where is the pressure, is the density of the fluid and the relative velocity between the body and the fluid. For example, a meteor traveling through Earth's atmosphere produces a shock wave generated by the extremely rapid compression of air in front of the meteoroid. It is primarily this ram pressure (rather than friction) that heats the air that in turn heats the meteoroid as it flows around it.
- Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology, A Fabian and Lasenby, University of Cambridge Lecture Notes, Michaelmas 2010.
- Plait, p.1
- Grebel, Gallagher, Harbeck, pp.1-15
- Grebel, Eva K.; Gallagher, John S.; Harbeck, Daniel (2003). "The Progenitors of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies". Astronomical Journal. American Astronomical Society. 125 (4): 1926–1939. arXiv:. Bibcode:2003AJ....125.1926G. doi:10.1086/368363. Retrieved Nov 2007. Check date values in:
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