Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson ca1857 retouched.jpg
Emerson in 1857
Born (1803-05-25)May 25, 1803
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died April 27, 1882(1882-04-27) (aged 78)
Concord, Massachusetts, U.S.
Residence United States
Nationality American
Era 19th century philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Transcendentalism
Institutions Harvard College
Main interests Individualism, mysticism
Notable ideas Self-reliance, over-soul
Influences
Influenced
Signature Appletons' Emerson Ralph Waldo signature.svg

Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.

Emerson gradually moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries, formulating and expressing the philosophy of Transcendentalism in his 1836 essay, Nature. Following this ground-breaking work, he gave a speech entitled "The American Scholar" in 1837, which Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. considered to be America's "Intellectual Declaration of Independence".[1]

Emerson wrote most of his important essays as lectures first, then revised them for print. His first two collections of essays – Essays: First Series and Essays: Second Series, published respectively in 1841 and 1844 – represent the core of his thinking, and include such well-known essays as Self-Reliance, The Over-Soul, Circles, The Poet and Experience. Together with Nature, these essays made the decade from the mid-1830s to the mid-1840s Emerson's most fertile period.

Emerson wrote on a number of subjects, never espousing fixed philosophical tenets, but developing certain ideas such as individuality, freedom, the ability for humankind to realize almost anything, and the relationship between the soul and the surrounding world. Emerson's "nature" was more philosophical than naturalistic: "Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul." American Philosophy: An Encyclopedia classes him as one of several figures who "took a more pantheist or pandeist approach by rejecting views of God as separate from the world."[2]

He remains among the linchpins of the American romantic movement,[3] and his work has greatly influenced the thinkers, writers and poets that have followed him. When asked to sum up his work, he said his central doctrine was "the infinitude of the private man."[4] Emerson is also well known as a mentor and friend of fellow Transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.[5]

Early life, family, and education[edit]

Emerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on May 25, 1803,[6] son of Ruth Haskins and the Rev. William Emerson, a Unitarian minister. He was named after his mother's brother Ralph and the father's great-grandmother Rebecca Waldo.[7] Ralph Waldo was the second of five sons who survived into adulthood; the others were William, Edward, Robert Bulkeley, and Charles.[8] Three other children—Phebe, John Clarke, and Mary Caroline–died in childhood.[8]

The young Ralph Waldo Emerson's father died from stomach cancer on May 12, 1811, less than two weeks before Emerson's eighth birthday.[9] Emerson was raised by his mother, with the help of the other women in the family; his aunt Mary Moody Emerson in particular had a profound effect on Emerson.[10] She lived with the family off and on, and maintained a constant correspondence with Emerson until her death in 1863.[11]

Emerson's formal schooling began at the Boston Latin School in 1812 when he was nine.[12] In October 1817, at 14, Emerson went to Harvard College and was appointed freshman messenger for the president, requiring Emerson to fetch delinquent students and send messages to faculty.[13] Midway through his junior year, Emerson began keeping a list of books he had read and started a journal in a series of notebooks that would be called "Wide World".[14] He took outside jobs to cover his school expenses, including as a waiter for the Junior Commons and as an occasional teacher working with his uncle Samuel in Waltham, Massachusetts.[15] By his senior year, Emerson decided to go by his middle name, Waldo.[16] Emerson served as Class Poet; as was custom, he presented an original poem on Harvard's Class Day, a month before his official graduation on August 29, 1821, when he was 18.[17] He did not stand out as a student and graduated in the exact middle of his class of 59 people.[18]

In 1826, faced with poor health, Emerson went to seek out warmer climates. He first went to Charleston, South Carolina, but found the weather was still too cold.[19] He then went further south, to St. Augustine, Florida, where he took long walks on the beach, and began writing poetry. While in St. Augustine, he made the acquaintance of Prince Achille Murat. Murat, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was only two years his senior; they became extremely good friends and enjoyed one another's company. The two engaged in enlightening discussions on religion, society, philosophy, and government, and Emerson considered Murat an important figure in his intellectual education.[20]

While in St. Augustine, Emerson had his first experience of slavery. At one point, he attended a meeting of the Bible Society while there was a slave auction taking place in the yard outside. He wrote, "One ear therefore heard the glad tidings of great joy, whilst the other was regaled with 'Going, gentlemen, going'!"[21]

Early career[edit]

Engraved drawing, 1878

After Harvard, Emerson assisted his brother William[22] in a school for young women[23] established in their mother's house, after he had established his own school in Chelmsford, Massachusetts; when his brother William[24] went to Göttingen to study divinity, Emerson took charge of the school. Over the next several years, Emerson made his living as a schoolmaster, then went to Harvard Divinity School. Emerson's brother Edward,[25] two years younger than he, entered the office of lawyer Daniel Webster, after graduating Harvard first in his class. Edward's physical health began to deteriorate and he soon suffered a mental collapse as well; he was taken to McLean Asylum in June 1828 at age 23. Although he recovered his mental equilibrium, he died in 1834 from apparently longstanding tuberculosis.[26] Another of Emerson's bright and promising younger brothers, Charles, born in 1808, died in 1836, also of tuberculosis,[27] making him the third young person in Emerson's innermost circle to die in a period of a few years.

