Raleigh–Durham International Airport

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Raleigh–Durham International Airport
Raleigh-Durham International Airport logo.svg
Raleigh Durham International airport satellite view.png
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorRaleigh–Durham Airport Authority
ServesThe Research Triangle Metropolitan Region of North Carolina
LocationCedar Fork Township, Wake County, North Carolina, U.S.
Focus city forDelta Air Lines
Elevation AMSL435 ft / 133 m
Coordinates35°52′40″N 078°47′15″W / 35.87778°N 78.78750°W / 35.87778; -78.78750
Websiterdu.com
Maps
FAA airport diagram
FAA airport diagram
RDU is located in North Carolina
RDU
RDU
Location of airport in North Carolina/United States
RDU is located in the United States
RDU
RDU
RDU (the United States)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
05L/23R 10,000 3,048 Concrete
05R/23L 7,500 2,286 Asphalt
14/32 3,570 1,088 Asphalt
05L/23R 10,000 3,048 Planned
Statistics (2021)
Passenger movements8,795,128
Aircraft movementsTBA
Sources: RDU website[1]

Raleigh–Durham International Airport (IATA: RDU, ICAO: KRDU, FAA LID: RDU), locally known by its IATA code RDU, is the main airport serving Raleigh, Durham, and the surrounding Research Triangle region of North Carolina. It is located in unincorporated Wake County, but is surrounded by the City of Raleigh to the North and East, and the towns of Cary and Morrisville to the South. The airport covers 5,000 acres (2,000 ha; 20 km2) and has three runways.[2]

In winter of 2021, RDU had passenger service to 42 cities with over 180 average daily departures.[3] The RDU Airport Authority is in charge of the airport facilities and operations and is controlled by a board of representatives from the counties of Wake and Durham and the cities of Raleigh and Durham.[4]

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

Early view of Raleigh–Durham Airport

The region's first airport opened in 1929 as Raleigh's Municipal Airport, south of town at 35°44′06″N 78°39′22″W / 35.735°N 78.656°W / 35.735; -78.656. It was quickly outgrown, and in 1939 the North Carolina General Assembly chartered the Raleigh–Durham Aeronautical Authority to build and operate a larger airport between Raleigh and Durham. This was promoted by Eastern Air Lines, led by then chairman Eddie Rickenbacker who wanted to make RDU a stop on the airline's New York–Miami route.

The new Raleigh–Durham Airport opened on May 1, 1943, with flights by Eastern Airlines. The passenger terminal was built from materials remaining after the construction of four barracks for the Army Air Forces Air Technical Service Command airfield.[5] The three runways the airport had in 1951 are still visible on the southeast side of the airport: 4500-ft runway 5, 4500-ft runway 18 and 4490-ft runway 14.

After World War II, Capital Airlines joined Eastern at RDU; Piedmont Airlines arrived in 1948. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 36 departures a day: twenty Eastern, eight Capital and eight Piedmont. Nonstop flights did not reach beyond Washington, Atlanta, or the Appalachians (but Eastern started a Super Constellation nonstop to Newark in 1958). The next airline (aside from United's takeover of Capital in 1961) was Delta Air Lines in 1970. In April 1969, nonstops didn't reach beyond New York or Atlanta, and Chicago was the only nonstop west of the Appalachians. RDU's first scheduled jets were Eastern 727s in 1965.

In the 1970s, the last decade before airline deregulation, Piedmont connected RDU to Charlotte, Greensboro, New Bern, Norfolk, Richmond, Rocky Mount, Washington, Wilmington and Winston-Salem.[6] United flew to Asheville, Charlotte, Huntsville and Newark,[7] while Eastern flew to Atlanta, Charlotte, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Richmond and Washington,[8] and Delta flew to Chicago and Greensboro.[9]

After deregulation, Allegheny Airlines arrived in 1979, and by 1985 Trans World Airlines, American Airlines, Ozark, People Express, New York Air and Pan Am had all put in appearances.

