Raleigh–Durham International Airport
Raleigh–Durham International Airport
|Owner/Operator||Raleigh–Durham Airport Authority|
|Serves||The Research Triangle Metropolitan Region of North Carolina|
|Location||Cedar Fork Township, Wake County, North Carolina, U.S.|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||435 ft / 133 m|
Raleigh–Durham International Airport (IATA: RDU, ICAO: KRDU, FAA LID: RDU), locally known by its IATA code RDU, is the main airport serving Raleigh, Durham, and the surrounding Research Triangle region of North Carolina. It is located 4 1⁄2 miles (7.2 km) northeast of the town of Morrisville in Wake County. The airport covers 5,000 acres (2,023 ha) and has three runways. The airport has passenger service to 68 destinations with over 450 average daily departures, including nonstop transatlantic service to London and Paris.
In 2018, RDU once again beat its all-time record set in 2017, with 12.8 million passengers traveling through the airport. The RDU Airport Authority is in charge of the airport facilities and its operations and is controlled by a board of representatives from the counties of Wake and Durham and the cities of Raleigh and Durham.
- 1 History
- 2 Facilities
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Statistics
- 5 Accidents and incidents
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The region's first airport opened in 1929 as Raleigh's Municipal Airport, south of town at North Carolina General Assembly chartered the Raleigh–Durham Aeronautical Authority to build and operate a larger airport between Raleigh and Durham. This was promoted by Eastern Air Lines, led by then chairman Eddie Rickenbacker who wanted to make RDU a stop on the airline's New York–Miami route.. It was quickly outgrown, and in 1939 the
The new Raleigh–Durham Airport opened on May 1, 1943 with flights by Eastern Airlines. The passenger terminal was built from materials remaining after the construction of four barracks for the Army Air Forces Air Technical Service Command airfield. The three runways the airport had in 1951 are still visible on the southeast side of the airport: 4500-ft runway 5, 4500-ft runway 18 and 4490-ft runway 14.
After World War II Capital Airlines joined Eastern at RDU; Piedmont Airlines arrived in 1948. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 36 departures a day: twenty Eastern, eight Capital and eight Piedmont. Nonstop flights did not reach beyond Washington, Atlanta, or the Appalachians (but Eastern started a Super Constellation nonstop to Newark in 1958). The next airline (aside from United's takeover of Capital in 1961) was Delta Air Lines in 1970. In April 1969 nonstops didn't reach beyond New York or Atlanta, and Chicago was the only nonstop west of the Appalachians.
In the 1970s, the last decade before airline deregulation, Piedmont connected RDU to Charlotte, Greensboro, New Bern, Norfolk, Richmond, Rocky Mount, Washington, Wilmington and Winston-Salem. United flew to Asheville, Charlotte, Huntsville and Newark, while Eastern flew to Atlanta, Charlotte, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Richmond and Washington, and Delta flew to Chicago and Greensboro.
American built a terminal at RDU between 1985 and 1987 to house a new hub, and flew to 38 cities when the hub started in June 1987. The December 1987 timetable shows AA nonstops to 36 airports and Eagle prop nonstops to 18 more. American later flew to London and Paris. The RDU hub operated at a loss even during its heyday in the early 1990s, like the hub AA then had at Nashville. American's December 1992 timetable, around the time of the hub's peak, showed 211 daily departures to 64 destinations, almost all in the eastern United States (the westernmost destinations being American's hubs at Dallas/Fort Worth and Chicago).
Although the Raleigh–Durham area had growing local traffic, the hub faced competition from Delta and Eastern in Atlanta and from USAir in Charlotte, as well as the short-lived Continental hub in Greensboro that opened in 1993. American began to consider closing the hub in late 1993; operations were reduced until June 1995 when American closed the hub.
Midway Airlines replaced AA as the airport's hub carrier from 1995 until 2003. In 1995, Midway had flights to Boston, Hartford, Long Island, Newark, Newburgh, New York, Philadelphia and Washington in the Northeast, and to Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa and West Palm Beach in Florida. American subleased its gates at RDU to Midway in order to repay $113 million in American-guaranteed bonds which had been used to construct the hub facilities. Midway suspended service for some time after the September 11, 2001 attacks, ceased operations in 2002 and filed for bankruptcy in 2003.
American retained the daily nonstop flight from RDU to London, originally launched to Gatwick Airport in May 1994 with a Boeing 767-200ER. A major customer of the route is British pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline, which has facilities at the Triangle. On March 29, 2008, American shifted the RDU-London flight to Heathrow Airport. The RDU-London flight uses two-class Boeing 777-200ERs.
