Ramapough Mountain Indians

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Ramapough Mountain Indians
Ramapough Lenape Nation
Ramapough flag
Founded atMahwah, New Jersey
Typestate-recognized tribe, nonprofit organization
EIN 22-2226221[1]
PurposeP84: Ethnic, Immigrant Centers and Services[1]
HeadquartersMahwah, New Jersey[1]
Membership (1992)
Official language
Revenue (2019)
Expenses (2019)$38,084[1]
Formerly called
Ramapough Mountain Indians

The Ramapough Lenape Nation is a state-recognized tribe in New Jersey. They were previously named the Ramapough Mountain Indians (also spelled Ramapo), also known as the Ramapough Lenape Nation or Ramapough Lunaape Munsee Delaware Nation

They have approximately 5,000 members[2] who primarily live around the Ramapo Mountains of Bergen and Passaic counties in northern New Jersey and Rockland County in southern New York, about 25 miles (40 km) from New York City.

They are not a federally recognized Native American tribe.[3] Their tribal office is located on Stag Hill Road on Houvenkopf Mountain in Mahwah, New Jersey.

Since January 2007, the chief of the Ramapough Lenape Nation has been Dwaine Perry.[4]

The Ramapough Lenape Indian Nation claims descent from the Lenape, or Delaware people, although the Bureau of Indian Affairs did not find evidence of Lenape ancestry.[5][6] a decision subsequently upheld upon appeal.[7]

Petition for federal recognition[edit]

The Ramapough Mountain Indians (RMI) filed a letter of intent to petition for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) for federal recognition as a Native American tribe in 1979.[8] Approved on January 16, 1996, the BIA shared its final determination federal acknowledgment of the Ramapough Mountain Indians.[9]

The proposed final determination stated that Criterion 83.7(b) required:

Evidence that a substantial portion of the petitioning group inhabits a specific area or lives in a community viewed as American Indian and distinct from other populations in the area and that its members are descendants of an Indian tribe which historically inhabited a specific area (43 F.R. 172, 39363).[10]

The Proposed Finding concluded that the RMI did not meet this criterion at any point in time, for although there was substantial evidence that a distinct community had existed for a portion of the petitioner's history, from approximately 1870 until approximately 1950, this community had neither been "viewed as American Indian" nor were its members "descendants of an Indian tribe which historically inhabited a specific area."[10]

The proposed finding went on to say:

Historians, anthropologists, and journalists have mentioned many tribes as possible precursors of the RMI: Munsee, Minisink, Tuscarora, Creek, Lenape (generally), Hackensack, and Delaware. However, none of the documentation submitted by the petitioner or any other documents reviewed for the proposed finding connected the earliest documented RMI ancestors with any of the tribes that once resided in New York or New Jersey.[11]

After the RMI appealed the proposed finding, the BIA issued a reconsidered final determination that took effect January 7, 1998: "Assistant Secretary–Indian Affairs Ada E. Deer signed a reconsidered final determination which affirms the decision of January 16, 1996, to decline to acknowledge that the Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc. (RMI)."[12]


The Ramapough and two other tribes were recognized as Indian tribes in 1980 by the state of New Jersey by Resolution 3031. The New Jersey citation read:

Be it resolved by the General Assembly of the State of New Jersey (the Senate concurring): 1. That the Ramapough Mountain People of the Ramapough Mountains of Bergen and Passaic counties, descendants of the Iroquois and Algonquin nations, are hereby designated by the State of New Jersey as the Ramapough Indians.[13]

The tribe approached its New Jersey Assembly member, W. Cary Edwards, to seek state recognition. After several months of research, Edwards and Assemblyman Kern introduced Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 3031 (ACR3031) on May 21, 1979. It passed the Assembly and was passed by the Senate on January 7, 1980.

Edwards later said that debate in the assembly related to the Cohen book (see below); he noted that he and other supporters of recognition had to demonstrate the historical basis of the Ramapough. At the time, the state had not developed its own criteria or regulations related to tribal recognition. The state resolution also called for Federal recognition of the Ramapough, but is non-binding in that regard.[14][better source needed] The state of New Jersey has also recognized the Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape and the Powhatan Renape, descended from the Algonquian-speaking Lenape and Powhatan, respectively.[15] Because of increased issues related to Native Americans, the State of New Jersey created the Commission on Native American Affairs by P.L.1134, c. 295, and it was signed into law on December 22, 1995, by Governor Christine Todd Whitman.[16]

The Ramapough Indians claim to have been recognized by the State of New York by Legislative Resolution 86 in 1979.[17] According to Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein, who have reviewed state recognition processes, New York does not have an official, separate process of recognition of Indian tribes and never recognized the Ramapough. It recognized the Shinnecock and one other tribe under independent criteria.[18]

In 2009 the New York legislature had a bill pending to recognize the Ramapough people as Native Americans.[19] It never was passed.


