulfilling eCommerce. Webgistix.com (2013-06-05). Retrieved on 2013-09-19.
- "Rakuten extends its focus on entertainment after buying Singapore-based video service Viki". The Next Web. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
- Catherine Shu, "Marketplace App Carousell Raises $800K Seed Round Led By Rakuten", TechCrunch, November 13, 2013.
- "Japanese Internet Giant Rakuten Acquires Viber For $900M". TechCrunch. February 13, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "Rakuten Marketing Acquires DC Storm for Omni-channel Attribution, Measurement and Tag Management". Reuters. May 29, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- Bensinger, Greg (November 11, 2014). "Japan's Rakuten Buys Startup as It Mulls U.S. Entry". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "Rakuten to Buy OverDrive". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
- "Rakuten Sells Overdrive to Private Investment Firm". The Digital Reader. 2019-12-25. Retrieved 2021-04-09.
- "Rakuten to Move Corporate Headquarters to Accommodate Growth". Rakuten, Inc. Retrieved 2015-12-28.
- Mike Isaac, "Hiroshi Mikitani, Rakuten Founder, Joins Lyft's Board", The New York Times, June 23, 2015.
- Bruce Einhorn, "Japan's Rakuten is dreaming big", The Seattle Times, April 12, 2015.
- Yoko Kubota, "Rakuten Raises Investment in Latin America Ride-Hailing App Cabify", The Wall Street Journal, April 19, 2016.
- Ingrid Lunden, "Uber rival Careem closes $500M raise at $1B+ valuation as Daimler steps in", TechCrunch, June 14, 2017.
- Katie Roof, "PayPal leads $30 million round in Acorns investing app", TechCrunch, April 21, 2016.
- Jon Russell, "Rakuten buys struggling bitcoin startup to create a 'blockchain research lab'", TechCrunch, August 18, 2016.
- Jon Russell, "Rakuten invests $2.8M in 'Airbnb for business travel' startup MetroResidences", TechCrunch, April 10, 2017.
- Rakuten buys Asahi Fire & Marine Insurance from Nomura Holdings for Y45 billion - Japan Times
- Schubarth, Cromwell (8 June 2018). "Japanese e-commerce giant buys Palo Alto retail pickup startup". Silicon Valley Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- "Rakuten Communications Launches Connect Live Video Conferencing… | Virtual-Strategy Magazine". virtual-strategy.com. October 10, 2018.
- Milliot, Jim (26 December 2019). "Equity Firm Agrees to Buy OverDrive". Publishers Weekly.
- "Rakuten Launches Rakuten Advertising as a Premier Destination for Brands to Discover Customers and Engage Audiences". MarTech Series. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
- "Rakuten sells entire Pinterest stake as it offloads tech holdings". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
- "KKR and Rakuten to buy 85% of Seiyu from Walmart". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
- Justin McCurry, "Japan's biggest online retailer, Rakuten, ends whale meat sales", The Guardian, April 4, 2014.
- "Japan's Rakuten retail site bans ivory sales", BBC News, July 7, 2017.
- "Rakuten". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
- Gilchrist, Karen (2019-04-02). "These are the best companies to work for in Japan in 2019, according to LinkedIn". CNBC. Retrieved 2020-06-19.