Ramadan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ramaḍan)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ramadan
رمضان
Welcome Ramadhan.jpg
A crescent moon can be seen over palm trees at Manama, marking the beginning of the Islamic month of Ramadan in Bahrain
Observed byMuslims
TypeReligious
CelebrationsCommunity iftars and Community prayers
Observances
BeginsAt the last night of the month of Sha'ban[1]
EndsAt the last night of the month of Ramadan[1]
DateVariable (follows the Islamic lunar calendar)[2][3]
2019 date6 May – 3 June[2][4]
2020 dateevening of 23 April (22 April for Mali; 24 April for Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, India, Iran, Morocco, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, South Africa and Sri Lanka)[5] – 23 May (expected)[2]
Frequencyevery year (lunar calendar)
Related toEid al-Fitr, Laylat al-Qadr

Ramadan (/ˌræməˈdɑːn/, also US: /ˌrɑːm-, ˈræmədɑːn, ˈrɑːm-/,[6][7][8] UK: /ˈræmədæn/;[9] Arabic: رمضان‎, romanizedRamaḍān [ramaˈdˤaːn];[note 1] Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar,[10] observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (sawm), prayer, reflection and community.[11] A commemoration of Muhammad's first revelation,[citation needed] the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam[12] and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next.[13][14]

Fasting from sunrise to sunset is fard (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill, travelling, elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating.[15] The predawn meal is referred to as suhoor, and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called iftar.[16][17] Although fatwa have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca,[18] it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day.[19][20][21]

The spiritual rewards (thawab) of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan.[22] Accordingly, Muslims refrain not only from food and drink, but also tobacco products, sexual relations, and sinful behavior,[23][24] devoting themselves instead to salat (prayer), recitation of the Quran,[25][26] and the performance of charitable deeds[citation needed] as they strive for purity and heightened awareness of God (taqwa).[citation needed]

Etymology[edit]

The word Ramadan derives from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ "scorching heat," "dryness."[27]

History[edit]

Chapter 2, Verse 185 in Arabic.

Muslims hold that all scripture was revealed during Ramadan, the scrolls of Abraham, Torah, Psalms, Gospel, and Quran having been handed down on the first, sixth, twelfth, thirteenth (in some sources, eighteenth)[28] and twenty-fourth Ramadans,[year needed] respectively.[29] Muhammed is said to have received his first quranic revelation on Laylat al-Qadr, one of five odd-numbered nights that fall during the last ten days of Ramadan.[30]

Although Muslims were first commanded to fast in the second year of Hijra (624 CE),[29] they believe that the practice of fasting is not in fact an innovation of monotheism[31] but rather has always been necessary for believers to attain taqwa (the fear of God).[32][Quran 2:183] They point to the fact that the pre-Islamic pagans of Mecca fasted on the tenth day of Muharram to expiate sin and avoid drought.[33] Philip Jenkins argues that the observance of Ramadan fasting grew out of "the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches," a postulation corroborated by other scholars, including theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler,[34][35] but disputed by some Muslim academics.[36]

Important dates[edit]

The first and last dates of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar.[citation needed]

Beginning[edit]

Ramadan beginning dates between Gregorian years 1938 and 2038.

Because Hilāl, the crescent moon, typically occurs approximately one day after the new moon, Muslims can usually estimate the beginning of Ramadan;[37] however, many[who?] prefer to confirm the opening of Ramadan by direct visual observation of the crescent.[38]

Night of Power[edit]

Laylat al-Qadr is considered the holiest night of the year.[39][40] It is generally believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan; the Dawoodi Bohra believe that Laylat al-Qadr was the twenty-third night of Ramadan.[41][42]

Eid[edit]

The holiday of Eid al-Fitr (Arabic:عيد الفطر), which marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of Shawwal, the next lunar month, is declared after a crescent new moon has been sighted or after completion of thirty days of fasting if no sighting of the moon is possible. Eid celebrates of the return to a more natural disposition (fitra) of eating, drinking, and marital intimacy.[43]

Religious practices[edit]

Azim Azimzade. Ramadan of the poor people. 1938

The common practice is to fast from dawn to sunset. The pre-dawn meal before the fast is called the suhur, while the meal at sunset that breaks the fast is called iftar.[citation needed]