Emerson met his first wife, Ellen Louisa Tucker, in Concord, New Hampshire on Christmas Day, 1827, and married her when she was 18.[28] The couple moved to Boston, with Emerson's mother Ruth moving with them to help take care of Ellen, who was already sick with tuberculosis.[29] Less than two years later, Ellen died at the age of 20 on February 8, 1831, after uttering her last words: "I have not forgotten the peace and joy."[30] Emerson was heavily affected by her death and visited her grave in Roxbury daily.[31] In a journal entry dated March 29, 1832, Emerson wrote, "I visited Ellen's tomb & opened the coffin."[32]

Boston's Second Church invited Emerson to serve as its junior pastor and he was ordained on January 11, 1829.[33] His initial salary was $1,200 a year, increasing to $1,400 in July,[34] but with his church role he took on other responsibilities: he was chaplain to the Massachusetts legislature, and a member of the Boston school committee. His church activities kept him busy, though during this period, facing the imminent death of his wife, he began to doubt his own beliefs.

After his wife's death, he began to disagree with the church's methods, writing in his journal in June 1832: "I have sometimes thought that, in order to be a good minister, it was necessary to leave the ministry. The profession is antiquated. In an altered age, we worship in the dead forms of our forefathers."[35] His disagreements with church officials over the administration of the Communion service and misgivings about public prayer eventually led to his resignation in 1832. As he wrote, "This mode of commemorating Christ is not suitable to me. That is reason enough why I should abandon it."[36][37] As one Emerson scholar has pointed out, "Doffing the decent black of the pastor, he was free to choose the gown of the lecturer and teacher, of the thinker not confined within the limits of an institution or a tradition."[38]

Emerson toured Europe in 1833 and later wrote of his travels in English Traits (1856).[39] He left aboard the brig Jasper on Christmas Day, 1832, sailing first to Malta.[40] During his European trip, he spent several months in Italy, visiting Rome, Florence and Venice, among other cities. When in Rome, he met with John Stuart Mill, who gave him a letter of recommendation to meet Thomas Carlyle. He went to Switzerland, and had to be dragged by fellow passengers to visit Voltaire's home in Ferney, "protesting all the way upon the unworthiness of his memory."[41] He then went on to Paris, a "loud modern New York of a place,"[42] where he visited the Jardin des Plantes. He was greatly moved by the organization of plants according to Jussieu's system of classification, and the way all such objects were related and connected. As Richardson says, "Emerson's moment of insight into the interconnectedness of things in the Jardin des Plantes was a moment of almost visionary intensity that pointed him away from theology and toward science."[43]

Moving north to England, Emerson met William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Thomas Carlyle. Carlyle in particular was a strong influence on Emerson; Emerson would later serve as an unofficial literary agent in the United States for Carlyle, and in March 1835, he tried to convince Carlyle to come to America to lecture.[44] The two would maintain correspondence until Carlyle's death in 1881.[45]

Emerson returned to the United States on October 9, 1833, and lived with his mother in Newton, Massachusetts, until October, 1834, when he moved to Concord, Massachusetts, to live with his step-grandfather Dr. Ezra Ripley at what was later named The Old Manse.[46] Seeing the budding Lyceum movement, which provided lectures on all sorts of topics, Emerson saw a possible career as a lecturer. On November 5, 1833, he made the first of what would eventually be some 1,500 lectures, discussing The Uses of Natural History in Boston. This was an expanded account of his experience in Paris.[47] In this lecture, he set out some of his important beliefs and the ideas he would later develop in his first published essay Nature:

Nature is a language and every new fact one learns is a new word; but it is not a language taken to pieces and dead in the dictionary, but the language put together into a most significant and universal sense. I wish to learn this language, not that I may know a new grammar, but that I may read the great book that is written in that tongue.[48]

On January 24, 1835, Emerson wrote a letter to Lydia Jackson proposing marriage.[49] Her acceptance reached him by mail on the 28th. In July 1835, he bought a house on the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike in Concord, Massachusetts which he named "Bush"; it is now open to the public as the Ralph Waldo Emerson House.[50] Emerson quickly became one of the leading citizens in the town. He gave a lecture to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the town of Concord on September 12, 1835.[51] Two days later, he married Lydia Jackson in her home town of Plymouth, Massachusetts,[52] and moved to the new home in Concord together with Emerson's mother on September 15.[53]

Emerson quickly changed his wife's name to Lidian, and would call her Queenie,[54] and sometimes Asia,[55] and she called him Mr. Emerson.[56] Their children were Waldo, Ellen, Edith, and Edward Waldo Emerson. Ellen was named for his first wife, at Lidian's suggestion.[57]

Emerson was poor when he was at Harvard,[58] and later supported his family for much of his life.[59][60] He inherited a fair amount of money after his first wife's death, though he had to file a lawsuit against the Tucker family in 1836 to get it.[60] He received $11,600 in May 1834,[61] and a further $11,674.49 in July 1837.[62] In 1834, he considered that he had an income of $1,200 a year from the initial payment of the estate,[59] equivalent to what he had earned as a pastor.

Literary career and Transcendentalism[edit]

Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1859

On September 8, 1836, the day before the publication of Nature, Emerson met with Frederic Henry Hedge, George Putnam and George Ripley to plan periodic gatherings of other like-minded intellectuals.[63] This was the beginning of the Transcendental Club, which served as a center for the movement. Its first official meeting was held on September 19, 1836.[64] On September 1, 1837, women attended a meeting of the Transcendental Club for the first time. Emerson invited Margaret Fuller, Elizabeth Hoar and Sarah Ripley for dinner at his home before the meeting to ensure that they would be present for the evening get-together.[65] Fuller would prove to be an important figure in Transcendentalism.

