Rana Sanga

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Maharana Sanga
Rana Sanga
Depiction of Maharana Sangram Singh.
Rana of Mewar
Reign1508–1528
PredecessorRana Raimal
SuccessorRatan Singh II
Born12 April 1472
Chittor, Mewar
Died30 January 1528(1528-01-30) (aged 55)
Kalpi
SpouseRani Karnavati
IssueBhoj Raj
Ratan Singh II
Vikramaditya Singh
Udai Singh II
Full name
Sangram Singh
HouseSisodia
FatherRana Raimal
Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar II
(1326–1884)
Hammir Singh (1326–1364)
Kshetra Singh (1364–1382)
Lakha Singh (1382–1421)
Mokal Singh (1421–1433)
Rana Kumbha (1433–1468)
Udai Singh I (1468–1473)
Rana Raimal (1473–1508)
Rana Sanga (1508–1527)
Ratan Singh II (1528–1531)
Vikramaditya Singh (1531–1536)
Vanvir Singh (1536–1540)
Udai Singh II (1540–1572)
Pratap Singh I (1572–1597)
Amar Singh I (1597–1620)
Karan Singh II (1620–1628)
Jagat Singh I (1628–1652)
Raj Singh I (1652–1680)
Jai Singh (1680–1698)
Amar Singh II (1698–1710)
Sangram Singh II (1710–1734)
Jagat Singh II (1734–1751)
Pratap Singh II (1751–1754)
Raj Singh II (1754–1762)
Ari Singh II (1762–1772)
Hamir Singh II (1772–1778)
Bhim Singh (1778–1828)
Jawan Singh (1828–1838)
Sardar Singh (1828–1842)
Swarup Singh (1842–1861)
Shambhu Singh (1861–1874)
Sajjan Singh (1874–1884)
Fateh Singh (1884–1930)
Bhupal Singh (1930—1955)

Maharana Sangram Singh Sisodia (12 April 1472 – 30 January 1528) commonly known as Rana Sanga, was an Indian ruler of Mewar and head of a powerful Rajput confederacy in Rajputana during the 16th century.[1]

Rana Sanga succeeded his father, Rana Raimal, as king of Mewar in 1508. He fought against the Afghan Lodhi dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, and later against the Turkic Mughals of Ferghana.

Life[edit]

Chittorgarh Fort, Chittor

Rana Sanga was a grandson of Rana Kumbha. Sanga became the ruler of Mewar after a battle for succession with his brothers.[2]

As ruler of Mewar he united the warring clans of Rajputana and formed a powerful confederacy, uniting the Rajputs after 300 years. The Rana expanded the boundaries of his Kingdom through war and diplomacy with the goal of forming an empire which was governed by a confederacy of ethnic Indian kings, irrespective of their religion.[3]

First taking the advantage of internal strife in the Delhi Sultanate, he expanded into North East Rajasthan after defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Khatoli and Battle of Dholpur. Mewar attempted to vassalise Idar by reinstating Raimal onto the throne by defeating Bharmal who was supported by Gujarat. This led to a Mewar-Gujarat war and the Battles of Idar. He defeated the Gujarat Sultanate during Rana Sanga's invasion of Gujarat. Sangram Singh also defeated the joint forces of Gujarat and Malwa Sultanates in the Siege of Mandsaur and the Battle of Gagron. In 1526 A.D. the Rana gave protection to the fleeing Gujarat princes, the Sultan of Gujarat demanded their return and after the refusal from the Rana, sent his general Sharza Khan Malik Latif to bring the Rana to terms. In the battle that followed Latif and 1700 of the Sultans soldiers were killed, the rest were forced to retreat to Gujarat.[4] Rana Sanga was at the peak of his power at this time, with a revenue of nearly 10 million sterling.[5]

Following the victory of Babur over the Lodhi Dynasty, Sangram Singh gathered a coalition of Rajputs from the kingdoms of Rajasthan. They were joined by Muslim Rajputs from Mewat and Afghans under Mahmud Lodhi, the son of Sikandar Lodhi of Delhi. This alliance fought against Babur in the Battle of Khanwa to expel Babur from India. The Rana attacked the Mughal advance guard on 21st february 1527 and completely decimated it. Reinfocements sent by Babur met the same fate.

William Erskine has described the aftermath of a skirmish between the Turks and the Rajputs in the following words:

"They had some sharp encounters with the Rajputs, in which they had been severely handled and taught to respect their new enemy. A party from the garrison had some days before incautiously advanced too far from the fort, when the Rajputs fell upon them and drove them in. All the troops engaged in this affair united in bestowing unbounded praise on the gallantry and prowess of the enemy. Indeed the Jaghtai Turks had found that they had now to contend with a foe more formidable than the Afghans or any of the natives of India to whom they had yet been opposed. The Rajputs, energetic, chivalrous, fond of battle and bloodshed, animated by strong national spirit and led on by a hero, were ready to meet, face to face, the boldest veterans of the camp and were at all times prepared to lay down their lives for their honour."[6] The battle of Khanwa turned into a disaster for the Rana when Silhadi defected; the Mughal victory was decisive and turned out to become Rana Sangas first and last defeat. Rana Sanga wanted to prepare another army and fight Babur. However, on 30 January 1528, Rana Sanga died in Chittor, apparently poisoned by his own chiefs who held his plans of renewing the fight with Babur to be suicidal.[7][page needed]

It is suggested that had there not been the cannons of Babur, Rana Sanga might have achieved a historic victory against Babur.[8] The historian Pradeep Barua notes that Babur's cannons had put an end to the outdated trends in Indian warfare.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  2. ^ Chandra, Satish (2004) [1997]. Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526). 1 (Revised ed.). Har-Anand Publications. p. 224. ISBN 978-8-12411-064-5.
  3. ^ The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Preliminary pg.B 110
  4. ^ Maharana Sanga; the Hindupat, the last great leader of the Rajput race by Sarda, Har Bilas pg.92 & 93
  5. ^ A Gazetteer Of The Udaipur State With A Chapter On The Bhils And Some Statistical Tables by Erskine, K. D. ..Chapter XII, Finance.
  6. ^ The Hindupat, the Last Great Leader of the Rajput Race. 1918. Reprint. London pg130 & 131
  7. ^ Chandra, Satish (2006). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526). 2. Har-Anand Publications.
  8. ^ a b Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-80321-344-9.