Lithobates vibicarius

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Lithobates vibicarius
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Ranidae
Genus: Lithobates
Species: L. vibicarius
Binomial name
Lithobates vibicarius
(Cope, 1894)
Synonyms
  • Rana vibicaria Cope, 1894
  • Rana godmani Günther, 1900

Lithobates vibicarius, commonly known as either green-eyed frog (after its green eyes[2]) or Rancho Redondo frog (after its type locality in Costa Rica[2][3]), is a species of frog in the Ranidae family from highland rainforests in Costa Rica and western Panama.[1][2][3][4]

Description[edit]

Lithobates vibicarius are relatively large frogs, 6–9 cm (2.4–3.5 in) in snout–vent length.[4] Dorsal colouration is variable: golden, greenish, or dull brown; juveniles are usually green. There are at least some darker markings on the dorsum of most individuals. The dorsolateral folds typically have black linings on the outer edges. A black face mask is typical. The upper lip has white lining. The iris is green. Feet are extensively webbed.[2]

Reproduction[edit]

Breeding may occur throughout the year but is concentrated to the early parts of the rainy season.[2] Calling and mating take place at night. Males generally call from vegetation in water.[1] The call is a low, harsh trill. Eggs are laid in large, round gelatinous masses in shallow bodies of water,[2] attached to the vegetation.[1]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Lithobates vibicarius is a semi-aquatic frog found in lower montane and lower portions of montane rainforest. They prefer dense woods, but may also be found near water in clearings or pastures.[1]

Lithobates vibicarius was once very common in Costa Rica, but has almost disappeared; only three populations are known at present. Surveys in Panama have failed to find the species. This decline is believed to be mainly due to the disease chytridiomycosis, although habitat loss and agricultural chemicals may also have played a role. The IUCN now lists it as vulnerable.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe (2013). "Lithobates vibicarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Lithobates vibicarius". Amphibians of Panama. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Lithobates vibicarius (Cope, 1894)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Luis Humberto Elizondo C.; Federico Bolaños V. (2014). "Lithobates vibicarius". Biodiversidad de Costa Rica. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad. Retrieved 15 February 2015.