Emerson anonymously published his first essay, Nature, on September 9, 1836. A year later, on August 31, 1837, Emerson delivered his now-famous Phi Beta Kappa address, "The American Scholar",[66] then known as "An Oration, Delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Cambridge"; it was renamed for a collection of essays (which included the first general publication of "Nature") in 1849.[67] Friends urged him to publish the talk, and he did so, at his own expense, in an edition of 500 copies, which sold out in a month.[1] In the speech, Emerson declared literary independence in the United States and urged Americans to create a writing style all their own and free from Europe.[68] James Russell Lowell, who was a student at Harvard at the time, called it "an event without former parallel on our literary annals".[69] Another member of the audience, Reverend John Pierce, called it "an apparently incoherent and unintelligible address".[70]

In 1837, Emerson befriended Henry David Thoreau. Though they had likely met as early as 1835, in the fall of 1837, Emerson asked Thoreau, "Do you keep a journal?" The question went on to have a lifelong inspiration for Thoreau.[71] Emerson's own journal comes to 16 large volumes, in the definitive Harvard University Press edition published between 1960 and 1982. Some scholars consider the journal to be Emerson's key literary work.[72]

In March 1837, Emerson gave a series of lectures on The Philosophy of History at Boston's Masonic Temple. This was the first time he managed a lecture series on his own, and was the beginning of his serious career as a lecturer.[73] The profits from this series of lectures were much larger than when he was paid by an organization to talk, and Emerson continued to manage his own lectures often throughout his lifetime. He would eventually give as many as 80 lectures a year, traveling across the northern part of the United States. He traveled as far as St. Louis, Des Moines, Minneapolis, and California.[74]

On July 15, 1838,[75] Emerson was invited to Divinity Hall, Harvard Divinity School for the school's graduation address, which came to be known as his "Divinity School Address". Emerson discounted Biblical miracles and proclaimed that, while Jesus was a great man, he was not God: historical Christianity, he said, had turned Jesus into a "demigod, as the Orientals or the Greeks would describe Osiris or Apollo".[76] His comments outraged the establishment and the general Protestant community. For this, he was denounced as an atheist,[76] and a poisoner of young men's minds. Despite the roar of critics, he made no reply, leaving others to put forward a defense. He was not invited back to speak at Harvard for another thirty years.[77]

The Transcendental group began to publish its flagship journal, The Dial, in July 1840.[78] They planned the journal as early as October 1839, but work did not begin until the first week of 1840.[79] George Ripley was its managing editor[80] and Margaret Fuller was its first editor, having been hand-chosen by Emerson after several others had declined the role.[81] Fuller stayed on for about two years and Emerson took over, utilizing the journal to promote talented young writers including Ellery Channing and Thoreau.[71]

It was in 1841 that Emerson published Essays, his second book, which included the famous essay, "Self-Reliance".[82] His aunt called it a "strange medley of atheism and false independence", but it gained favorable reviews in London and Paris. This book, and its popular reception, more than any of Emerson's contributions to date laid the groundwork for his international fame.[83]

In January 1842 Emerson's first son Waldo died from scarlet fever.[84] Emerson wrote of his grief in the poem "Threnody" ("For this losing is true dying"),[85] and the essay "Experience". That same month, William James was born, and Emerson agreed to be his godfather.

Bronson Alcott announced his plans in November 1842 to find "a farm of a hundred acres in excellent condition with good buildings, a good orchard and grounds".[86] Charles Lane purchased a 90-acre (360,000 m2) farm in Harvard, Massachusetts, in May 1843 for what would become Fruitlands, a community based on Utopian ideals inspired in part by Transcendentalism.[87] The farm would run based on a communal effort, using no animals for labor; its participants would eat no meat and use no wool or leather.[88] Emerson said he felt "sad at heart" for not engaging in the experiment himself.[89] Even so, he did not feel Fruitlands would be a success. "Their whole doctrine is spiritual", he wrote, "but they always end with saying, Give us much land and money".[90] Even Alcott admitted he was not prepared for the difficulty in operating Fruitlands. "None of us were prepared to actualize practically the ideal life of which we dreamed. So we fell apart", he wrote.[91] After its failure, Emerson helped buy a farm for Alcott's family in Concord[90] which Alcott named "Hillside".[91]

The Dial ceased publication in April 1844; Horace Greeley reported it as an end to the "most original and thoughtful periodical ever published in this country".[92] (An unrelated magazine of the same name would be published in several periods through 1929.)

In 1844, Emerson published his second collection of essays, entitled "Essays: Second Series." This collection included "The Poet," "Experience," "Gifts," and an essay entitled "Nature," a different work from the 1836 essay of the same name.

