Sir Ralph Lane
Sir Ralph Lane (c. 1532 – October 1603) was an English explorer of the Elizabethan era. He was part of the unsuccessful attempt in 1585 to colonise Roanoke Island, North Carolina. He also served the Crown in Ireland and was knighted by the Queen in 1593.
Early life and education
It has been theorised that his parents were Sir Ralph Lane of Orlingbury, Hogshaw and Horton, and Maud Parr, a cousin of Catherine Parr, the last queen consort of Henry VIII. However, no evidence has been found to prove this.
The Dictionary of National Biography, published in 1909, states he "may probably be identified with Ralph, the second son of Sir Ralph Lane (d.1541) of Horton, Northamptonshire, by Maud daughter and coheiress of William Lord Parr of Horton and cousin of Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's last queen. (Collins 1768 iii 164) His seal bore the arms of Lane of Horton (Cal State Papers Ireland 15 March 1598–9), and the arms assigned him by Burke quarter these with those of Maud Parr (General Armoury). In his correspondence, he speaks of nephews William and Robert Lane (Cal State Papers Ireland 26 Dec 1592, 7 June 1595), of a kinsman John Durrant (ib) and is associated with a Mr Feilding (ib 23 June 1593), all of whom appear in the Lane pedigree (Blore Hist. and Antig. of Rutlandshire p 169). William Feilding married Dorothy Lane, a daughter of Sir Ralph Lane of Horton, and John Durrant was the husband of Catherine, her first cousin."
Lane began serving the Crown in 1563 as an equerry under Queen Elizabeth I of England. His duties as an officer of the royal household included law enforcement and collection of customs duties. He served against the northern rebels in 1569, was commissioner of piracy in 1571 and a captain in the Netherlands in 1572–3.
Lane is best remembered for his attempt to establish a settlement on Roanoke Island at the request of Sir Walter Raleigh. Queen Elizabeth was looking for places to colonise and the Americas appeared ripe for English expansion. The voyage began on 9 April 1585, when Lane set sail from Plymouth with Raleigh's cousin, Sir Richard Grenville, a sailor who upon return to England wrote a book about his findings in the Chesapeake. The fleet comprised the Tiger (Grenville's), the Roebuck, the Red Lion, the Elizabeth, and the Dorothy. The voyage on the Tiger proved difficult, as Lane quarrelled with the aggressive leadership of Grenville, whom he found a person of intolerable pride and insatiable ambition. Unfortunately, during a severe storm off the coast of Portugal, the Tiger was separated from the rest of the fleet.:57 The Tiger arrived on 11 May to Baye's Muskito  (Guayanilla, Puerto Rico). While waiting for the other ships, Grenville established relations with the Spanish (whilst at the same time participating in privateering against their ships)  and also built a small fortress. The Elizabeth arrived shortly after construction of the fortress.:91
Finally, Grenville tired of waiting for the remaining ships and departed on 7 June. The fort was abandoned and its location is now unknown. When the Tiger sailed through the Ocracoke Inlet on 26 June, she ran aground on a sand bank, ruining most of the food supply. : 63 The expedition managed to repair the ship, and in early July met the Roebuck and Dorothy, which had come to the Outer Banks a few weeks earlier. The Red Lion had accompanied them, but simply landed its passengers and sailed to Newfoundland for privateering.:64 After an initial exploration of the continental coast and its Indian settlements, Grenville accused the natives of one village Aquascogoc of stealing a silver cup and in retaliation looted and burned the village.:72
Despite this incident and the shortage of food, Lane and 107 other settlers were left on Roanoke Island, Virginia on 17 August 1585  to establish a colony on its north end. They built a small fort, probably similar to the one at Guayanilla Bay. Almost immediately, Grenville and his crew set sail for England, promising to return in April 1586 with more men and fresh supplies. Contact was quickly made with the local Native Americans. The English treated them with suspicious harshness; on several occasions the colonists kidnapped Indians to extort supplies or extract information.
April 1586 passed with no news of Grenville. In June, the incident of the stolen cup led to a retaliatory attack against the fort which the settlers were able to repel.: 5 Also in June, Sir Francis Drake arrived at Roanoke and offered Lane and his men a return voyage to England, which Lane readily accepted because of a weakened food supply and increased tensions with local tribes. Drake's fleet reached Portsmouth on 28 July, at which the settlers of Roanoke introduced snuff, corn, and potatoes to England. : 5 The Account of Ralph Lane first appeared in Richard Hakluyt's Principall Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation in 1589.
The Grenville relief fleet arrived shortly after Drake's departure with the settlers. Finding the colony abandoned, Grenville returned to England with the bulk of his force, leaving behind a small detachment to maintain a British presence and protect Raleigh's claim to Virginia.
Lane later participated in other expeditions. In January 1592 he was appointed muster-master general of Ireland and was knighted the following year by Sir William FitzWilliam, the Lord Deputy of Ireland.
- The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558, ed. S.T. Bindoff, 1982. Lane, Ralph (c.1532-1603), of London
- Sir Ralph Lane, 1530-1603, Raleigh's First Roanoke Colony, Boston: Directors of the Old South Work, 1902, Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina Library, accessed 17 Jan 2010
- Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press
- "RALPH LANE". NC Office of Archives and History, 2006. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1892). . Dictionary of National Biography. 32. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 77.
- "LANE, Ralph (c.1528–1603), of London Glendon, Northants. Dublin". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
- Quinn, David B. (February 1985). Set Fair for Roanoke: Voyages and Colonies, 1584-1606. UNC Press Books. ISBN 9780807841235. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "Teacher Handbook to Roanoke Revisited". Fort Raleigh National Historic Site. National Park Service. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Milton, Giles (2001-10-19). Big Chief Elizabeth: The Adventures and Fate of the First English Colonists in America. Macmillan. ISBN 9780312420185. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Lane, Ralph. "The Account by Ralph Lane. An account of the particularities of the imployments of the English men left in Virginia by Richard Greenevill under the charge of Master Ralph Lane Generall of the Same, from the 17. of August 1585. Until the 18. of June 1586. They departed at which time the Countrey; sat and directed to Sir Walter Ralegh". Old South Leaflets (General Series), No. 119. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- Fleming, Walter Lynwood (1909). The South in the Building of the Nation: History of the States. The Southern historical society publication. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
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