Hub years[edit]

American built a terminal at RDU between 1985 and 1987 to house a new hub, and flew to 38 cities when the hub started in June 1987.[10] The December 1987 timetable shows AA nonstops to 36 airports and Eagle prop nonstops to 18 more. American later flew to London and Paris.[11] The RDU hub operated at a loss even during its heyday in the early 1990s, like the hub AA then had at Nashville.[12] American's December 1992 timetable, around the time of the hub's peak, showed 211 daily departures to 64 destinations, almost all in the eastern United States (the westernmost destinations being American's hubs at Dallas/Fort Worth and Chicago–O'Hare).[13]

The hub faced intense competition from Delta and Eastern in Atlanta and from USAir in Charlotte, as well as the short-lived Continental hub in Greensboro that opened in 1993.[14] American began to consider closing the hub in late 1993; operations were reduced until June 1995 when American closed the hub.[13][14] Nonetheless, it retained the daily nonstop flight to London, which continues to operate to this day.[15][16]

Midway Airlines replaced AA as the airport's hub carrier from 1995 until 2003.[17] In 1995, Midway had flights to Boston, Hartford, Long Island, Newark, Newburgh, New York, Philadelphia and Washington in the Northeast, and to Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa and West Palm Beach in Florida.[18] American subleased its gates at RDU to Midway in order to repay $113 million in American-guaranteed bonds which had been used to construct the hub facilities.[19] Midway suspended service for some time after the September 11, 2001 attacks, and ceased operations in 2002, filing for bankruptcy in 2003.

Recent history[edit]

RDU's post-hub years have brought the addition of new carriers and destinations, notably discount carriers such as Allegiant Air, Southwest Airlines and Frontier Airlines. Because of the economic downturn and high fuel prices in 2008, American ended most point to point flights it operated out of the airport. Several mainline flights were also dropped and service to other cities was reduced or downgraded. Other airlines also cut flights and destinations including United Airlines and US Airways.

By 2010 RDU's traffic began to recover. In the first few months of the year passenger numbers stabilized at RDU, ending the decrease the airport experienced in 2008 and 2009. In the first four months of 2010 2.7 million passengers traveled through RDU.[20] Growth was flat compared to the same period a year before, but these signs were positive indicating that the decline was over. Airlines at RDU began to add new services to the schedule with both legacy and low-cost carriers significantly increasing service since the early 2010s.

In the 2010s and 2020s, Raleigh-Durham International thrived as a business destination gaining many flights from new, and old airlines. These new flights added included new international destinations such as; Montreal, Paris, and Reykjavík–Keflavík.

Future[edit]

The RDU Airport Authority released its Vision 2040 Master Plan in 2017 detailing the improvements which will be made by 2040. The major projects are the construction of a consolidated rental car facility, an on-site hotel, expansion of parking lots, expansion of both terminals to add gates, improvements to the taxiway layout, and the complete rebuilding of the runways. Runway 5R/23L will be lengthened to 9,000 feet and runway 5L/23R planned to be rebuilt to 11,500 feet just northwest of its current position. The existing runway 5L/23R will become a taxiway for the new runway. Despite these plans, the FAA requested to shorten the runway to 10,000 feet because of the impact of COVID-19 on the aviation industry.[21][22]

In this expansion, dubbed “Vision 2040”, they also plan for at least 23 new gates and expanded security areas. In addition, several taxiway reconstruction projects have taken place and plan for new aircraft aprons, expanded cargo areas, new hangars and of course, new destinations.