Muslims devote more time to prayer and acts of charity, striving to improve their self-discipline, motivated by hadith:[44][45] "When Ramadan arrives, the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of hell are locked up and devils are put in chains."[46]

Fasting[edit]

Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection, self-improvement, and heightened devotion and worship. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam. The fast (sawm) begins at dawn and ends at sunset. In addition to abstaining from eating and drinking during this time, Muslims abstain from sexual relations[3] and sinful speech and behaviour. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the soul by freeing it from harmful impurities. Muslims believe that Ramadan teaches them to practice self-discipline, self-control,[47] sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate, thus encouraging actions of generosity and compulsory charity (zakat).[48]

Exemptions to fasting include travel, menstruation, severe illness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. However, many Muslims with medical conditions[vague][who?] insist on fasting to satisfy their spiritual needs, although it is not recommended by hadith.[citation needed] Those unable to fast are obligated make up the missed days later.[49]

Suhoor[edit]

Each day, before dawn, Muslims observe a pre-fast meal called the suhoor. After stopping a short time before dawn, Muslims begin the first prayer of the day, Fajr.[50][51]

Iftar[edit]

At sunset, families break the fast with the iftar, traditionally opening the meal by eating dates to commemorate Muhammad's practice of breaking the fast with three dates.[citation needed] They then adjourn for Maghrib, the fourth of the five required daily prayers, after which the main meal is served.[52]

Social gatherings, many times in buffet style, are frequent at iftar. Traditional dishes are often highlighted, including traditional desserts, particularly those made only during Ramadan.[example needed] Water is usually the beverage of choice, but juice and milk are also often available, as are soft drinks and caffeinated beverages.[53]

In the Middle East, iftar consists of water, juices, dates, salads and appetizers; one or more main dishes; and rich desserts, with dessert considered the most important aspect of the meal.[citation needed] Typical main dishes include lamb stewed with wheat berries, lamb kebabs with grilled vegetables, and roasted chicken served with chickpea-studded rice pilaf.[citation needed] Desserts may include luqaimat, baklava or kunafeh.[54]

Over time, the practice of iftar has involved into banquets that may accommodate hundreds or even thousands of diners.[55] The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque in Abu Dhabi, the largest mosque in the UAE, feeds up to thirty thousand people every night.[56] Some twelve thousand people attend iftar at the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad.[57]

Iftar serving for fasting people in the Imam Reza shrine

Charity[edit]

Men praying during Ramadan at the Shrine of Ali or "Blue Mosque" in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan

Zakāt, often translated as "the poor-rate", is the fixed percentage of income a believer is required to give to the poor; the practice is obligatory as one of the pillars of Islam. Muslims believe that good deeds are rewarded more handsomely during Ramadan than at any other time of the year; consequently, many[who?] donate a larger portion—or even all—of their yearly zakāt during this month.[citation needed]

Nightly prayers[edit]

Tarawih (Arabic: تراويح‎) are extra nightly prayers performed during the month of Ramadan. Contrary to popular belief, they are not compulsory.[58]

Recitation of the Quran[edit]

Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Quran, which comprises thirty juz' (sections), over the thirty days of Ramadan. Some Muslims incorporate a recitation of one juz' into each of the thirty tarawih sessions observed during the month.[59]

Cultural practices[edit]

In some Islamic countries, lights are strung up in public squares and across city streets,[60][61][62] a tradition believed to have originated during the Fatimid Caliphate, where the rule of Caliph al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah was acclaimed by people holding lanterns.[63]

On the island of Java, many believers bathe in holy springs to prepare for fasting, a ritual known as Padusan.[64] The city of Semarang marks the beginning of Ramadan with the Dugderan carnival, which involves parading the Warak ngendog, a horse-dragon hybrid creature allegedly inspired by the Buraq.[65] In the Chinese-influenced capital city of Jakarta, firecrackers are widely used to celebrate Ramadan, although they are officially illegal.[66] Towards the end of Ramadan, most employees receive a one-month bonus known as Tunjangan Hari Raya.[67] Certain kinds of food are especially popular during Ramadan, such as large beef or buffalo in Aceh and snails in Central Java.[68] The iftar meal is announced every evening by striking the bedug, a giant drum, in the mosque.[69]

Common greetings during Ramadan include Ramadan mubarak and Ramadan kareem.[70]

During Ramadan in the Middle East, a mesaharati beats a drum across a neighbourhood to wake people up to eat the suhoor meal. Similarly in Southeast Asia, the kentongan slit drum is used for the same purpose.

