Ralte language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ralte
Region India
Ethnicity 34,000 Ralte (2007?)[1]
Native speakers
900 (2007)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ral
Glottolog ralt1242[3]

Ralte is a Kuki-Chin language of India. Fewer than a thousand Ralte people speak the language.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Ralte is spoken in the following locations (Ethnologue).

Vocabulary[edit]

Below are comparative Swadesh lists of Ralte, Mizo, and Tedim from Otsuka (2016).

No. Gloss Ralte Mizo Tedim
1. I kei˩ kei˩˥ kei˩˥
2. thou naŋ˩ naŋ˩˥ naŋ˩˥
3. he a˩maʔ˥ a˥maʔ˩ a˥maʔ˩
4. we kei˩muʔ˥ kei˩nī˥˩ kou˥˩
5. you naŋ˩muʔ˥ naŋ˩nī˥˩ nou˥˩
6. they a˩muʔ˥ an˩nī˥˩ a˥māu˥˩
7. this hī˩hiʔ˥ hei˥˩hi˥ hiʔ˥
8. that tou˩˥hiʔ˩ kʰā˥˩kʰa˥ tuaʔ˥
9. here hi˩tou˥˩vaʔ˩ he˥taʔ˩ hiaʔ˥
10. there tou˥˩vaʔ˩ so˥taʔ˩ huaʔ˥
11. who kū˩˥hā˩˥ tu˩ŋē˥˩ kua˥˩
12. what ī˩˥hā˩˥ e˩ŋē˥˩ baŋ˥˩
13. where kʰoi˥˩aʔ˩hā˩˥ kʰoi˥˩aʔ˩ŋē˥˩ koi˩˥aʔ˩
14. when ī˩˥tik˩lāi˥˩ eŋ˩tik˩lāi˥ cik˩ciaŋ˥˩
15. how ī˩tin˥˩hā˩˥ eŋ˩tin˥ŋē˥˩ baŋ˥˩cī˩
16. not ou˥˩ lou˩ lou˥˩
17. all a˩rēŋ˩in˥˩ a˩vāi˩˥ a˩vek˥pī˩˥
18. many tam˩ tam˩˥ tam˩˥
19. some a˩kʰen˥˩ a˩ṭʰen˥ pōl˧xat˥
20. few tōm˥˩ tlēm˥ tōm˧
21. other daŋ˩ daŋ˩˥ daŋ˩˥
22. one pa˩kʰat˥ pa˩kʰat˩ xat˩
23. two pa˩niʔ˥ pa˩n̥niʔ˩ niʔ˩
24. three pa˩tʰum˥˩ pa˩tʰum˥ tʰum˧
25. four pa˩lī˥˩ pa˩lī˥ lī˧
26. five pa˩ŋā˥˩ pa˩ŋā˥ ŋā˧
27. big lian˩˥ lian˩ lian˥˩
28. long sāu˩ sei˥ sāu˩˥
29. wide zāu˥˩ zāu˥ zai˩˥
30. thick saʔ˩ cʰaʔ˩ saʔ˩
31. heavy hit˩ rit˩ ɡik˩
32. small nēu˩ tē˩˥ nēu˩˥
33. short tōi˩ tōi˩˥ tom˩˥
34. narrow zīm˥˩ zīm˥ toi˩˥
35. thin pan˥˩ pan˥ pā˩˥
36. woman mei˩˥sia˩ m̥mei˩cʰia˥˩ nu˩mei˩
37. man pa˩sal˩ mi˩pā˩ pa˩sal˩˥
38. human mi˩hiŋ˥˩ mi˩ɕiŋ˥ mi˥hiŋ˧
39. child nau˥˩paŋ˩ nau˥paŋ˩˥ nāu˧paŋ˩˥
40. wife zī˥˩ nu˩pui˩˥ zī˧