Facilities[edit]

Terminal 2

Terminals[edit]

The airport contains two terminals with a total of 45 gates.[23] The two terminals do not have an airside connection; passengers moving between the terminals may ride a shuttle bus or take the moving walkway through the covered parking decks between the terminals. All non pre–cleared international flights are processed in Terminal 2.[23]

  • Terminal 1 contains 9 gates.[23]
  • Terminal 2 contains 36 gates.[23]

Runways[edit]

Raleigh–Durham International Airport has three runways.[24]

Runway Length Width Pavement
5L/23R 10,000 ft
3,000 m
150 ft
46 m
Concrete
5R/23L 7,500 ft
2,300 m
150 ft
46 m
Asphalt
14/32 3,570 ft
1,090 m
100 ft
30 m
Asphalt

Cargo[edit]

The airport incorporates two cargo areas, North Cargo and South Cargo.[25] The North Cargo terminal area is used by cargo airlines. The largest cargo operators are FedEx and UPS. The South Cargo terminal area is used by commercial airlines for cargo operations.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Air Canada Express Montréal–Trudeau (resumes June 1, 2022),[26] Toronto–Pearson [27]
Alaska Airlines Seattle/Tacoma [28]
Allegiant Air Orlando/Sanford, Punta Gorda (FL)
Seasonal: New Orleans, St. Petersburg/Clearwater
[29]
American Airlines Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, London–Heathrow (resumes April 5, 2022),[30] Los Angeles, Miami, Nashville, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Tampa, Washington–National
Seasonal: Cancún
[31]
American Eagle Austin, Nashville, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Tampa, Washington–National
Seasonal: Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Destin/Fort Walton Beach, Miami, Orlando
[31]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Boston (resumes March 7, 2022), Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle (resumes August 3, 2022),[32] Salt Lake City, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa [33]
Delta Connection Austin, Boston (ends June 6, 2022), Chicago–O'Hare (resumes June 6, 2022), Minneapolis/St. Paul, Newark, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia (resumes May 5, 2022), Washington–National [33][34]
Frontier Airlines Atlanta, Denver, Las Vegas, Miami, Orlando, Philadelphia, San Juan
Seasonal: Buffalo, Cancún, Cleveland, Hartford, Portland (ME), Tampa, Trenton
[35]
Icelandair Seasonal: Reykjavik–Keflavik (begins May 12, 2022) [36]
JetBlue Boston, Cancún, Fort Lauderdale, Los Angeles, Newark, New York–JFK [37]
Southwest Airlines Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Chicago–Midway, Dallas–Love, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Nashville, Orlando, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, St. Louis, Tampa [38]
Spirit Airlines Fort Lauderdale, Miami, Orlando [39]
Sun Country Airlines Seasonal: Minneapolis/St. Paul [40]
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Newark, San Francisco, Washington–Dulles
Seasonal: Houston–Intercontinental
[41]
United Express Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles [41]
Domestic Destinations
International Destinations

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis
Seasonal: Greensboro, Harrisburg, Newark, Roanoke, Tampa
FedEx Feeder New Bern, Wilmington (NC)
Quest Diagnostics Charter: Concord, Reading [42][43]
UPS Airlines Baltimore, Buffalo, Edenton, Jacksonville (NC), Louisville, Manteo/Dare County, New Bern, Ontario, Philadelphia, Wilmington (NC)
Seasonal: Charlotte, Columbia, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Miami, Norfolk, Orlando, San Antonio
[44]

Statistics[edit]

Top domestic destinations[edit]

Busiest domestic routes from RDU (November 2020 – October 2021)[45]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Atlanta, Georgia 455,830 Delta, Frontier, Southwest
2 Charlotte, North Carolina 326,940 American
3 Orlando, Florida 234,070 Delta, Frontier, Southwest, Spirit
4 Denver, Colorado 189,250 Frontier, Southwest, United
5 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 173,080 American
6 Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 159,510 American, Delta, United
7 Fort Lauderdale, Florida 148,330 Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit
8 Newark, New Jersey 122,640 Delta, JetBlue, United
9 Miami, Florida 122,440 American, Delta, Frontier, Spirit
10 Boston, Massachusetts 119,040 Delta, JetBlue

Annual traffic[edit]