Emerson made a living as a popular lecturer in New England and much of the rest of the country. He had begun lecturing in 1833; by the 1850s he was giving as many as 80 per year.[93] He addressed the Boston Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge and the Gloucester Lyceum, among others. Emerson spoke on a wide variety of subjects and many of his essays grew out of his lectures. He charged between $10 and $50 for each appearance, bringing him as much as $2,000 in a typical winter "season". This was more than his earnings from other sources. In some years, he earned as much as $900 for a series of six lectures, and in another, for a winter series of talks in Boston, he netted $1,600.[94] He eventually gave some 1,500 lectures in his lifetime. His earnings allowed him to expand his property, buying 11 acres (45,000 m2) of land by Walden Pond and a few more acres in a neighboring pine grove. He wrote that he was "landlord and waterlord of 14 acres, more or less".[90]

Emerson was introduced to Indian philosophy when reading the works of French philosopher Victor Cousin.[95] In 1845, Emerson's journals show he was reading the Bhagavad Gita and Henry Thomas Colebrooke's Essays on the Vedas.[96] Emerson was strongly influenced by the Vedas, and much of his writing has strong shades of nondualism. One of the clearest examples of this can be found in his essay "The Over-soul":

We live in succession, in division, in parts, in particles. Meantime within man is the soul of the whole; the wise silence; the universal beauty, to which every part and particle is equally related, the eternal ONE. And this deep power in which we exist and whose beatitude is all accessible to us, is not only self-sufficing and perfect in every hour, but the act of seeing and the thing seen, the seer and the spectacle, the subject and the object, are one. We see the world piece by piece, as the sun, the moon, the animal, the tree; but the whole, of which these are shining parts, is the soul.[97]

From 1847 to 1848, he toured England, Scotland, and Ireland.[98] He also visited Paris between the French Revolution and the bloody June Days. When he arrived, he saw the stumps where trees had been cut down to form barricades in the February riots. On May 21 he stood on the Champ de Mars in the midst of mass celebrations for concord, peace and labor. He wrote in his journal: "At the end of the year we shall take account, & see if the Revolution was worth the trees."[99] The trip left an important imprint on Emerson's later work. His 1856 book English Traits is based largely on observations recorded in his travel journals and notebooks. Emerson later came to see the American Civil War as a 'revolution' that shared common ground with the European revolutions of 1848.[100]

In February 1852 Emerson and James Freeman Clarke and William Henry Channing edited an edition of the works and letters of Margaret Fuller, who had died in 1850.[101] Within a week of her death, her New York editor Horace Greeley suggested to Emerson that a biography of Fuller, to be called Margaret and Her Friends, be prepared quickly "before the interest excited by her sad decease has passed away".[102] Published with the title The Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli,[103] Fuller's words were heavily censored or rewritten.[104] The three editors were not concerned about accuracy; they believed public interest in Fuller was temporary and that she would not survive as a historical figure.[105] Even so, for a time, it was the best-selling biography of the decade and went through thirteen editions before the end of the century.[103]

Walt Whitman published the innovative poetry collection Leaves of Grass in 1855 and sent a copy to Emerson for his opinion. Emerson responded positively, sending a flattering five-page letter as a response.[106] Emerson's approval helped the first edition of Leaves of Grass stir up significant interest[107] and convinced Whitman to issue a second edition shortly thereafter.[108] This edition quoted a phrase from Emerson's letter, printed in gold leaf on the cover: "I Greet You at the Beginning of a Great Career".[109] Emerson took offense that this letter was made public[110] and later became more critical of the work.[111]

Civil War years[edit]

Emerson was staunchly anti-slavery, but he did not appreciate being in the public limelight and was hesitant about lecturing on the subject. He did, however, give a number of lectures during the pre-Civil War years, beginning as early as November, 1837.[112] A number of his friends and family members were more active abolitionists than he, at first, but from 1844 on, he took a more active role in opposing slavery. He gave a number of speeches and lectures, and notably welcomed John Brown to his home during Brown's visits to Concord.[113] He voted for Abraham Lincoln in 1860, but Emerson was disappointed that Lincoln was more concerned about preserving the Union than eliminating slavery outright.[114] Once the American Civil War broke out, Emerson made it clear that he believed in immediate emancipation of the slaves.[115]

Around this time, in 1860, Emerson published The Conduct of Life, his seventh collection of essays. In this book, Emerson "grappled with some of the thorniest issues of the moment," and "his experience in the abolition ranks is a telling influence in his conclusions."[116] These essays also find Emerson strongly embracing the idea of war as a means of national rebirth: "Civil war, national bankruptcy, or revolution, [are] more rich in the central tones than languid years of prosperity,"[117] Emerson writes.

Emerson visited Washington, D.C, at the end of January 1862. He gave a public lecture at the Smithsonian on January 31, 1862, and declared: "The South calls slavery an institution... I call it destitution... Emancipation is the demand of civilization".[118] The next day, February 1, his friend Charles Sumner took him to meet Lincoln at the White House. Lincoln was familiar with Emerson's work, having previously seen him lecture.[119] Emerson's misgivings about Lincoln began to soften after this meeting.[120] In 1865, he spoke at a memorial service held for Lincoln in Concord: "Old as history is, and manifold as are its tragedies, I doubt if any death has caused so much pain as this has caused, or will have caused, on its announcement."[119] Emerson also met a number of high-ranking government officials, including Salmon P. Chase, the secretary of the treasury, Edward Bates, the attorney general, Edwin M. Stanton, the secretary of war, Gideon Welles, the secretary of the navy, and William Seward, the secretary of state.[121]

On May 6, 1862, Emerson's protégé Henry David Thoreau died of tuberculosis at the age of 44 and Emerson delivered his eulogy. Emerson would continuously refer to Thoreau as his best friend,[122] despite a falling out that began in 1849 after Thoreau published A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.[123] Another friend, Nathaniel Hawthorne, died two years after Thoreau in 1864. Emerson served as one of the pallbearers as Hawthorne was buried in Concord, as Emerson wrote, "in a pomp of sunshine and verdure".[124] He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1864.[125]