41. husband pa˩sal˩ pa˩sal˩˥ pa˩sal˩˥
42. mother nū˩ nū˥˩ nū˩˥
43. father pā˩ pā˥˩ pā˩˥
44. animal ham˥˩sā˩ ram˥sā˥˩ ɡam˧sā˩˥
45. fish sa˩ŋā˩ sa˩ŋ̊ŋā˥˩ ŋa˥sā˩˥
46. bird sa˩vā˩ sa˩vā˥˩ va˥sā˩˥
47. dog ui˩ ui˩˥ ui˩˥
48. louse hik˩ ɕik˩ hik˩
49. snake hūl˥˩ rūl˥ ɡūl˧
50. worm caŋ˥˩pāt˩ caŋ˥pāt˩˥ luŋ˩˥
51. tree tʰiŋ˩ tʰiŋ˩˥ siŋ˩˥
52. forest ham˥˩nuai˩ ram˥n̥nuai˩˥ ɡam˧lak˥
53. stick tiaŋ˩ tiaŋ˩˥ ciaŋ˩˥xut˩
54. fruit haʔ˥ raʔ˩ ɡaʔ˩
55. seed cī˩ tʰlāi˩cī˥˩ xāi˥˩cī˩˥
56. leaf naʔ˩ n̥naʔ˩ teʔ˩
57. root zuŋ˩ zuŋ˩˥ zuŋ˩˥
58. bark tʰiŋ˩hōŋ˥˩ tʰiŋ˩hōŋ˥ siŋ˩˥hōŋ˧
59. flower pāk˥˩ paŋ˩pār˥ pāk˧
60. grass kiak˩ l̥lo˥bet˩ lou˧pā˩˥, kiak˩˥
61. rope kʰāu˥˩ ɕui˩zēn˥ xāu˧
62. skin vun˩ vun˩˥ vun˩˥
63. meat sā˩ sā˥˩ sā˩˥
64. blood tʰī˩ tʰī˩˥ sī˩˥
65. bone huʔ˩ ruʔ˩ ɡuʔ˩
66. fat sa˩tʰāu˩˥ sa˩ɕiak˥˩ sa˥tʰāu˥˩
67. egg tui˥˩ tui˥ tūi˧
68. horn kī˩ kī˥˩ kī˩˥
69. tail mei˩ mei˩˥ mei˩˥
70. feather mul˩ m̥mul˩˥ mul˩˥
71. hair sam˩ sam˩˥ sam˩˥
72. head lū˥˩ lū˥ lū˧
73. ear beŋ˥˩ beŋ˥ bil˩˥
74. eye mit˩ mit˩ mit˩
75. nose nāk˩˥ n̥nār˥ nāk˥˩
76. mouth kam˥˩ kā˥ kam˧
77. teeth hā˥˩ hā˥ hā˧
78. tongue lei˥˩ lei˥ lei˧
79. nail tin˩ tin˩˥ cin˩˥
80. foot kēŋ˩pʰaʔ˥ ke˩pʰaʔ˩ xe˩pēk˩˥
81. leg kēŋ˩ kē˩ xē˥˩
82. knee kʰūp˩ kʰūp˥˩ xūk˩˥
83. hand kʰut˩ kut˩ xut˩
84. wing tʰā˩˥ tʰlā˩ xā˥˩
85. belly dul˩˥ dul˩ ɡil˧pī˩˥
86. guts hil˥˩ rīl˥ ɡil˧
87. neck ŋōŋ˥˩ ŋ̊ŋōŋ˥ ŋōŋ˧
88. back nuŋ˥˩zāŋ˥˩ n̥nuŋ˥zāŋ˥ nuŋ˧zāŋ˧
89. breast nōi˩ n̥nu˩tē˩˥ nōi˩˥
90. heart luŋ˥˩ luŋ˥ luŋ˧
91. liver tʰin˩˥ tʰin˩ sin˥˩
92. to drink nē˩ in˥ dōn˧
93. to eat cā˩ ei˥ nē˩˥
94. to bite pet˩ seʔ˩ pet˩
95. to suck cōp˥˩ fōp˥˩ tōp˩˥
96. to spit sia˥˩ cʰāk˥˩ sia˩˥
97. to vomit luak˩ luak˥˩ lua˥˩
98. to blow sēm˥˩ cʰēm˥ mūt˧
99. to breathe tʰō˩ tʰō˥˩ nāk˧
100. to laugh nī˥˩ nui˥ nūi˧
101. to see mū˩˥ m̥mū˩ mū˥˩