RDU's post-hub years have brought the addition of new carriers and destinations; notably discount carriers such as Southwest Airlines, Frontier Airlines and Allegiant Air. Because of the economic downturn and high fuel prices in 2008, American ended most point to point flights it operated out of the airport. Several mainline flights were also dropped and service to other cities was reduced or downgraded. Other airlines also cut flights and destinations, including United Airlines and US Airways.
By 2010, RDU's traffic began to recover. In the first few months of the year passenger numbers stabilized at RDU, ending the decrease the airport experienced in 2008 and 2009. In the first four months of 2010, 2.7 million passengers traveled through RDU. Growth was flat, compared to the same period a year before, but these signs were positive, indicating that the decline was over. Airlines at RDU began to add new service to the schedule, with both legacy and low cost carriers significantly increasing service since the early 2010's.
Recently, Delta Air Lines has been steadily building up operations and has declared RDU to be a focus city. Delta is now the largest carrier at RDU and operates 80 flights, including a transatlantic flight to Paris, which began in May 2016.
Raleigh–Durham has finished most of its construction with the completion of the Terminal 1 renovation, leading the airport to have the proper infrastructure until 2040. Nevertheless, the airport still owns nearly 2000 acres of unused land around the airport that it wants to develop. Some ideas for developing that land include an airport hotel, quarry, or warehouse facilities. For air service, the airport is looking at several domestic destinations including Portland and San Diego for new non-stop air service. With the addition of the Paris flight, Raleigh is now looking into a transpacific flight to China, where companies such as Lenovo have frequent business flights.
The RDU Airport Authority released its' Vision 2040 Master Plan in 2017, detailing the improvements which will be made by 2040. The most major projects are the construction of a consolidated rental car facility and an on-site hotel, expansion of parking lots, expansion of both terminals to add gates, improvements to the taxiway layout, and the complete rebuilding of the runways. RDU will have three parallel runways at the completion of vision 2040. Runway 5R/23L will be lengthened to 9,000 feet, runway 5L/23R will be rebuilt to 11,500 feet just northwest of its current position and named 5C/23C, and a new 8,000 foot runway 5L/23R will be built farther northwest.
RDU contains two terminals and three concourses. The two terminals do not have an airside connection, passengers moving between the terminals may ride a shuttle bus or take the moving walkway through the covered parking decks between the terminals.
Terminal 1 occupies the site of the airport's original terminal, which opened in 1955. Expanded in 1972 and again in 1976, the building was named Terminal B in 1982 when the then-new Terminal A opened. The two terminals were connected by a landside interior walkway. Terminal B was closed in 1989. In 1994, Terminal B lost its identity when it was renovated into an extension of Terminal A; an airside walkway was added to link all gates. In 2001 the south end of Terminal A was extended to include five temporary gates; these gates were closed in 2009, as the airlines using them moved to other gates. Terminal A was renamed Terminal 1 on October 26, 2008 to bring RDU in line with terminal naming conventions and to end years of confusion.
After years of proposals, the 1981 part of Terminal 1 was closed in 2012 for a complete renovation. During this time, Southwest and AirTran Airways continued to operate out of the pre-1981 part of Terminal 1. The building reopened on April 13, 2014 with nine gates; Southwest and AirTran Airways occupied the rebuilt terminal. The terminal achieved LEED certification in December 2014. In 2016, the pre-1981 parts of Terminal 1 and the 2001 south-end extension were demolished due to expenses and lack of practical use of these ends of the building.
As of April 2018, Southwest is currently the only airline operating out of Terminal 1, with the exception of its Cancun arrivals due to the lack of a U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility in Terminal 1. All other airlines operate out of Terminal 2.. In 2019, the airport will activate Gates A1-A4 due to massive expansion at the airport and the arrival of new carriers such as Spirit Airlines and ViaAir, although it hasn't been formally announced as of January 2019 what carriers will serve those gates. Southwest currently uses Gates A5-A9.
Terminal 2 occupies the site of the former Terminal C, built between 1985 and 1987 for the American Airlines hub. In planning the terminal, American assumed that only around 20% of passengers would originate or terminate their trips in Raleigh–Durham; rather, Terminal C was optimized for the exchange of passengers between connecting flights, with a relatively small check-in and baggage claim area. In reality, connecting passengers only accounted for around two-thirds of the terminal's passengers. After the American and Midway hubs closed, the airport faced a decision about the future of Terminal C and how to eliminate the inconveniences it imposed on local passengers.
In December 2003, the Airport Authority announced plans to expand and renovate the 300,000 sq ft (28,000 m2) building, transforming it into a new 900,000 sq ft (84,000 m2) facility. In January 2006, the airport instead decided to replace the building entirely.