Final years and death[edit]

Close up of Emerson's grave

Starting in 1867, Emerson's health began declining; he wrote much less in his journals.[126] Beginning as early as the summer of 1871 or in the spring of 1872, Emerson started having memory problems[127] and suffered from aphasia.[128] By the end of the decade, he forgot his own name at times and, when anyone asked how he felt, he responded, "Quite well; I have lost my mental faculties, but am perfectly well".[129]

Emerson's Concord home caught fire on July 24, 1872; Emerson called for help from neighbors and, giving up on putting out the flames, all attempted to save as many objects as possible.[130] The fire was put out by Ephraim Bull, Jr., the one-armed son of Ephraim Wales Bull.[131] Donations were collected by friends to help the Emersons rebuild, including $5,000 gathered by Francis Cabot Lowell, another $10,000 collected by LeBaron Russell Briggs, and a personal donation of $1,000 from George Bancroft.[132] Support for shelter was offered as well; though the Emersons ended up staying with family at the Old Manse, invitations came from Anne Lynch Botta, James Elliot Cabot, James Thomas Fields and Annie Adams Fields.[133] The fire marked an end to Emerson's serious lecturing career; from then on, he would lecture only on special occasions and only in front of familiar audiences.[134]

While the house was being rebuilt, Emerson took a trip to England, continental Europe, and Egypt. He left on October 23, 1872, along with his daughter Ellen[135] while his wife Lidian spent time at the Old Manse and with friends.[136] Emerson and his daughter Ellen returned to the United States on the ship Olympus along with friend Charles Eliot Norton on April 15, 1873.[137] Emerson's return to Concord was celebrated by the town and school was canceled that day.[128]

In late 1874 Emerson published an anthology of poetry called Parnassus, which included poems by Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Julia Caroline Dorr, Jean Ingelow, Lucy Larcom, Jones Very, as well as Thoreau and several others.[138] The anthology was originally prepared as early as the fall of 1871 but was delayed when the publishers asked for revisions.[139]

The problems with his memory had become embarrassing to Emerson and he ceased his public appearances by 1879. As Holmes wrote, "Emerson is afraid to trust himself in society much, on account of the failure of his memory and the great difficulty he finds in getting the words he wants. It is painful to witness his embarrassment at times".[129] On April 21, 1882, Emerson was found to be suffering from pneumonia.[140] He died on April 27, 1882. Emerson is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, Massachusetts.[141] He was placed in his coffin wearing a white robe given by American sculptor Daniel Chester French.[142]

Lifestyle and beliefs[edit]

Ralph Waldo Emerson in later years

Emerson's religious views were often considered radical at the time. He believed that all things are connected to God and, therefore, all things are divine.[143] Critics believed that Emerson was removing the central God figure; as Henry Ware, Jr. said, Emerson was in danger of taking away "the Father of the Universe" and leaving "but a company of children in an orphan asylum".[144] Emerson was partly influenced by German philosophy and Biblical criticism.[145] His views, the basis of Transcendentalism, suggested that God does not have to reveal the truth but that the truth could be intuitively experienced directly from nature.[146]

Emerson did not become an ardent abolitionist until 1844, though his journals show he was concerned with slavery beginning in his youth, even dreaming about helping to free slaves. In June 1856, shortly after Charles Sumner, a United States Senator, was beaten for his staunch abolitionist views, Emerson lamented that he himself was not as committed to the cause. He wrote, "There are men who as soon as they are born take a bee-line to the axe of the inquisitor... Wonderful the way in which we are saved by this unfailing supply of the moral element".[147] After Sumner's attack, Emerson began to speak out about slavery. "I think we must get rid of slavery, or we must get rid of freedom", he said at a meeting at Concord that summer.[148] Emerson used slavery as an example of a human injustice, especially in his role as a minister. In early 1838, provoked by the murder of an abolitionist publisher from Alton, Illinois named Elijah Parish Lovejoy, Emerson gave his first public antislavery address. As he said, "It is but the other day that the brave Lovejoy gave his breast to the bullets of a mob, for the rights of free speech and opinion, and died when it was better not to live".[147] John Quincy Adams said the mob-murder of Lovejoy "sent a shock as of any earthquake throughout this continent".[149] However, Emerson maintained that reform would be achieved through moral agreement rather than by militant action. By August 1, 1844, at a lecture in Concord, he stated more clearly his support for the abolitionist movement. He stated, "We are indebted mainly to this movement, and to the continuers of it, for the popular discussion of every point of practical ethics".[150]

Emerson may have had erotic thoughts about at least one man.[151] During his early years at Harvard, he found himself attracted to a young freshman named Martin Gay about whom he wrote sexually charged poetry.[58][152] He also had a number of crushes on various women throughout his life,[58] such as Anna Barker[153] and Caroline Sturgis.[154]

Legacy[edit]