Annual passenger traffic at RDU airport. See source Wikidata query.
Annual passenger traffic (enplaned + deplaned) at RDU[46]
Year Passengers Year Passengers Year Passengers
1995 5,937,135 2005 9,303,904 2015 9,943,331
1996 6,417,871 2006 9,432,925 2016 11,049,143
1997 6,724,874 2007 10,037,424 2017 11,653,693
1998 7,228,653 2008 9,715,928 2018 12,801,697
1999 8,941,775 2009 8,973,398 2019 14,218,621
2000 10,438,585 2010 9,101,920 2020 4,883,913
2001 9,584,087 2011 9,161,279 2021 8,795,128
2002 8,241,253 2012 9,220,391 2022
2003 7,912,547 2013 9,186,748 2023
2004 8,637,606 2014 9,545,360 2024

Airline market share[edit]

Largest airlines at RDU (October 2020 - September 2021)[47]
Rank Airline Passengers Share
1 Delta Air Lines 1,427,000 20.96%
2 Southwest Airlines 1,220,000 17.92%
3 American Airlines 1,176,000 17.28%
4 Republic Airways 648,000 9.52%
5 United Airlines 503,000 7.39%
6 Other 1,833,000 26.93%

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On January 2, 1953, a USAF Douglas C-47 crashed near RDU attempting to land with rain and low visibility after diverting from Pope AFB in Fayetteville. The aircraft crashed nearly two miles south of the airport in Crabtree Park. Three out of the four occupants died.[48]
  • On Wednesday, November 12, 1975, Eastern Air Lines flight 576, a Boeing 727-225, crashed while attempting to land on runway 23 (now runway 23 Left). The aircraft hit the ground 282 feet short of the runway and bounced back into the air before coming down on the runway and sliding 4,150 feet down the runway, stopping where the south end of Terminal 1 is today. Of the 139 persons on the flight, eight were injured, one seriously. The NTSB investigation initially blamed the crash on "the pilot's failure to execute a missed approach when he lost sight of the runway environment in heavy rain below decision height." The accident report and probable cause were later revised to include the influence of undetected wind shear.[49] The aircraft (Boeing 727-225, N8838E) sustained major damage and was moved to an area on the north end of closed runway 18. A temporary structure was built around the aircraft which was eventually repaired and returned to service.
  • On February 19, 1988, AVAir Flight 3378, a Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner was on a regularly scheduled flight between Raleigh and Richmond operating for American Eagle when it crashed into a reservoir about a mile from the airport, where it had departed in the vicinity of Cary: The aircraft departed during low ceiling, low visibility and night conditions. Analysis of radar data indicated the aircraft was in a 45-degree descending turn. Both crew members and all 10 passengers were killed. It was revealed during the investigation that the pilot had complained of illness but decided to continue the flight.
  • On December 13, 1994, American Eagle Flight 3379 operated by AMR's regional airline Flagship Airlines,[50] a Jetstream 31 was on a regularly scheduled service of Raleigh-Greensboro-Raleigh when it crashed into a wooded area about 4 miles (6.4 km) SW of the airport, in the vicinity of Morrisville. Of the 20 onboard (18 passengers and two crewmembers) 15 were killed while the five survivors received serious injuries. The probable cause of the crash was the pilot not following proper procedure when it came to an engine failure situation.[51]
  • On July 31, 2000, a Win Win Aviation de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter crashed on approach nearly two miles SSW of RDU on a positioning flight due to fog and darkness. The pilot was not instrument rated to fly in bad weather. One crewmember out of the three occupants died.[52]
  • On October 20, 2019, a Piper PA-32 crashed in a wooded area of Umstead State Park on approach to runway 32. Both occupants of the plane died.[53]
  • On January 21, 2022, an Endeavor Air operated Delta Connection flight from Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport slid off the taxiway exiting 05L/23R during a winter storm. 19 passengers and crew were on board and no injuries were reported.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

