Rana is used today as a surname with its ethnic origins coming from both Nepal and Persia. The title spread when the Persian merchants arrived in India, and then later spreaded at much larger capacities with the Mughals, and later the Parsi migration to India and Pakistan. The ancestral origin of the name denotes that the beholders of such a name today, mostly all will have mixed ethnic origins namely a mix of Sindhi, Gujarati, Parsi and Nepali. All holders of the surname today are a mix of 2 or more of the 4 ‘Rana’ ancestral ethnicities.
Usage in India and Pakistan
"Rana" was formerly used as a title of martial sovereignty by Rajput kings in India. Today, members of some Rajput clans in Indian subcontinent use it as a hereditary title. In Pakistan, mostly Muslims—but also some Hindus in Sindh (present-day Pakistan)—use it as a hereditary title. Umerkot, a state in Sindh, had a Hindu Rajput ruler who used the title.
In the 16th century, Rana Prasad, the monarch of Umerkot, gave refuge to the Mughal prince Humayun and his wife, Hamida Banu Begum, who had fled from military defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri. Their son Akbar was born in the fort of the Rana of Umerkot.
Usage in Nepal
The head of the Kunwar nobles of Nepal, Jung Bahadur Kunwar, took the title of Rana(ji) and Shree Teen Maharaja after consolidation of his post of Prime Minister of Nepal. This dynasty controlled administration of the Kingdom of Nepal from 1846 until 1951, reducing the Shah monarch to a figurehead and making Prime Minister and other government positions hereditary. 
- Bhattarai, Krishna (2009). Nepal. Infobase Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 9781438105239.
- "Rajput appeal from Amarkot". The News International, Pakistan. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "Rana kin in Pakistan for mourning". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "Umerkot's former Rajput ruler is dead". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- Dietrich, Angela (1996). "Buddhist Monks and Rana Rulers: A History of Persecution". Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Lal, C. K. (16 February 2001). "The Rana resonance". Nepali Times. Retrieved 17 September 2013.