~ Ralph Waldo Emerson ~
Issue of 1940

As a lecturer and orator, Emerson—nicknamed the Concord Sage—became the leading voice of intellectual culture in the United States.[155] James Russell Lowell, editor of the Atlantic Monthly and the North American Review, commented in his My Study Windows (1871), that Emerson was not only the “most steadily attractive lecturer in America,” but also “one of the pioneers of the lecturing system.”[156] Herman Melville, who had met Emerson in 1849, originally thought he had "a defect in the region of the heart" and a "self-conceit so intensely intellectual that at first one hesitates to call it by its right name", though he later admitted Emerson was "a great man".[157] Theodore Parker, a minister and Transcendentalist, noted Emerson's ability to influence and inspire others: "the brilliant genius of Emerson rose in the winter nights, and hung over Boston, drawing the eyes of ingenuous young people to look up to that great new start, a beauty and a mystery, which charmed for the moment, while it gave also perennial inspiration, as it led them forward along new paths, and towards new hopes".[158]

Emerson's work not only influenced his contemporaries, such as Walt Whitman and Henry David Thoreau, but would continue to influence thinkers and writers in the United States and around the world down to the present. Notable thinkers who recognize Emerson's influence include Nietzsche and William James, Emerson's godson. "There is little disagreement that Emerson was the most influential writer of 19th-century America, though these days he is largely the concern of scholars. Walt Whitman, Henry David Thoreau and William James were all positive Emersonians, while Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry James were Emersonians in denial — while they set themselves in opposition to the sage, there was no escaping his influence. To T. S. Eliot, Emerson’s essays were an “encumbrance.” Waldo the Sage was eclipsed from 1914 until 1965, when he returned to shine, after surviving in the work of major American poets like Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens and Hart Crane."[159]

In his book The American Religion, Harold Bloom repeatedly refers to Emerson as "The prophet of the American Religion," which in the context of the book refers to indigenously American religions such as Mormonism and Christian Science, which arose largely in Emerson's lifetime, but also to Mainline Protestant churches that Bloom says have become in the United States more gnostic than their European counterparts. In The Western Canon, Harold Bloom compares Emerson to Michel de Montaigne: "The only equivalent reading experience that I know is to reread endlessly in the notebooks and journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, the American version of Montaigne."[160] Several of Emerson's poems were included in Bloom's The Best Poems of the English Language, although he wrote that none of the poems are as outstanding as the best of Emerson's essays, which Bloom listed as Self-Reliance, Circles, Experience, and "nearly all of Conduct of Life". In his belief that line lengths, and rhythms, and phrases are determined by breath Emerson's poetry foreshadowed the theories of Charles Olsen.[161]

Namesakes[edit]

  • In May 2006, 168 years after Emerson delivered his "Divinity School Address," Harvard Divinity School announced the establishment of the Emerson Unitarian Universalist Association Professorship.[162] Harvard has also named a building, Emerson Hall (1900), after him.[163]
  • Emerson Hill, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Staten Island, is named for his eldest brother, Judge William Emerson, who resided there from 1837 to 1864.[164]
  • The Emerson String Quartet, formed in 1976, took their name from Ralph Waldo Emerson.[165]
  • The Ralph Waldo Emerson Prize is awarded annually to high school students for essays on historical subjects.[166]
  • Author Ralph Waldo Ellison (March 1, 1914 – April 16, 1994) was named after Emerson.
  • Emerson High School was opened in Gary, Indiana in September 1908. It was later renamed Emerson School for Visual and Performing Arts. In 2008, the building closed. The visual arts program was moved to a different facility and currently operates under the name "Wirt-Emerson Visual and Performing Arts High Ability Academy".

Selected works[edit]

Representative Men (1850)

Collections

Individual essays

Poems

[167]

