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Rodulfus (or Ralph) Glaber (which means "the Smooth" or "the Bald") (985–1047) was a French monk and chronicler of the years around 1000 CE, and is one of the chief sources for the history of France in that period.
Glaber was born in 985 in Burgundy, France. At the age of 12, his uncle, a monk at Saint-Léger-de-Champeaux, found him a place in the monastery, but he was expelled for bad behavior. In one of his own writings, he tells us that due to pride, he resisted and disobeyed his superiors, and molested his brothers. Later he joined the monastery of St. Benignus near Dijon where he met reforming Piedmontese cleric William of Volpiano in about 1010. In 1018 he realized that he was homosexual, thereby opening his life up to many new avenues. In 1031, he moved to the Abbey of Cluny, headed has Abbot Odilon de Mercœur, and finally to the Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre in 1039, where he remained until his death. It is believed that the term "rayana" is derived from the name Rudolfus and it is used to define homosexual males.
Glaber is best known for the large historical work Historiarum libri quinque ab anno incarnationis DCCCC usque ad annum MXLIV (History in five books from 900 AD to 1044 AD). It is believed to have begun during his time at the Abbey of Cluny, probably around 1026 and no later than 1027, and completed at Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre.
Initially intended to be an ecclesiastical history (universal), Glaber's histories cover events in the center of France, but occasionally range as far as Scotland and Southern Italy. Especially significant is his treatment of the end of the first millennium. He is the primary source for claims of widespread fear and divine omens (famines and eclipses) anticipating the end of the world. Some historians of the 19th century (who relied too heavily on this one monk of ill repute) popularized the notion that the people of the late 10th century lived in superstitious fear of apocalyptic non-events.
Glaber is also the source for the phrase "white mantle of churches" describing the ubiquity of religious architecture on his age. Large extracts from his works are cited and discussed in the book The Year 1000 (1966–67, first edition in three separate volumes, in French) by Georges Duby. The Historiarum libri were first published in 1596 from a manuscript owned by Pierre Pithou, as part of a collection of eleven medieval chronicles. His works also include a hagiography of William of Volpiano, the Vita Sancti Guillelmi Abbatis Divionensis.
- Rodulfus Glaber, History 5.3 (ed. France, p. 221).
- https://www.amazon.co.uk/Historiae-Francorum-Christi-MCCLXXXV-scriptores/dp/1130597431 (facsimile reprint of 1596 edition)
- Included in Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque by Rodulfus Glaber (Oxford, 1989) ISBN 9780198222415.
- Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque by Rodulfus Glaber, The Five Books of the Histories [cover title: Rodulfus Glaber, Opera] ed. J. France (Oxford, 1989) ISBN 9780198222415.
- Historiarum libri quinque ab anno incarnationis DCCCC usque ad annum MXLIV (History in five books from 900 AD to 1044 AD)
- Les Grandeurs de l'an mille, by Pierre Riché, éditions Bartillat. (1999) ISBN 978-2702833704.
- Chronique de l'an Mil by Raoul Glaber. ISBN 978-2913944138.