Observance rates[edit]

According to a 2012 Pew Research Centre study, there was widespread Ramadan observance, with a median of 93 percent across the thirty-nine countries and territories studied.[71] Regions with high percentages of fasting among Muslims include Southeast Asia, South Asia, Middle East and North Africa, and most of Sub-Saharan Africa.[71] Percentages are lower in Central Asia and Southeast Europe.[71]

Laws[edit]

In some Muslim countries, failing to observe the Ramadan fast is a crime.[citation needed] The sale of alcohol is prohibited in Egypt.[72] In Kuwait, the penalty for eating, drinking or smoking during daytime is a fine of no more than one hundred Kuwaiti dinar or incarceration for no more than one month, or both.[73][74] In some United Arab Emirates jurisdictions, eating or drinking in public is considered a minor offence punishable by up to one hundred fifty hours of community service.[75] Courts in Saudi Arabia, described by The Economist as taking Ramadan "more seriously than anywhere else",[76] may impose harsher punishments, including flogging, imprisonment and, for foreigners, deportation.[77][78] In Malaysia, breaking the fast prior to sundown may result in arrest by the religious police, while the sale of food, drink, or tobacco for immediate consumption can incur a fine of up to one thousand ringgit and six months' imprisonment, penalties that are doubled for repeat offenses.[79] Courts in Algeria have imposed fines and prison sentences for violations of Ramadan regulations.[80]

Some countries impose modified work schedules. In the UAE, employees may work no more than six hours per day and thirty-six hours per week. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and Kuwait have similar laws.[81]

Health[edit]

Ramadan fasting is safe for healthy people, but those with medical conditions should seek medical advice if they encounter health problems before or during fasting.[82] The fasting period is usually associated with modest weight loss, but weight can return afterwards.[83]

The education departments of Berlin and the United Kingdom have tried to discourage students from fasting during Ramadan, as they claim that not eating or drinking can lead to concentration problems and bad grades.[84][85]

A review of the literature by an Iranian group suggested fasting during Ramadan might produce renal injury in patients with moderate (GFR <60 ml/min) or severe kidney disease but was not injurious to renal transplant patients with good function or most stone-forming patients.[86]

Crime rates[edit]

The correlation of Ramadan with crime rates is mixed: some statistics show that crime rates drop during Ramadan, while others show that it increases. Decreases in crime rates have been reported by the police in some cities in Turkey (Istanbul[87] and Konya[88]) and the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia.[89] A 2005 study found that there was a decrease in assault, robbery and alcohol-related crimes during Ramadan in Saudi Arabia, but only the decrease in alcohol-related crimes was statistically significant.[90] Increases in crime rates during Ramadan have been reported in Turkey,[91] Jakarta,[92][93][94] parts of Algeria,[95] Yemen[96] and Egypt.[97]

Various mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of Ramadan on crime:

  • An Iranian cleric argues that fasting during Ramadan makes people less likely to commit crimes due to spiritual reasons.[98] Gamal al-Banna argues that fasting can stress people out, which can make them more likely to commit crimes. He criticized Muslims who commit crimes while fasting during Ramadan as "fake and superficial".[97]
  • Police in Saudi Arabia attributed a drop in crime rates to the "spiritual mood prevalent in the country".[89]
  • In Jakarta, Indonesia, police say that the traffic due to 7 million people leaving the city to celebrate Eid al-Fitr results in an increase in street crime. As a result, police deploy an additional 7,500 personnel.[94]
  • During Ramadan, millions of pilgrims enter Saudi Arabia to visit Mecca. According to the Yemen Times, such pilgrims are usually charitable, and consequently smugglers traffic children in from Yemen to beg on the streets of Saudi Arabia.[96]

Ramadan in polar regions[edit]

During 2010 Middle East negotiations in the United States, Hosni Mubarak and Benjamin Netanyahu check their watches to see if the Sun has set.