102. to hear tʰei˩˥ ɕia˩˥ zā˩˥
103. to know tʰei˩˥ ɕia˩˥ tʰei˥˩
104. to think ŋaiʔ˩tuaʔ˩ ŋaiʔ˩tuaʔ˩ ŋaiʔ˩sun˥˩
105. to smell nam˩˥ n̥nīm˩ nam˥˩
106. to fear lāu˩ l̥lāu˩˥ lāu˩˥
107. to sleep ip˩ mū˥ iʔ˩mū˧
108. to live hiŋ˥˩ ɕiŋ˥ hiŋ˧
109. to die tʰī˥˩ tʰī˥ sī˧
110. to kill tʰat˩ tʰat˩ tʰat˩
111. to fight sual˥˩ sual˥ lāi˩˥, ki˩sual˩˥
112. to hunt ham˥˩ suak˥˩ ram˥ vāk˥˩, ram˥ cʰuak˥˩ ɡam˧ vāk˩˥
113. to hit vua˩˥ vua˩ vua˥˩
114. to cut tan˩ tan˩˥ tan˩˥
115. to split tʰēr˩ tʰlēr˩˥ bāl˩˥kēk˩˥
116. to stab sun˩˥ cʰun˩ sun˥˩
117. to scratch hiat˩ hiat˥˩ xuat˩˥
118. to dig lāi˩˥ lāi˩, cou˩˥ tou˩˥
119. to swim tui˩˥ leuʔ˩ tui˩˥ l̥leuʔ˩ tūi˩˥ pēk˧
120. to fly lēŋ˥˩ tʰlōk˥˩ lēŋ˧
121. to walk lēŋ˥˩ lēŋ˥ lam˩˥ siau˥˩
122. to come hoŋ˩ kel˥˩ lo˩ kal˥ oŋ˩˥ pai˧
123. to lie lum˩˥ lum˩ lum˥˩
124. to sit kʰuŋ˥˩ ṭhū˥ tū˧
125. to stand diŋ˥˩ diŋ˥ diŋ˧
126. to turn vir˩ vir˩˥ pei˩˥
127. to fall tā˩˥ tlā˩ kia˥˩
128. to give pia˩ pē˩ pia˩˥
129. to have nei˩˥ nei˩ nei˥˩
130. to squeeze herˀ˩ herˀ˩ sūk˧
131. to rub nōt˩ nōt˥˩ nōt˩˥
132. to wash sil˩˥ sil˩ sil˩˥
133. to wipe sōp˩ ɕū˩ sōp˩˥
134. to pull pot˩ pot˩ kāi˥˩
135. to push sōn˩ nam˩˥ sōn˩˥
136. to throw dēŋ˥˩ paiʔ˩ dēŋ˧
137. to tie suiʔ˩ suiʔ˩ hēn˧
138. to sew kʰui˥˩ ṭʰui˥ xū˧
139. to count siar˥˩ cʰiar˥ sim˧
140. to say soi˩ soi˩˥ ɡēn˩˥
141. to sing sā˩˥ zāi˥ sā˥˩
142. to play practical jokes ciam˩˥niʔ˩dūn˩˥ in˩fiam˥ ki˩ciam˥˩nui˩˥
143. to float lāŋ˥˩ lāŋ˥ lām˧
144. to flow luaŋ˥˩ luaŋ˥ luaŋ˧
145. to freeze kʰaŋ˩ kʰaŋ˥˩ xal˥˩
146. to swell vūŋ˥˩ vūŋ˥ bōk˧
147. sun nī˥˩ nī˥ nī˧
148. moon tʰā˩˥ tʰlā˩ xā˥˩
149. star āk˥˩sī˩˥ ar˥sī˩ āk˧sī˥˩
150. water tui˩ tui˩˥ tūi˩˥
151. rain huaʔ˩ ruaʔ˩ ɡuaʔ˩
152. river lui˩˥ lui˩ lūi˥˩
153. lake dīl˩ dīl˩˥ tūi˩˥lī˧
154. sea tui˩fin˩riat˩ tui˩fin˥˩riat˥˩ tūi˩˥pī˥
155. salt cī˩˥ cī˩ cī˥˩