Terminal 2 was designed by Fentress Architects under a philosophy of contextual regionalism, related to Critical regionalism. The terminal, invoking the flowing hills and culture of North Carolina's Piedmont region, consisted of two phases of construction. The first, larger Phase 1 opened on October 26, 2008 while Phase 2 opened on January 23, 2011 in time for the 2011 NHL All Star Game. Terminal 2 has 36 gates, 4 of which are international gates that can accommodate aircraft up to the Boeing 747. The federal inspection area has 16 stations. As of April 2018, Terminal 2 is used by Alaska, Allegiant, Air Canada Express, American, Delta, Frontier, JetBlue and United. The terminal contains two airport lounges, an Admirals Club operated by American and a Delta Sky Club operated by Delta. A United Club is scheduled to open in Terminal 2 in 2019.
The airport incorporates two cargo areas, North Cargo and South Cargo. The North Cargo terminal area is used by cargo airlines. The largest cargo operators are FedEx and UPS. The South Cargo terminal area is used by commercial airlines for cargo operations.
RDU has three runways. Two parallel runways are designated 5L/23R and 5R/23L, and a cross-wind runway designated 14/32. Both parallel runways have been equipped with LED lights.
- Runway 5L/23R: 10,000 by 150 feet (3,048 m × 46 m) (concrete)
- Runway 5R/23L: 7,500 by 150 feet (2,286 m × 46 m) (asphalt)
- Runway 14/32: 3,570 by 100 feet (1,088 m × 30 m) (asphalt)
Prior to the September 11 attacks in 2001, the RDU Airport Authority and Federal Aviation Administration planned a fourth runway at the airport, but with the demise of the Midway Airlines hub and the airline industry downturn following the terrorist attacks, this plan was placed on hold. During the period between May 27, 2008 and June 24, 2008, and between May 19, 2010 and June 17, 2010, runway 5R/23L was closed for renovation.
Airlines and destinations
|Domestic Destinations map|
|International Destinations map|
|FedEx Express|| Indianapolis, Memphis, New Bern, Wilmington (NC)|
Seasonal: Newark, Norfolk
|UPS Airlines|| Edenton, Jacksonville (NC), Louisville, Manteo/Dare County, Miami, New Bern, Philadelphia, Wilmington (NC)|
Seasonal: Charlotte, Columbia, Greenville/Spartanburg, Norfolk, Orlando
|1||Atlanta, Georgia||687,000||Delta, Southwest|
|2||Charlotte, North Carolina||360,000||American|
|3||Newark, New Jersey||281,000||Delta, United|
|4||Boston, Massachusetts||272,000||Delta, JetBlue|
|5||Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois||271,000||American, United|
|6||Baltimore, Maryland||240,000||Delta, Southwest|
|7||Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas||237,000||American|
|8||New York–LaGuardia, New York||236,000||American, Delta|
|9||New York–JFK, New York||231,000||American, Delta, JetBlue|
|10||Orlando, Florida||231,000||Delta, Frontier, Southwest|
|---||All New York City Airports||748,000||American, Delta, JetBlue, United|
|1||Delta Air Lines||3,912,081||30.56%|
Accidents and incidents
- On February 19, 1988, AVAir Flight 3378, a Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner was on a regularly scheduled flight between Raleigh and Richmond when it crashed into a reservoir about a mile from the airport, where it had departed in the vicinity of Cary: The aircraft departed during low ceiling, low visibility and night conditions. Analysis of radar data indicated the aircraft was in a 45-degree descending turn. Both crew members and all 10 passengers were killed. It was revealed during the investigation that the pilot had complained of illness but decided to continue the flight.
- On December 13, 1994, American Eagle Flight 3379 operated by AMR's regional airline Flagship Airlines, a Jetstream 31 was on a regularly scheduled service of Raleigh-Greensboro-Raleigh when it crashed into a wooded area about 4 miles (6.4 km) SW of the airport, in the vicinity of Morrisville. Of the 20 onboard (18 passengers and 2 crewmembers) 15 were killed while the 5 survivors received serious injuries. The probable cause of the crash was the pilot not following proper procedure when it came to an engine failure situation.
- "Investor Day 2017" (PDF), Delta Air Lines Investor Day, p. 24, retrieved February 1, 2018
- "Frontier Grows in Raleigh-Durham - Now Flying to 15 Destinations" (Press release). Frontier Airlines. 8 February 2018. Retrieved 2018-04-25.[self-published source]
- Raleigh–Durham International Airport. "Statistics – Raleigh–Durham International Airport". Raleigh–Durham International Airport.
- FAA Airport Master Record for RDU ( PDF), effective February 1, 2018.