The length of the dawn to sunset time varies in different parts of the world according to summer or winter solstices of the Sun. Most Muslims fast for eleven to sixteen hours during Ramadan. However, in polar regions, the period between dawn and sunset may exceed twenty-two hours in summer. For example, in 2014, Muslims in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Trondheim, Norway, fasted almost twenty-two hours, while Muslims in Sydney, Australia, fasted for only about eleven hours. In areas characterized by continuous night or day, some Muslims follow the fasting schedule observed in the nearest city that experiences sunrise and sunset, while others follow Mecca time.[19][20][21]

Employment during Ramadan[edit]

Muslims continue to work during Ramadan;[citation needed] however, in some Islamic countries, such as Oman and Lebanon, working hours are shortened.[99][100] It is often recommended that working Muslims inform their employers if they are fasting, given the potential for the observance to impact performance at work.[101] The extent to which Ramadan observers are protected by religious accommodation varies by country. Policies putting them at a disadvantage compared to other employees have been met with discrimination claims in the United Kingdom and the United States.[102][103][104]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Arabic phonology, it can be realized as [rɑmɑˈdˤɑːn, ramaˈdˤɑːn, ræmæˈdˤɑːn], depending on the region.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Clark, Malcolm (2003). Islam For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0764555039.
  2. ^ a b c "The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia". Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Ramadan to start May 27 or May 28". aljazeera.com/. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  4. ^ "Gregorian vs Hijri Calendar". islamicfinder.org. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  5. ^ Islamic Crescents Observation Project (ICOP).
  6. ^ "Ramadan". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  7. ^ "Ramadan". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Ramadan". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Ramadan". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  10. ^ BBC – Religions Archived 28 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 25 July 2012
  11. ^ "Ramadan: Fasting and Traditions". Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Schools – Religions". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  13. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  14. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2378". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  15. ^ Fasting (Al Siyam) – الصيام – p. 18, el Bahay el Kholi, 1998
  16. ^ Islam, Andrew Egan – 2002 – p. 24
  17. ^ Dubai – p. 189, Andrea Schulte-Peevers – 2010
  18. ^ "Ramadan in the Farthest North". Saudi Aramco World. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  19. ^ a b See article "How Long Muslims Fast For Ramadan Around The World" -Huffingtonpost.co /31 July 2014 and article "Fasting Hours of Ramadan 2014" -Onislam.net / 29 June 2014 and article "The true spirit of Ramadan" -Gulfnews.com /31 July 2014
  20. ^ a b See article by Imam Mohamad Jebara "The fasting of Ramadan is not meant to punish" https://ottawacitizen.com/opinion/columnists/jebara-the-fasting-of-ramadan-is-not-meant-to-punish Archived 7 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ a b Kassam, Ashifa (3 July 2016). "Arctic Ramadan: fasting in land of midnight sun comes with a challenge". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  22. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  23. ^ Smith, Jane I. (2010). Islam in America. Columbia University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0231147101. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  24. ^ Hotaling, Edward (2003). Islam Without Illusions: Its Past, Its Present, and Its Challenge for the Future. Syracuse University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0815607663. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  25. ^ Abu Dawud-Ibn-Ash'ath-AsSijisstani, Sulayman. "Sunan Abu-Dawud – (The Book of Prayer) – Detailed Injunctions about Ramadan, Hadith 1370". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement of The University of Southern California. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  26. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 199". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  27. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2391". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  28. ^ Aliyev, Rafig Y. (2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1490705217.
  29. ^ a b Aliyev, Rafig Y. (2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 978-1490705217.[self-published source]
  30. ^ Ad-Dausaree, Mahmood Bin Ahmad Bin Saaleh (2006). The Magnificence of Quran. Darussalam Publishers.
  31. ^ Quran Chapter 2, Revelation 183
  32. ^ al-Uthaymeen, Shaikh Saalih. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Islam (Salafi): Sharh Usool ath-Thalatha of Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahaab. Salafi Books.
  33. ^ Aliyev, Rafig Y. (2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-1490705217.[self-published source]