156. stone suaŋ˩ luŋ˩˥ suaŋ˩˥
157. sand tiau˥˩ tiau˥ seʔ˩nēl˩˥
158. dust vāi˥˩vut˩ vai˥vut˩ lei˩˥vui˧
159. earth lei˩ lei˩˥ lei˩˥
160. cloud sūm˩ cʰūm˩˥ mei˧
161. fog ro˩˥mei˩ ro˩mei˩˥ xo˥mui˧
162. sky vān˩˥ vān˩ vān˥˩
163. wind tʰī˥˩ tʰlī˥ huiʔ˩
164. snow vūk˥˩ vūr˥ vūk˧
165. ice vūk˩kʰal˩ vūr˥kʰal˥˩ tūi˩˥xal˥˩
166. smoke mei˩kʰū˩ mei˩kʰū˥˩ mei˩˥xū˩˥
167. fire mei˩ mei˩˥ mei˩˥
168. ash vāp˩ vāp˩˥ vut˩
169. to burn kāŋ˩˥ kāŋ˩ kāŋ˥˩
170. road lam˩pui˩ koŋ˥ lam˩˥
171. mountain tāŋ˥˩ tlāŋ˥ mual˧
172. red san˥˩ sen˥ san˧
173. green hiŋ˥˩ ɕiŋ˥ eŋ˧
174. yellow eŋ˥˩ eŋ˥ nāi˧pāk˧
175. white vāk˥˩ vār˥ kāŋ˧
176. black dum˥˩ dum˥ vom˧
177. night zān˩˥ zān˩ zān˥˩
178. day nī˥˩ nī˥ nī˧
179. year kum˩˥ kum˩ kum˥˩
180. warm lum˥˩ lum˥ lum˧
181. cold dāi˩˥ vōt˥˩ vot˩
182. full dim˩ kʰat˩ dim˩˥
183. new tʰar˥˩ tʰar˥ tʰak˥
184. old lui˥˩ hlui˥ lui˧
185. good pʰā˩˥ ṭʰā˩ hoiʔ˩
186. bad sual˩ sual˩˥ sia˩˥
187. rotten muat˩ ṭoiʔ˩ muat˩˥
188. dirty bolˀ˩loʔ˩ bolˀ˩l̥loʔ˩ nīn˥˩
189. straight ŋīl˥˩ ŋīl˥ taŋ˧
190. round bial˥˩ bial˥ bēm˩˥
191. sharp hiam˥˩ ɕiam˥ hiam˧
192. dull bil˩ bil˩˥ mōl˩˥
193. smooth nāl˩ nāl˩˥ nāl˩˥
194. wet nom˥˩ huʔ˩ kōt˩˥
195. dry kou˥˩ rou˥ keu˧
196. correct dik˩ dik˩ mān˧, dik˩
197. near nāi˩ n̥nāi˩˥ nāi˩˥
198. far lam˩lā˩ l̥lā˥ ɡam˧lā˩˥
199. right a˩diŋ˩lam˩ a˩diŋ˩˥lam˩˥ tak˩lam˩˥
200. left a˩vei˩lam˩ a˩vei˩˥lam˩˥ vei˩˥lam˩˥
201. at aʔ˩ aʔ˩ aʔ˩
202. in aʔ˩ aʔ˩ aʔ˩
203. with nēn˩ nēn˩ toʔ˩
204. and leʔ˩ leʔ˩ leʔ˩
205. if cʰun˥˩ cʰuan˥ leʔ˩
206. because a˩vāŋ˩in˥˩ a˥vāŋ˩in˥ a˥hiʔ˩ciaŋ˩˥in˧
207. name miŋ˥˩ m̥miŋ˥ min˧

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ralte (India) at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ Ralte at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ralte". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.