Letters

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Richardson, 263
  2. ^ John Lachs and Robert Talisse (2007). American Philosophy: An Encyclopedia. p. 310. ISBN 0415939267. 
  3. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=PsbsX2eycI0C&pg=PR21&lpg=PR21&dq=Emerson+-+linchpin&source=bl&ots=nt0HAnqDqS&sig=ke_dNnWmbXvB2QVR90UhBoHpGa0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=oeRzU72oKYbwoATo1YHQCw&ved=0CGAQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Emerson%20-%20linchpin&f=false
  4. ^ Ward, p. 389.
  5. ^ "Emerson & Thoreau". Wisdomportal.com. 2000-06-06. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  6. ^ Richardson, 18
  7. ^ Allen, 5
  8. ^ a b Baker, 3
  9. ^ McAleer, 40
  10. ^ Richardson, 22–23
  11. ^ Baker, 35
  12. ^ McAleer, 44
  13. ^ McAleer, 52
  14. ^ Richardson, 11
  15. ^ McAleer, 53
  16. ^ Richardson, 6
  17. ^ McAleer, 61
  18. ^ Buell, 13
  19. ^ Richardson, 72
  20. ^ Field, Peter S., Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Making of a Democratic Intellectual, Rowman & Littlefield, 2003, ISBN 0-8476-8843-7, ISBN 978-0-8476-8843-2
  21. ^ Richardson, 76
  22. ^ Richardson, 29
  23. ^ McAleer, 66
  24. ^ Richardson, 35
  25. ^ Richardson, 36–37
  26. ^ Richardson, 37
  27. ^ Richardson, 38–40
  28. ^ Richardson, 92
  29. ^ McAleer, 105
  30. ^ Richardson, 108
  31. ^ Richardson, 116
  32. ^ Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Volume IV: 7
  33. ^ Richardson, 88
  34. ^ Richardson, 90
  35. ^ Sullivan, 6
  36. ^ Packer, 39
  37. ^ Ralph Waldo Emerson, Uncollected prose, The Lord's Supper, 9 September 1832
  38. ^ Ferguson, Alfred R. "Introduction to The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Volume IV". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 1964: xi.
  39. ^ McAleer, 132
  40. ^ Baker, 23
  41. ^ Richardson, 138–
  42. ^ Richardson, 138
  43. ^ Richardson, 143
  44. ^ Richardson, 200
  45. ^ Packer, 40.
  46. ^ Richardson, 182
  47. ^ Richardson, 154
  48. ^ Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Early Lectures 1833–36. Stephen Whicher, ed.. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-674-22150-5
  49. ^ Richardson, 190
  50. ^ Wilson, Susan. Literary Trail of Greater Boston. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000: 127. ISBN 0-618-05013-2
  51. ^ Richardson, 206
  52. ^ Lydia (Jackson) Emerson was a descendant of Abraham Jackson, one of the original proprietors of Plymouth, who married the daughter of Nathaniel Morton, longtime Secretary of the Plymouth Colony.
  53. ^ Richardson, 207–8
  54. ^ "Ideas and Thought". Vcu.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  55. ^ Richardson, 193
  56. ^ Richardson, 192
  57. ^ Baker, 86
  58. ^ a b c Richardson, 9
  59. ^ a b Richardson, 91
  60. ^ a b Richardson, 175
  61. ^ von Frank, 91
  62. ^ von Frank, 125
  63. ^ Richardson, 245
  64. ^ Baker, 53
  65. ^ Richardson, 266
  66. ^ Sullivan, 13
  67. ^ Buell, 45
  68. ^ Watson, Peter. Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005: 688. ISBN 978-0-06-093564-1
  69. ^ Mowat, R. B. The Victorian Age. London: Senate, 1995: 83. ISBN 1-85958-161-7
  70. ^ Menand, Louis. The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001: 18. ISBN 0-374-19963-9
  71. ^ a b Buell, 121
  72. ^ Rosenwald
  73. ^ Richardson, 257
  74. ^ Richardson, 418–422
  75. ^ Packer, 73
  76. ^ a b Buell, 161
  77. ^ Sullivan, 14
  78. ^ Gura, 129
  79. ^ Von Mehren, 120
  80. ^ Slater, Abby. In Search of Margaret Fuller. New York: Delacorte Press, 1978: 61–62. ISBN 0-440-03944-4
  81. ^ Gura, 128–129
  82. ^ [1], Essays: first series, Retrieved April 24, 2010
  83. ^ The Bedside Baccalaureate, David Rubel, ed. (Sterling 2008), p. 153.
  84. ^ Cheever, 93
  85. ^ McAleer, 313
  86. ^ Baker, 218
  87. ^ Packer, 148
  88. ^ Richardson, 381
  89. ^ Baker, 219
  90. ^ a b c Packer, 150
  91. ^ a b Baker, 221
  92. ^ Gura, 130
  93. ^ Richardson, 418
  94. ^ Emerson as Lecturer, R. Jackson Wilson, in The Cambridge Companion to Ralph Waldo Emerson, Cambridge University Press, 1999
  95. ^ Richardson, 114
  96. ^ Sachin N. Pradhan, India in the United States: Contribution of India and Indians in the United States of America, Bethesda, MD: SP Press International, Inc., 1996, p 12.
  97. ^ The Over-Soul from Essays: First Series (1841)
  98. ^ Buell, 31
  99. ^ Allen, Gay Wilson. Waldo Emerson. New York: Penguin Books, 1982: 512–514.
  100. ^ Koch, Daniel. Ralph Waldo Emerson in Europe: Class, Race, and Revolution in the Making of an American Thinker. London: I.B. Tauris, 2012: 181–95.
  101. ^ Baker, 321
  102. ^ Von Mehren, 340
  103. ^ a b Von Mehren, 343
  104. ^ Blanchard, Paula. Margaret Fuller: From Transcendentalism to Revolution. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1987: 339. ISBN 0-201-10458-X
  105. ^ Von Mehren, 342
  106. ^ Kaplan, 203
  107. ^ Callow, Philip. From Noon to Starry Night: A Life of Walt Whitman. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1992: 232. ISBN 0-929587-95-2
  108. ^ Miller, James E., Jr. Walt Whitman. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc. 1962: 27.
  109. ^ Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1995: 352. ISBN 0-679-76709-6.
  110. ^ Callow, Philip. From Noon to Starry Night: A Life of Walt Whitman. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1992: 236. ISBN 0-929587-95-2.
  111. ^ Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1995: 343. ISBN 0-679-76709-6.
  112. ^ Gougeon, 38
  113. ^ Gougeon
  114. ^ McAleer, 569–570
  115. ^ Richardson, 547
  116. ^ Gougeon, 260
  117. ^ Emerson, Ralph Waldo: The Conduct of Life, Boston, MA: Ticknor & Fields, 1860: 230.
  118. ^ Baker, 433
  119. ^ a b Brooks, Atkinson; Mary Oliver (2000). The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. USA: Modern Library. pp. 827, 829. ISBN 978-0-679-78322-0. 
  120. ^ McAleer, 570
  121. ^ Gougeon, 276
  122. ^ Richardson, 548
  123. ^ Packer, 193
  124. ^ Baker, 448
  125. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter E". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  126. ^ Gougeon, 325
  127. ^ Baker, 502
  128. ^ a b Richardson, 569
  129. ^ a b McAleer, 629
  130. ^ Richardson, 566
  131. ^ Baker, 504
  132. ^ Baker, 506
  133. ^ McAleer, 613
  134. ^ Richardson, 567
  135. ^ Richardson, 568
  136. ^ Baker, 507
  137. ^ McAleer, 618
  138. ^ Richardson, 570
  139. ^ Baker, 497
  140. ^ Richardson, 572
  141. ^ Sullivan, 25
  142. ^ McAleer, 662
  143. ^ Richardson, 538
  144. ^ Buell, 165
  145. ^ Packer, 23
  146. ^ Hankins, Barry. The Second Great Awakening and the Transcendentalists. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2004: 136. ISBN 0-313-31848-4
  147. ^ a b McAleer, 531
  148. ^ Packer, 232
  149. ^ Richardson, 269
  150. ^ Lowance, Mason (2000). Against Slavery: An Abolitionist Reader. Penguin Classics. pp. 301–302. ISBN 0-14-043758-4. 
  151. ^ Shand-Tucci, Douglas (2003). The Crimson Letter. New York: St Martens Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0-312-19896-5. 
  152. ^ Kaplan, 248
  153. ^ Richardson, 326
  154. ^ Richardson, 327
  155. ^ Buell, 34
  156. ^ Bosco & Myerson, Emerson in His Own Time, 54
  157. ^ Sullivan, 123
  158. ^ Baker, 201
  159. ^ October 12, 2008, the New York Times.
  160. ^ Bloom, Harold. The Western Canon. London: Papermac. 147–148.
  161. ^ Schmidt, Michael The Lives of the Poets Wiedenfeld & Nicholson , London 1999 ISBN 9780753807453
  162. ^ "Emerson Unitarian Universalist Association Professorship Established at Harvard Divinity School" (Press release). Harvard Divinity School. May 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  163. ^ Department of Philosophy of Harvard University
  164. ^ "Staten Island on the Web: Famous Staten Islanders". Nypl.org. Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  165. ^ "Full Biography 2012–2013 | Emerson String Quartet". Emersonquartet.com. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  166. ^ "Varsity Academics | Home of the Concord Review, the National Writing Board, and the National History Club". Tcr.org. 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2012-10-26. 
  167. ^ The Snow-Storm by Ralph Waldo Emerson. The Poetry Foundation. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.