  34. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2006). The New Faces of Christianity: Believing the Bible in the Global South. p. 182. Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.
  35. ^ Chandler, Paul-Gordon (2008). Pilgrims of Christ on the Muslim Road: Exploring a New Path Between Two Faiths. Cowley Publications. p. 88. ISBN 978-0742566033.
  36. ^ Muhammad Mustafa al-Azami, "The History of The Quranic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments", 2nd Edition (2008), Azami Publishing House
  37. ^ Hilal Sighting & Islamic Dates: Issues and Solution Insha'Allaah Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Hilal Sighting Committee of North America (website Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine). Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  38. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  39. ^ Robinson, Neal (1999). Islam: A Concise Introduction. Washington: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-224-3.
  40. ^ Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  41. ^ Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 032 (Praying at Night during Ramadhan), Hadith 238". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  42. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2632". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  43. ^ "Ruling on Voluntary Fasting After The Month of Ramadan: Eid Day(s) And Ash-Shawaal". EsinIslam, Arab News & Information – By Adil Salahi. 11 September 2010. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  44. ^ "Book of Fasting – Sahih al-Bukhari – Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  45. ^ "Sahih Muslim Book 006, Hadith Number 2361". Hadith Collection. Archived from the original on 4 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  46. ^ "Muslims observe Ramadan, clerics explain significance". Guardian News, Nigeria. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  47. ^ Why Ramadan brings us together Archived 30 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine; BBC, 1 September 2008
  48. ^ Help for the Heavy at Ramadan Archived 20 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, 27 September 2008
  49. ^ Quran 2:184
  50. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain (2009). "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2415". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  51. ^ Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad (2009). "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 144". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  52. ^ Fletcher Stoeltje, Melissa (22 August 2009). "Muslims fast and feast as Ramadan begins". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  53. ^ El-Zibdeh, Dr. Nour. "Understanding Muslim Fasting Practices". todaysdietitian.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  54. ^ Levy, Faye; Levy, Yakir (21 July 2012). "Ramadan's high note is often a dip". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  55. ^ Davis, James D. (8 August 2010). "Ramadan: Muslims feast and fast during holy month". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  56. ^ "Abu Dhabi's Grand Mosque feeds 30,000 during Ramadan". euronews.com. Euro News. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  57. ^ Ahmadi, Gisoo Misha (11 July 2015). "Iran's Mashhad hosts biggest "Iftar" in world". presstv.com. Presstv. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  58. ^ "Tarawih Prayer a Nafl or Sunnah". Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  59. ^ Underst, Huda Huda is the author of "The Everything; Complete, ing Islam Book: A.; Beliefs, Easy to Read Guide to Muslim; Practices; Traditions; Culture.". "How Do Muslims Celebrate Ramadan?". Learn Religions. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  60. ^ "Muslims begin fasting for Ramadan". ABC News. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  61. ^ Taryam Al Subaihi (29 July 2012). "The spirit of Ramadan is here, but why is it still so dark?". The National. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  62. ^ Cochran, Sylvia (8 August 2011). "How to decorate for Ramadan". Yahoo-Shine. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  63. ^ Harrison, Peter (9 June 2016). "How did the Ramadan lantern become a symbol of the holy month?". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  64. ^ "This Is How Indonesia Welcomes Ramadan". Jakarta Globe. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  65. ^ "Tradisi Dugderan di Kota Semarang". Mata Sejarah (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  66. ^ Sims, Calvin (19 December 2000). "Jakarta Journal; It's Ramadan. School Is Out. Quick, the Earplugs!". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  67. ^ "Understanding the Religious Holiday Allowance THR in Indonesia". Emerhub. 6 December 2018. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  68. ^ Maryono, Agus; Endi, Severianus (7 July 2014). "On the hunt for delectable snacks". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  69. ^ Saifudeen, Yousuf (12 June 2016). "Diverse traditions that welcome the holy month in Indonesia". Khaleej Times. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  70. ^ Ramadan 2015: Facts, History, Dates, Greeting And Rules About The Muslim Fast Archived 10 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Huffington Post, 15 June 2015