The Ramapough Lenape Nation was previously called the Ramapough Mountain Indians, (also spelled Ramapo). They have also used the name Ramapough Lunaape Munsee Delaware Nation.

Until the 1970s, the group was frequently referred to as the Jackson Whites, a derogatory term,[20] which, according to legend, was either from the name of the Jackson White heirloom potato[21] or shorthand for "Jacks and Whites", reflecting their multiracial ancestry.[22]

In part because of the people's multiracial ancestry, the outside community assumed they were descendants of runaway and freed slaves ("Jacks" in slang) and whites. Over time, the latter were believed to have included Dutch settlers (reflected in surnames common among the people) and later, Hessian soldiers, German mercenaries who had fought for the British during the American Revolution; that is, people who were considered suspect by the dominant British Americans.[23] The people supposedly fled to frontier areas of the mountains after the end of the Revolutionary War. Thousands of escaped slaves had gone to British-occupied New York City on the promise of freedom. Some left the city for more isolated areas to escape capture after the war. There is no documentation of slaves, freed or runaway, nor of Hessian soldiers' marrying into the tribe.[22]

The group rejects this name and its associated legends as pejorative.[22][23][24] On July 30, 1880, The Bergen Democrat was the first newspaper to print the term Jackson Whites. A 1911 article noted it was used as a title of contempt.[24] Instead, they called themselves "The Mountain People."

The New Jersey historian David S. Cohen, argued in his doctoral dissertation at Princeton that the old stories were legends, not history. He wrote that the legend was "the continuing vehicle for the erroneous and derogatory stereotype of the Mountain People."[25] He claims that some of the group's ancestors were multiracial, free Afro-Dutch who had migrated from lower Manhattan to the frontier and become landowners in the Tappan Patent in the seventeenth century.[25]


William Bond recorded Ramapough Longhouses at the mouth of the Ramapo Pass.
Schuyler Patent by William Bond in 1710 of Mahwah

A number of local historians, genealogists, and archeologists have written about the Ramapough people. Accounts have changed related to research that has revealed more archeological, historical, linguistic, and other evidence, as well as because of social attitudes. As with other multiracial peoples seeking recognition as Native American tribes, the Ramapough Mountain Indians have encountered differences of opinion over the significance of ethnic ancestry in contrast to cultural and community identity in being recognized as a distinct culture.

The historian David Cohen found that early settlers in the Hackensack Valley included "free black landowners in New York City and mulattoes with some Dutch ancestry who were among the first pioneers to settle in the Hackensack River Valley of New Jersey."[25] Among these were Augustine Van Donck, who bought land in the Tappan Patent in 1687. As the border between New York and New Jersey split the area of the patent in 1798, Cohen theorized that some of these early free people of color moved west into the mountains. (The surname Van Dunk is common among the Ramapough, as are DeGroat, DeFreese, and Mann.)[25] Cohen thought that, while some free blacks may have married Lenape remnant peoples in the area, the residents of the mountains developed not primarily of Indian culture but as multiracial people of European-American culture, with rural traditions.[26] The origin of these surnames could also be from earlier contact times with the Colonials. In the late 19th century, such Indians were said to use the names given by the Colonials instead of their real names because of superstition.[27]

Edward J. Lenik, a self-taught private archaeologist,[28] and author of 11 historical books on Eastern Woodlands Native American History,[29] disagrees with Cohen's findings about African-European ancestry; he says,

While the Ramapough's origins are controversial, most historians and anthropologists agree that they (Ramapough) are the descendants from local Munsee-speaking Lenape (Delaware) Indians who fled to the mountains in the late seventeenth century to escape Dutch and English settlers. It is a well known fact that displacement of Indian tribes followed European Incursions in the region which resulted in the forced movement and resettlement of Indian peoples.[30]

Controversy over origins[edit]

The multiracial ancestry of the people in the mountains was noted by their European-American neighbors. Myths, as noted in the section on their name, were derived in part from theories of origins, as well as prejudice related to unions with African descendants because slavery had developed in the colonies as a racial caste. By the mid-nineteenth century, these multi-racial mountain people were concentrated in the settlements of Mahwah and Ringwood, New Jersey; and Hillburn, New York. Local histories documented traditions of mixed-race descendants from intermarriages with the Lenape in the mountains.[31]

In the 20th century, some anthropologists classified such isolated mixed-race groups, who tended to be historically endogamous, as tri-racial isolates or simply as mixed bloods.[32] In 1915, Alanson Skinner of the American Museum of Natural History noted the multiracial character of the people in the Ramapo Mountains. He said that Indian descendants had mixed with Africans and Caucasians.[33]

Cohen noted in 1974 that, as the federal censuses of 1790-1830 were missing for this area, it prevented "establishing positively the exact relationship between many of these colored families in the mountains, and the earlier colored families of the Hackensack River Valley."[25] He noted the "tradition of Indian ancestry among the Ramapo Mountain People as early as the eighteenth century." Cohen also said, "Some Indian mixture is possible; however, Indian and colored interracial matings probably were not recorded in the Dutch Reformed Churches."[34]

Before 1870, the State of New Jersey Census had only three racial or ethnic categories for residents: White, Black (free), and Black (slave), the same categories as were used in the slave states. Census enumerators tended to use black as the category for any people of color, including Indians. New Jersey passed a gradual abolition law in 1804 to end slavery; children born to slave mothers were born free. The state retained slaves born before the law in an indentured status. By a law of 1846, it reclassified them as apprentices, "apprenticed for life." The last slaves in New Jersey were not freed until 1865 and passage of the Thirteenth Amendment. In 1870, New Jersey began recording Indians (Native Americans) as a separate category in its census; 16 were identified by census enumerators that year.[35]

A less common theory of ancestry was that the Ramapough were Indian people who had been held as slaves by colonists.[36][better source needed]

With increasing interest and research in Native American history, a 1984 symposium was held on the Lenape. James Revey (Lone Bear), then chairman of the New Jersey Indian Office, said that "Mountain Indians" were descendants of Lenape who had retreated into the mountains of western and northeastern New Jersey and southwestern New York during the colonial era.[37] Other scholars, such as Herbert C. Kraft, have documented that some Munsee-speaking Lenape moved into the Ramapo Mountains to escape colonial encroachment.[38][39]

Kraft noted, as did Cohen (see below), that there was a gap in "the genealogical record between about 1790-1830 that prevented his assembling with exactitude individual relationships between most of the Hackensack Valley settlers and those of the Ramapo Mountains."[40] In his own work, Kraft has not attempted to establish genealogical links between the present-day Ramapough and colonial-era Indian tribes.

According to Catalano and Planche, consultants for the tribe in its recognition process, Cohen's work has been criticized by the genealogists Alcon Pierce and Roger Joslyn.[41] Catalano said that Cohen had no professional credentials in genealogy, and that the BIA found much of his genealogical work lacking.[42]

Edward J. Lenik, an archeologist and author of a 1999 book about the Ramapo Indians, writes:

The archaeological record indicates a strong, continuous and persistent presence of Indian bands in the northern Highlands Physiographic Providence-Ramapos well into the 18th century. Other data, such as historical accounts, record the presence of Indians in the Highlands during the 19th and 20th centuries. Oral traditions, and settlement and subsistence activities are examined as well. Native American people were a significant element among the primary progenitors of the Ramapo Mountain People ...[43]

The Micmac historian Evan T. Pritchard, wrote

The Ramapough, or "mountaineer Munsee", on the other hand, never disappeared. Their people still occupy the southwest portion of the point of Rockland County, on all sides of Ramapo Mountain. ... Whites have always tried, and continue to try to portray the Ramapough as foreigners: Dutch, blacks, Tuscarora, Gypsies, or Hessians. However, they are the only actual non-foreigners to be found still living in community in and around New York's metropolitan region. ... The main Ramapough Lenape villages in New York were Hillburn, Johnsontown, Furmanville, Sherwoodville, Bulsontown, Willowgrove, Sandyfields, and Ladentown. Better known, however, as Native American strongholds, are the towns just south of the border, namely Stagg Hill [Mahwah] and Ringwood.[44]

The archeologist C.A. Weslager noted that the Delaware were joined in the eighteenth century by some migrating Tuscarora families migrating from South Carolina. They never continued to Iroquois country in New York, where most of the Tuscarora settled alongside the Oneida.[45]


The Ramapough Mountain Indians have had a chief and council form of government. In 1978 they organized a nonprofit.[23] That year they filed a petition with the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs of intent to gain federal recognition as a tribe. They further organized into clans for self-government: the Wolf, the Turtle and the Deer, related to their three main settlements of Mahwah and Ringwood, New Jersey; and Hillburn, New York.[23]

Their president was listed as Duane Perry in 2016. Their treasurer was listed as Dwaine Perry in 2018.[1]

Recent events[edit]

In 1995, New Jersey established a Commission on American Indian Affairs (then called the Commission on Native American Affairs) with two seats each for the recognized tribes of the Ramapough Mountain Indians, the Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape, and the Powhatan Renape (the latter two groups are located in southern New Jersey.) In addition, two seats were reserved for Inter-Tribal Members, persons who belonged to other tribes but lived in New Jersey. The Commission has been placed in the Department of State.[46]

In the spring of 2006, Emil Mann, a Ramapough Lenape man, was killed by gunshots from a New Jersey State Parks Police ranger in a confrontation with people on ATVs in Ringwood State Park. His family filed a civil suit against the state. Governor Jon Corzine's staff met with the Ramapough Lenape and other Native Americans in the state to identify problem areas and improve relations. The state undertook an investigation into the shooting, and a grand jury indicted one of the rangers.[23]

In August 2006, Governor Jon Corzine formed the New Jersey Committee on Native American Community Affairs to investigate issues of civil rights, education, employment, fair housing, environmental protection, health care, infrastructure and equal opportunity confronting members of New Jersey's three indigenous Native American tribes and other New Jersey residents of Native American descent.[47][48] The Committee's report was delivered on December 17, 2007 and cited "lingering discrimination, ignorance of state history and culture, and cynicism in the treatment of Indian people".[49]

State and federal officials have worked with the tribes on other issues related to their people. For instance, in preparation for the 2010 census, state and federal officials consulted with the recognized tribes on means to get accurate counts of their people. The Census Bureau has created local partnerships. It recognizes State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas (SDTSA), which are established by state consultation with local tribes to identify significant areas of American Indian populations outside reservations (these had been overlooked in the twentieth century). In New Jersey, these are identified as Passaic and Bergen counties for the Ramapough Mountain Tribe, and Cumberland County for the Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape.[50] The Rankokus Indian Reservation no longer qualifies, as the state has taken back much of the land it had earlier leased to the Powhatan Renape.

Tribal enrollment[edit]

The tribe has required members to be directly descended from an identified Ramapough parent listed in tribal records. People must provide certified birth certificates and documentation of at least three generations to a listed Ramapough ancestor.[51]

Environmental concerns[edit]

The tribe has experienced environmental controversies in relation to corporate efforts on or near their land:

Ford Motor Company paint contamination controversy[edit]

Members of the community have participated in litigation (Mann v. Ford) against the Ford Motor Company regarding poisoning from a former toxic waste landfill, the Ringwood Mines landfill site. Portions of this site were used in the 1970s as sites for affordable housing for the Ramapough people.[52]

In the 1980s, the Environmental Protection Agency designated the Ringwood Mines landfill site as a Superfund site for cleanup. Ford had operated an auto assembly plant in Mahwah and its contractors dumped industrial paints and other hazardous wastes in a landfill owned by the company in an area where many Ramapough Mountain Indians live. The EPA identified further remediation three more times as additional sludge sites were found. Following further investigation, The EPA returned the community to the Superfund list, the only site to be so treated.

In late winter 2006, some 600 Ramapough Lenape Indians, led by Wayne Mann and with the aid of Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., filed a mass tort suit (Mann v. Ford) against the "Ford Motor Company and its contractors, as well as the borough of Ringwood, for the dumping of toxic waste."[23] They were represented by Vicki Gilliam of The Cochran Group. The suit was filed about the time of publication of Toxic Legacy, a five-part investigative series by The Record, which had found lead and antimony levels in excess of 100 times the safety limit near some Ramapough residences.[23]

The paint sludge has been linked to contamination of food and water sources with lead and benzene. The contamination has been linked to nosebleeds, leukemia, and other ailments among the community.[53]

The HBO documentary Mann v. Ford (2011) follows the pursuit of the lawsuit.[54] During the 2008–2010 automotive industry crisis, at a time when it appeared that Ford might be in danger of going bankrupt, the Ramapough feared that the company might be gone and Ford acted on those fears, and in September 2009 the tribe accepted a settlement of $11 million from Ford and its contractors, plus $1.5 million from the town of Ringwood, for an average payout of $8,000 per Ramapough resident after attorney fees.[55]

The EPA has directed the removal of an additional 47,000 tons of sludge and soil up to 2011, with cleanup continuing.[23]

The Pilgrim Pipeline and Split Rock Sweetwater Prayer Camp[edit]

As of 2017[needs update], the tribe is fighting against the Pilgrim Pipeline.[56] Pilgrim Pipelines Holdings, LLC plans to run a dual pipeline through the tribe's land which would carry refined products like gasoline, diesel, kerosene, aviation fuel and home heating oil north and Bakken formation crude oil south between Albany, New York and the Bayway Refinery on the Chemical Coast in Linden, New Jersey.[57]

The line would also pass through the Ramapo Mountains and Ramapo Pass. In solidarity with Standing Rock, tribal members founded the Split Rock Sweetwater protest encampment in Mahwah, New Jersey in 2016 near the New York border to protest the Pilgrim Pipeline.[58][59]

Representation in art, entertainment, and media[edit]


  • Mann v. Ford (2011) is a documentary about the lawsuit filed by the Ramapough Lenape Indian Nation against Ford. It is regularly shown on HBO. Directed by Maro Chermayeff and Mica Fink, it features Paul Mann of the Ramapough and Vicki Gilliam of The Cochran Firm, which represented the tribe. It follows the five years of the Ramapough pursuing the suit and how they reached settlement with the company.[60]
  • American Native (2013) is a documentary that details the Ramapough Lenape Nation's efforts to gain federal recognition as a Native American nation and the difficulties it has encountered due to loss of lands, racism, and loss of records.[61]
  • The film Out of the Furnace (2013) is a fictional drama dealing with communities living in the Ramapough Mountains, starring Christian Bale and Zoe Saldana.[62][63] Tribal leaders and town officials from Mahwah urged a boycott of the film due to negative depictions of the Ramapough Lenape Nation,[64] which Dwaine Perry called a hate crime.[65] Relativity Media responded that the film "is not based on any one person or group" and is "entirely fictional".[66] Nine members of the group, eight of whom have the surname DeGroat, which is given to the film's antagonist, filed suit against the makers and other involved parties. They claimed that Out of the Furnace portrays a gang of criminals living in the Ramapo Mountains who are "lawless, drug-addicted, impoverished and violent".[67][68] On May 16, 2014, U.S. District Court Judge William Walls, sitting in Newark, New Jersey, dismissed the lawsuit, saying that the film did not refer directly to any of the plaintiffs.[69]
  • Akuy Eenda Maawehlaang: The Place Where People Gather (2019) is a 28-minute documentary directed by Brooklyn Demme.[70]


See also[edit]


  • Penford, Saxby Voulaer., "Romantic Suffern - The History of Suffern, New York, from the Earliest Times to the Incorporation of the Village in 1896", Tallman, N.Y., 1955, (1st Edition), Chapter 6 Ramapo Mountain Folk


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Ramapough Mountain Indians". Cause IQ. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  2. ^ Kelly, Tina (April 11, 2006). "New Jersey Tribe Member Dies After Police Shooting at a Back-Roads Party". New York Times.
  3. ^ "2 N.J. Native American tribes can sell crafts, but they can't open casinos". Nj. 23 March 2019.
  4. ^ Stolz, Marsha A. "After years of illegal dumping at Ramapough sacred site, NJ is asked to step in". NorthJersey.com. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  5. ^ Bureau of Indian Affairs, Summary Under the Criteria and Evidence for Final Determination against Federal Acknowledgment of the Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc. 29 (U.S. Dep't of the Interior, Off. Fed. Acknowledgement, RMI-V001-D007, p. 32 of 187, Jan. 16, 1996) ("Historians, anthropologists, and journalists have mentioned many tribes as possible precursors of the RMI: Munsee, Minisink, Tuscarora, Creek, Lenape (generically), Hackensack, and Delaware. However, none of the documentation submitted by the petitioner or any other documents reviewed for the proposed finding connected the earliest documented RMI ancestors with any of the tribes that once resided in New York or New Jersey.")
  6. ^ Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgment of the Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc., 61 Fed. Reg. 4476 (Feb. 6, 1996).
  7. ^ Federal Acknowledgment of Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc., 31 IBIA 61 (July 18, 1997), aff'd Ramapough Mountain Indians v. Babbitt, Civil No. 98-2136 (JR), 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 14479 (D.D.C. Sept. 30, 2000), aff'd sub nom. Ramapough Mountain Indians v. Norton, 25 Fed. Appx. 2 (D.C. Cir. 2001).
  8. ^ "Petitioner #058: Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc., NJ". Indian Affairs. US Department of the Interior. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  9. ^ Deer, Ada E. "Summary Under the Criteria and Evidence for Final Determination against Federal Acknowledgment of the Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc" (PDF). Petitioner #058: Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc., NJ. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  10. ^ a b Ada E. Deer, "Summer Under the Criteria...", p. 21.
  11. ^ Ada E. Deer, "Summer Under the Criteria...", p. 29.
  12. ^ "63 FR 888 - Reconsidered Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgment of the Ramapough Mountain Indians, Inc". GovInfo. U.S. Government Publishing Office. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  13. ^ Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 3031, State of New Jersey, filed January 8, 1980.
  14. ^ Ramapough Mountain Indian Final Determination, CD-2, file 2_4_Part01.pdf pp.138-141 AR005026 through AR005029 (available from the BIA under the Freedom of Information Act)
  15. ^ New Jersey Department of State web page. Retrieved January 22, 2006. Archived June 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ New Jersey Department of State web page. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  17. ^ Ramapough Mountain Indian Final Determination, CD-6, file 6_4.pdf p. AR029381 (available as a matter of public record from the BIA under the Freedom of Information Act)
  18. ^ Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein, "Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A Survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes across the United States", Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 48, 2007, p 101. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Note: On page 129, they note that the Ramapough Mountain Indians had not been recognized by the state of New York; only the Shinnecock and one other tribe have been.
  19. ^ Incalcaterra, Laura (September 6, 2009), "Ramapough Lenape seek state recognition, get boost from Rockland", The Journal News
  20. ^ Brecher, Jeremy (2015). Save the Humans?: Common Preservation in Action. Routledge. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1317252535.
  21. ^ "Race of Real Mountaineers Living Near New York City". The Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, NY. 1907-08-18. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
  22. ^ a b c "Ramapough Mountain People drawn into their own", St. Petersburg Times, March 18, 1976, p. 50.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h McGrath, Ben (March 1, 2010). "Strangers on the Mountain". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
  24. ^ a b Bischoff, Henry & Kahn, Mitchell (1979), From Pioneer Settlement to Suburb, a History of Mahwah, New Jersey 1700-1976, A. S. Barnes & Co., p. 210 ISBN 978-0-498-02218-0
  25. ^ a b c d e Cohen, David Steven (1974), The Ramapo Mountain People, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, pp. 74, 197, ISBN 978-0-8135-1195-5
  26. ^ Cohen, David Steven, 1995. Folk Legacies Revisited, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, pp. 18-19
  27. ^ William Nelson, 1894. The Indians of New Jersey, The Press Printing and Publishing Company p. 41
  28. ^ "In Person; A Rocky Career Path" by Barbara Mantel. The New York Times, 10-12-2003[1]
  29. ^ "Books by Edward J. Lenik". Goodreads as of 10/30/2017[2]
  30. ^ Lenik, Edward J., 2011. Ramapough Mountain Indians: People, Places and Cultural Traditions, Ringwood, NJ: North Jersey Highlands Historical Society, pp. 1-4
  31. ^ James M. Van Valen (1900) [1900]. History of Bergen County, New Jersey. Nabu Press. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-1-177-72589-7. Retrieved February 17, 2011. jackson whites.
  32. ^ William Harlen Gilbert, Jr, 1948. Surviving Indian Groups of the Eastern United States, (D. C., 1949), United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
  33. ^ Alanson Skinner, 1915. Indians of Greater New York, The Torch Press, pp 98–99.
  34. ^ Cohen (1974) p. 110
  35. ^ "Population Division Working Paper No. 56", Historical Population Statistics, Rutgers University
  36. ^ Henry H. Goddard, The Vineland Training School Study, 1911. Ramapough Mountain Indian Final Determination, CD-5, file 6_4_2_Part01.pdf page AR023346 (available from the BIA under the Freedom of Information Act) "But how [to] account for the Indian Blood that shows itself so conspicuously among this race today? Undoubtedly a large part of it comes from Indians who were formerly held as slaves."
  37. ^ Revey, James (1984). "The Delaware Indians of New Jersey, from Colonial Times to the Present". In Kraft, Herbert C.; Becker, Marshall Joseph (eds.). The Lenape Indian: A Symposium. Seton Hall University: Archaeological Research Center. ASIN B00116FOLC. The Mountain Indians included those Delaware Indians [Lenape] who in Colonial times retreated into the Pohacong and Schooley Mountains in northwestern New Jersey, and those Minisink, Pompton (Wappingers), Hackensack and Tappan Indians who remained in the mountains of the northeastern part of the state.
  38. ^ Kraft, Herbert C. (1986), The Lenape: Archaeology, History, and Ethnography, New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, NJ. p. 241, ISBN 978-0-911020-14-4
  39. ^ "Sociopolitical Structure". Setting the Record Straight: A Linguistic-Ethnographic Study On The True Identity of the Quinnipiac/Quiripi/Renapi Nation Structure. The Algonquian Confederacy of the Quinnipiac Tribal Council. Retrieved June 2, 2012. "The Munsee Bands protected the western half [of New England]. This evolved to include the Iroquois in the Dawnland Confederacy, and the Renapi contingency was known as the Wappinger-Mattabesec Confederation (i.e., Western CT, Eastern NY, and N. NJ). The Ramapo Mountain Region in N. NJ became a refugium after the forced removal of our ancestors began."
  40. ^ Kraft, Herbert C., 2001. The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage, Lenape Books p. 562:58
  41. ^ Ramapough Mountain Indian Final Determination, CD-6, file 6_10.pdf p. AR029389 & AR029620 respectively (available from the BIA under the Freedom of Information Act)
  42. ^ Catalano, Albert J.; Plache, Matthew J. (April 30, 2006). "Opinion: The case for Ramapough tribal status". North Jersey Media Group. Archived from the original on May 21, 2006.
  43. ^ Lenik, Edward J., 1999. Indians in the Ramapos, The North Jersey Highlands Historical Society ISBN 0-9675706-0-3 pp. 1-2
  44. ^ Pritchard, Evan T. (2002). Native New Yorkers: The Legacy of the Algonquin People of New York. San Francisco: Council Oak Books. pp. 265–66, 270–71. ISBN 978-1-57178-107-9.
  45. ^ C.A. Weslager, 1973. Magic Medicines of the Indians, The Middle Atlantic Press p. 124
  46. ^ New Jersey Commission on American Indian Affairs, New Jersey State Government, accessed 11 July 2012
  47. ^ Corzine, Jon S. (August 4, 2006). "Executive Order #24". State of New Jersey. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  48. ^ Corzine, Jon S. (October 1, 2008). "Executive Order #122". State of New Jersey. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  49. ^ New Jersey Committee on Native American Community Affairs (December 17, 2007). "Report to Governor Jon S. Corzine". State of New Jersey: 1. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  50. ^ Philip Lutz, "2010 CENSUS AND LOCAL PARTNERSHIPS", accessed 11 July 2012
  51. ^ "Tribal Enrollment", Ramapough Lenape Indian Nation website
  52. ^ "Mann vs Ford". Hbo.com. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
  53. ^ Aileen Brown. The Intercept. Feb. 19, 2017. As construction near Standing Rock restarts, pipeline fights flare across the U.S. https://interc.pt/2l9kRma
  54. ^ "Synopsis". Mann v. Ford. HBO. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  55. ^ Maro Chermayeff and Micah Fink (producers-directors) (2015). Mann v. Ford (Documentary Film). A Show of Force Production. Event occurs at 1:34 to 1:41.
  56. ^ Pilgrim could be NJ's oil pipeline to nowhere. NorthJersey.com-Feb 3, 2017
  57. ^ Ramapough fight pipeline
  58. ^ Native American Tribe Fights Pilgrim Pipeline Plan in New Jersey http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/NJ-Native-American-Lunaape-Tribe-Fights-Pilgrim-Pipeline-Plan-408359755.html via @nbcnewyork
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