  1. ^ https://www.rdu.com/rdu-served-8-8-million-travelers-in-2021-an-80-increase-over-2020/?fbclid=IwAR0My7gE91FfSie-0nMJ7lXJm8FOrcFFAfi8ppj70i58mZC9R9AiVmLt0rU
  2. ^ FAA Airport Form 5010 for RDU PDF, effective February 1, 2018.
  3. ^ http://www.rdu.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/Nov-2021-Activity-Report-with-CYTD.pdf
  4. ^ Raleigh-Durham International Airport (January 19, 2017). "2016 Marks All-Time Passenger Record at Raleigh-Durham International Airport | Raleigh-Durham International Airport". Rdu.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  5. ^ Baskas, Harriet (October 11, 2004). "Stuck at the Airport: Raleigh–Durham – Haven for Bibliophiles at RDU". Expedia.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2002. Retrieved September 22, 2008.
  6. ^ "PI121578p22". Archived from the original on March 15, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
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  8. ^ "EA090672p52". Archived from the original on March 15, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
  9. ^ "DL102774p69". Archived from the original on March 15, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
  10. ^ Belden, Tom (August 4, 1987). "American Begins Service To New Hub". Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
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  12. ^ "Future of American's N. C. Hub Is Uncertain". Star-News. Wilmington, NC. November 18, 1991. pp. 2B. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  13. ^ a b "AARDUhub". www.departedflights.com. Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
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  16. ^ Ohnesorge, Lauren. "Why Raleigh-Durham International Airport needs a new GlaxoSmithKline". Triangle Business Journal. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2018. When American Airlines (NYSE: AAL) decided to take a bet on a nonstop flight from Raleigh-Durham International Airport to London decades ago, it was because of one company: Glaxo – now called GlaxoSmithKline (NYSE: GSK).
  17. ^ "Raleigh–Durham, San Jose and Portland Airports: Colourful Pasts and Hope for the Future". Centre for Aviation. March 16, 2010. Archived from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
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  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  26. ^ https://www.bizjournals.com/triangle/news/2021/07/01/rdu-looks-to-warm-locales-as-flights-start-to-come.html[bare URL]
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  29. ^ "Allegiant Air". Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
  30. ^ "American Airlines is restoring 13 international routes next year despite delays in receiving Boeing Dreamliner aircraft — see the full list".
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  32. ^ "Delta delivers more destinations and premium in-flight experiences to Europe next summer".
  33. ^ a b "FLIGHT SCHEDULES". Archived from the original on June 21, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  34. ^ "Delta Cuts Big Into Next Year". August 16, 2021.
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  37. ^ "JetBlue Airlines Timetable". Archived from the original on July 13, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  38. ^ "Check Flight Schedules". Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  39. ^ Ohnesorge, Lauren. "Spirit Airlines to debut at RDU with seven nonstop flights". Triangle Business Journal. BizJournals. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
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  41. ^ a b "Timetable". Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  42. ^ "LBQ825 Quest Diagnostics Flight Tracking and History 09-Jun-2021 (KRDG-KRDU)".
  43. ^ "LBQ825 Quest Diagnostics Flight Tracking and History 09-Jun-2021 (KRDU-KJQF)".
  44. ^ "United Parcel Service 2274 ✈ FlightAware". Flightaware.com. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  45. ^ "RITA – BTS – Transtats". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  46. ^ Raleigh–Durham International Airport. "Statistics – Raleigh–Durham International Airport". Raleigh–Durham International Airport. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  47. ^ "Raleigh/Durham, NC: Raleigh-Durham International (RDU)".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  48. ^ Accident description for 43-15273 at the Aviation Safety Network
  49. ^ "NTSB Aircraft Accident Report" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board.
  50. ^ Harro Ranter (December 13, 1994). "ASN Aircraft accident British Aerospace 3201 Jetstream 32 N918AE Raleigh–Durham Airport, NC (RDU)". Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  51. ^ American Eagle Flight 3379 NTSB Brief Report Archived January 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Accident description for N201RH at the Aviation Safety Network
  53. ^ Stradling, Richard. "Florida couple killed when their RDU-bound plane crashed in Umstead State Park". newsobserver.com. News Observer. Archived from the original on October 21, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.

External links[edit]