  71. ^ a b c "Most Muslims say they fast during Ramadan". Pew Research Center. 9 July 2013. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  72. ^ "Egypt's tourism minister 'confirms' alcohol prohibition on Islamic holidays beyond Ramadan Archived 11 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine," Al-Ahram, 22 July 2012.
  73. ^ "Press release by Kuwait Ministry Of Interior". Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  74. ^ "KD 100 fine, one month prison for public eating, drinking". Friday Times. Kuwait Times Newspaper. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.[permanent dead link]
  75. ^ Salama, Samir (16 July 2009). "New penalty for minor offences in UAE". Gulf News. Dubai, UAE: Al Nisr Publishing LLC. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  76. ^ "Ramadan in Saudi Arabia: Taking it to heart". The Economist. 11 June 2016. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  77. ^ Hyslop, Leah (24 July 2012). "Ramadan warning for expats in Saudi Arabia". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  78. ^ Ramadan in numbers Archived 12 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 10 July 2013, The Guardian
  79. ^ "The Hard and Fast Rules of Ramadan". Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  80. ^ "Algerians jailed for breaking Ramadan fast". Al Arabiya News. 7 October 2008. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008.
  81. ^ Employment Issues During Ramadan – The Gulf Region[permanent dead link], DLA Piper Middle East.
  82. ^ Azizi F (2010). "Islamic fasting and health". Ann. Nutr. Metab. 56 (4): 273–282. doi:10.1159/000295848. PMID 20424438.
  83. ^ Sadeghirad B, Motaghipisheh S, Kolahdooz F, Zahedi MJ, Haghdoost AA (2014). "Islamic fasting and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Public Health Nutr. 17 (2): 396–406. doi:10.1017/S1368980012005046. PMID 23182306.
  84. ^ "Schools say Muslim students 'should break Ramadan fast' to avoid bad grades". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  85. ^ Prof. Dr. E. Jürgen Zöllner (Summer 2017). "Education in Berlin: Islam and School" (PDF). Senatsverwaltung für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  86. ^ Emami-Naini A, Roomizadeh P, Baradaran A, Abedini A, Abtahi M (August 2013). "Ramadan fasting and patients with renal diseases: A mini review of the literature". J Res Med Sci. Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 18 (8): 711–716. ISSN 1735-1995. PMC 3872613. PMID 24379850.
  87. ^ "Crime rate falls during Ramadan". Today's Zaman. 21 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  88. ^ "Crime rate drops over Ramadan". Turkish Daily News. 16 November 2002. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  89. ^ a b "Eastern Province crime falls 40% during Ramadan". 28 July 2013. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  90. ^ "The effect of Ramadan on crime rates in Saudi Arabia, Hattab Ben Thawab Al-Sobaye" (PDF). Naif Arab University for Social Sciences, Thesis publication. 23 March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  91. ^ "129 women killed in six months in Turkey, lawmaker says". Hurriyet Daily News. 11 July 2014. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  92. ^ "Crime rates increase during Ramadhan". Jakarta Post. 19 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  93. ^ "4 Gold Shop Robbers Killed, 2 Caught During Police Raids Across the City". Jakarta Post. 29 August 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  94. ^ a b "Anticipating Crime, 7,500 Policemen Put on Standby Along Ramadan". Department of Communication, Informatics and Public Relations of Jakarta Capital City. 16 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  95. ^ "Comment le Ramadhan bouleverse la vie des Algériens". El Watan, French. 24 August 2010. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  96. ^ a b "Yemen child trafficking to increase during Ramadan". Yemen Times. 20 August 2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2011.
  97. ^ a b "Ramadan saw rise in violent domestic crimes". Daily News, Egypt. 2 November 2006. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011.
  98. ^ "Ramadan and lower crime rates: The Ayatollah says that during Ramadan the number of criminal cases in the Judiciary diminish by a great degree". 11 July 2013. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  99. ^ "Ramadan working hours announced in Oman". Times of Oman. 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  100. ^ "Ramadan working hours announced for public and private sectors". Times of Oman. 10 June 2015. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  101. ^ "The Working Muslim in Ramadan" (PDF). Working Muslim. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  102. ^ Lewis Silkin (26 April 2016). "Lewis Silkin – Ramadan – employment issues". lewissilkinemployment.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  103. ^ "Reasonable Accommodations for Ramadan? Lessons From 2 EEOC Cases". Free Enterprise. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  104. ^ "EEOC And Electrolux Reach Settlement in Religious Accommodation Charge Brought By Muslim Employees". eeoc.gov. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.

External links[edit]