- "Nonstop Destinations Raleigh–Durham International Airport". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- "RDU Passenger Statistics and Activity Reports". Raleigh–Durham Airport Authority. March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- Raleigh-Durham International Airport (2017-01-19). "2016 Marks All-Time Passenger Record at Raleigh-Durham International Airport | Raleigh-Durham International Airport". Rdu.com. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
- "List of the busiest airports in the United States", Wikipedia, 2018-08-17, retrieved 2018-08-21
- Baskas, Harriet (October 11, 2004). "Stuck at the Airport: Raleigh–Durham – Haven for Bibliophiles at RDU". Expedia.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2002. Retrieved September 22, 2008.
- Belden, Tom (August 4, 1987). "American Begins Service To New Hub". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- "Daily Departures from the Raleigh/Durham Hub 1987-1995". Departed Flights. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "Future of American's N. C. Hub Is Uncertain". Star-News. Wilmington, NC. November 18, 1991. pp. 2B. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- "AARDUhub". www.departedflights.com. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
- Deak, Leslie (January 26, 1995). "American Airlines to eliminate RDU hub". Duke Chronicle. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- "Raleigh–Durham, San Jose and Portland Airports: Colourful Pasts and Hope for the Future". Centre for Aviation. March 16, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- Fins, Antonio (March 16, 1997). "A Tale of 2 Cities ... And The Loss of an Airline Hub". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Trogdon, Kathryn. "RDU-to-London flight upgraded in response to customer demand". News & Observer. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
- Ohnesorge, Lauren. "Why Raleigh-Durham International Airport needs a new GlaxoSmithKline". Triangle Business Journal. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
When American Airlines (NYSE: AAL) decided to take a bet on a nonstop flight from Raleigh-Durham International Airport to London decades ago, it was because of one company: Glaxo – now called GlaxoSmithKline (NYSE: GSK).
- "American Airlines To Serve London via RDU With B-777 Airplane". RDU Airport Authority. December 14, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "RDU's busiest airline expects to get busier. Here's how it could grow at RDU". Retrieved 29 December 2018.
- "Delta Air Lines Begins Nonstop Flights to Paris". Retrieved 29 December 2018.
- "RDU Land Use Planning: Taking The Next Step | RDU Cruising Altitude". Rdublog.com. 2014-03-26. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
- "RDU's Non-Stop Destination Wishlist | RDU Cruising Altitude". Rdublog.com. 2014-03-25. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
- "How RDU plans to score a flight to China". Retrieved 29 December 2018.
- "Map" (PDF). vision2040.rdu.com.
- "RDU Terminal 1 History". Archived from the original on August 22, 2013.
- "RDU could shutter terminal". WRAL. January 30, 2009.
- "Terminal 1 Modernization Project". Archived from the original on April 20, 2013.
- Wallace, Dawn (December 19, 2014). "RDU's Terminal 1 achieves LEED certification". bizjournals.com.
- Saying Goodbye to Terminal 1 North and South, May 9, 2016, retrieved May 9, 2016
- Raleigh-Durham International Airport. "Terminals | Raleigh-Durham International Airport". Rdu.com. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
- Infanger, John F. (May 11, 2010). "The RDU Experience: Phase 2 Expansion Culminates a Decade of Defining the Needs, the Costs". Airport Business. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "RDU Continues Runway Rehabilitation Project" (Press release). Raleigh–Durham Airport Authority. July 1, 2008. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- "Air Canada: Raleigh-Montreal route part of North Carolina expansion". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2018-11-17.
- "Flight Schedules". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Flight Timetable". Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "Allegiant Air". Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- "Flight schedules and notifications". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "FLIGHT SCHEDULES". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Delta adds Raleigh – Chicago service from April 2019". Routes Online. July 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
- "Frontier". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "JetBlue Airlines Timetable". Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- Stradling, Richard. "Soon you'll be able to fly nonstop from RDU to Silicon Valley". newsobserver.com. The News & Observer. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Check Flight Schedules". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- Ohnesorge, Lauren. "Spirit Airlines to debut at RDU with seven nonstop flights". Triangle Business Journal. BizJournals. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Where We Fly". Spirit Airlines. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Timetable". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "RITA – BTS – Transtats". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Raleigh–Durham International Airport. "Statistics – Raleigh–Durham International Airport". Raleigh–Durham International Airport.
- "Raleigh–Durham International Airport Statistics".
- Harro Ranter (December 13, 1994). "ASN Aircraft accident British Aerospace 3201 Jetstream 32 N918AE Raleigh–Durham Airport, NC (RDU)".
- American Eagle Flight 3379 NTSB Brief Report Archived January 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Raleigh-Durham International Airport.|
- Raleigh–Durham International Airport
- RDU Aircraft Noise Program
- "Raleigh–Durham International Airport – RDU" (PDF). at North Carolina DOT airport guide
- (PDF), effective January 31, 2019
- FAA Terminal Procedures for RDU, effective January 31, 2019
- Resources for this airport: