|• ISO 259||Ráma|
|• Also spelled||Rame (official)|
|Grid position||184/260 PAL|
|• Type||Local council (from 2005)|
|• Total||6,118 dunams (6.118 km2 or 2.362 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,200/sq mi)|
|Name meaning||"Lofty" or "Elevated"|
The village is situated on an ancient site, atop a hill at the edge of Beit HaKerem Valley. To the east are remains of Roman baths, dating to the 2nd to 4th century, and oil presses from the same period. South and southeast are remains of buildings foundations, including an Aramaic inscription on a lintel, which indicate a 3rd to 4th century synagogue. To the northeast of the Roman bath are the remains of a large basilica. This was excavated in 1972, and very large column bases were found, together with polychrome mosaics representing fauna and flora.
Many remains of pottery vessels dated to the Late Roman period (fourth–fifth centuries CE) have also been found, together with building remains from the Byzantine period. Rameh was a major town during the rule of the Crusaders.
In 1517, Rameh was with the rest of Palestine incorporated into the Ottoman Empire after it was captured from the Mamluks, and by 1596, it was a village under the administration of the nahiya ("subdistrict") of Akka, part of Safad Sanjak, with a population of 96 households, all Muslim. It paid taxes on silk spinning (dulab harir), goats, beehives, and a press that was used for processing either olives or grapes, in addition to paying a fixed, or lump sum; a total 21,986 akçe. Half of the revenue went to a waqf.
A map from Napoleon's invasion of 1799 by Pierre Jacotin showed the place, named as "Ramah", while in 1838, er Rameh was noted as Christian and Druze village in the Esh-Shagur district, located between Safad, Acca and Tiberias.
In 1881 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described it as "a village, built of stone, of good materials, containing a Greek chapel and about 600 Christians and 500 Druzes; it is situated in plains, with large olive-groves, gardens and vineyards; five perennial springs near the village, and several cisterns in it."
A population list from about 1887 showed that er Rameh had about 1,125 inhabitants; 425 Druze, 125 Greek Catholic Christians and 575 Muslims.
British Mandate era
It was one of the largest villages in the Galilee during the period of Ottoman Empire control. In 1923, Rameh became the first village in Palestine to receive self-governing status granted by the British Mandate and had the largest olive orchards in the area. It was granted permission to self-govern through a village council.
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Al Rameh had a total population 847; 28 Muslims, 624 Christians, and 195 Druze. Of the Christians, 474 were Orthodox, 47 Catholics, 102 Greek Catholic (Melchite) and 1 Maronite. This had increased in the 1931 census of Palestine, when Er Rama had 254 houses, with a total population of 1142. Of these, 70 were Muslim, 746 Christians, and 326 Druze.
In the 1945 statistics Er Rama had a population of 1,690; 90 Muslims, 1,160 Christians and 440 "others"(=Druze), with 24,516 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 8,310 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 3,078 used for cereals, while 56 dunams were built-up land.
State of Israel
In alphabetical order by surname, article excluded:
- Mira Awad (born 1975) - singer, actress, and songwriter
- Angelina Fares (born 1989) - gymnast, 2007 Miss Israel beauty pageant contestant and subject of "Lady Kul El-Arab" documentary film; born in Rameh
- Basel Ghattas (born 1956) - politician, Balad party, member of the Knesset (2013–2015-...)
- Archbishop Theodosios (Hanna) of Sebastia (born 1965) - clergyman, Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem
- Hanna Mwais (1913–1981) - politician, member of the Knesset for Hadash (1977-1981)
- Elias Nakhleh (1913-1990) - politician, member of the Knesset (1959-1974)
- Samih al-Qasim (1939-2014) - poet of Palestinian Druze descent
- Imad Sheiban (born 1951 ): world renowned intervention cardiologist, associate professor of Cardiology
- "Population in the Localities 2018" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 25 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 92
- Robinson, 1856, pp. 64-65.
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 705
- Cinamon, 2009, Er-Rama
- Dalali-Amos, 2011, Er-Rama
- Rhode, 1979, p. 145 for the silk tax, and p. 5 for the date.
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 190
- Note that Rhode, 1979, p. 6 writes that the register that Hütteroth and Abdulfattah studied from the Safad-district was not from 1595/6, but from 1548/9
- Karmon, 1960, p. 166
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol. 3, 2nd appendix, p. 133
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol. 3,p. 250
- Guérin, 1880, p. 453
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, p. 204
- Schumacher, 1888, p. 174
- Survey of Palestine British Mandate of Palestine. Vol. 1, p.132.
- Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Acre, p. 36
- Barron, 1923, Table XVI, p. 50
- Mills, 1932, p. 102
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 4
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 41
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 81
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 131
- Ettinger, Yair (2003-05-13). "Urban Plan Seen as Racist Move in Arab Sector". Haaretz. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
- "The Druze population in Israel - a collection of data on the occasion of the Prophet Shuaib holiday" (PDF). CBS - Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. April 17, 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
- Barron, J.B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Cinamon, Gilad (2009-05-04). "Er-Rama Final Report" (121). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Dalali-Amos, Edna (2011-09-26). "Er-Rama Final Report" (123). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4.
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
- Guérin, V. (1880). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 3: Galilee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). Israel Exploration Journal. 10 (3, 4): 155–173, 244–253.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Palmer, E.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Rhode, H. (1979). Administration and Population of the Sancak of Safed in the Sixteenth Century (PhD). Columbia University.
- Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1856). Biblical Researches in Palestine and adjacent regions: A Journal of Travels in the years 1838 and 1852, 2nd edition. 3. London: John Murray.
- Schumacher, G. (1888). "Population list of the Liwa of Akka". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 20: 169–191.
- van de Velde, C.W.M. (1858). Memoir to Accompany the Map of the Holy Land. Gotha: Justus Perthes. (p. 341)