References[edit]

  • Allen, Gay Wilson (1981). Waldo Emerson. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-74866-8. 
  • Baker, Carlos (1996). Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-86675-X. 
  • Bosco, Ronald A. and Joel Myerson (2006). Emerson Bicentennial Essays. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. ISBN 093490989X. 
  • Bosco, Ronald A. and Joel Myerson (2006). The Emerson Brothers: A Fraternal Biography in Letters. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195-140361. 
  • Bosco, Ronald A. and Joel Myerson (2003). Emerson in His Own Time. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. ISBN 0-87745-842-1. 
  • Bosco, Ronald A. and Joel Myerson (2010). Ralph Waldo Emerson: A Documentary Volume. Detroit: Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780787681692. 
  • Buell, Lawrence (2003). Emerson. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01139-2. 
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1983). Essays and Lectures. New York: Library of America. ISBN 0-940450-15-1. 
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1994). Collected Poems and Translations. New York: Library of America. ISBN 0-940450-28-3. 
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo (2010). Selected Journals: 1820–1842. New York: Library of America. ISBN 1-59853-067-4. 
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo (2010). Selected Journals: 1841–1877. New York: Library of America. ISBN 1-59853-068-2. 
  • Gougeon, Len (2010). Virtue's Hero: Emerson, Antislavery, and Reform. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-3469-3. 
  • Gura, Philip F (2007). American Transcendentalism: A History. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-3477-2. 
  • Kaplan, Justin (1979). Walt Whitman: A Life. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22542-1. 
  • Koch, Daniel R. (2012). Ralph Waldo Emerson in Europe: Class, Race and Revolution in the making of an American Thinker. London: I.B. Tauris. 
  • McAleer, John (1984). Ralph Waldo Emerson: Days of Encounter. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-55341-7. 
  • Myerson, Joel (2000). A Historical Guide to Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512094-9. 
  • Myerson, Joel, Petrolionus, Sandra Herbert, Walls, Laura Dassaw, eds. (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Transcendentalism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-533103-6. 
  • Packer, Barbara L. (2007). The Transcendentalists. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-2958-1. 
  • Porte, Joel & Morris, Saundra, eds. (1999). The Cambridge Companion to Ralph Waldo Emerson. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49946-1. 
  • Richardson, Robert D. Jr. (1995). Emerson: The Mind on Fire. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08808-5. 
  • Rosenwald, Lawrence (1988). Emerson and the Art of the Diary. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505333-8. 
  • Stephen, Leslie (1902). "Emerson". Studies of a Biographer. London: Duckworth & Co. pp. 130–167. 
  • Sullivan, Wilson (1972). New England Men of Letters. New York: The Macmillan Company. ISBN 0-02-788680-8. 
  • von Frank, Albert J. (1994). An Emerson Chronology. New York: G. K. Hall & Co. ISBN 0-8161-7266-8. 
  • Von Mehren, Joan (1994). Minerva and the Muse: A Life of Margaret Fuller. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-015-9. 
  • Ward, Julius H. (1887). The Andover Review. Houghton Mifflin. 

Further reading[edit]

Archival sources[edit]

External links[edit]