Ranchi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ranchi
From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
Nickname(s): 
City of waterfalls
Ranchi is located in Jharkhand
Ranchi
Ranchi
Location in Jharkhand
Ranchi is located in India
Ranchi
Ranchi
Ranchi (India)
Coordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33Coordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33
CountryIndia
StateJharkhand
DistrictRanchi
Government
 • BodyRanchi Municipal Corporation
 • MayorAsha Lakra (BJP)
 • Deputy mayorSanjeev Vijayvargiya
Area
 • Metropolis652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,295 km2 (500 sq mi)
Elevation
651 m (2,136 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Metropolis1,073,440
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, English
 • RegionalNagpuri
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
834001(83 xxxx)
Telephone code0651
Vehicle registrationJH-01 (earlier BR 14)
Sex ratio(per 1000 male)950
Literacy87.68%
Websitewww.ranchi.nic.in www.ranchimunicipal.com

Ranchi (/ˈrɑːni/ About this soundpronunciation ) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand.[2] Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement,[3] which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[4]

Ranchi skyline from a hill

Etymology

The name of Ranchi comes from local bird named "Rinchi" which was mostly found in the "pahadi mandir premise" the bird was considered as to be a sacred bird. Upto 1927, the place was known as Rachi.[5] 'Rici' is name for Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in Mundari, the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is also known as Rici Buru (रिचि बुरु) - the hill of the kites,[6] and the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site. The entire administration of SWFA was run from Commissioner's office situated at the foothill of Rici Buru.

According to Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi.[7] "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi.[8]

History

The early evidence of use of several iron slag, pot sheds, iron tools found in Chota Nagpur region around 1400 BCE. [9] Magadha Empire exercised indirect control over the territory, which lasted until the reign of the Ashoka. Armies of Samudra Gupta passed through the region on their expedition to the Deccan. After the decline of the Guptas, the Nagvanshi dynasty ruled in the region. The Nagvanshi built several palaces and temples in Sutiambe, Pithoria, Khukhragarh.[10][11][12] With the expansion of the Mughal Empire, the sovereign status of the Nagvanshi dynasty was technically affected, but they continued to rule and administer independently. King of Barkagarh Jagannathpur Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo built Jagannath Temple in 1691.[13][14]

After Battle of Buxar, Nagvanshi became vassal of East India Company. British reduced Nagvanshi rulers to Jamindar in 1817.[15] The British established a civil headquarters in Rachi, military headquarters of Ramgarh Battalion at Doronda by Thomas Wilkison. Later German missionaries established a church.[16] Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, Pandey Ganpat Rai, Tikait Umrao Singh and Sheikh Bhikhari played a pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[17][18] Freedom fighter Birsa Munda died in the Ranchi jail on 9 June 1900.[19] Last ruler of the Nagvanshi dynasty was Lal Chintamani Sharan Nath Shahdeo (1931 – 2014).[20] After the formation of the state of Jharkhand, Ranchi became it's capital.

Geography

Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E / 23.36; 85.33 near to the Tropic of Cancer. Its municipal area is 652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi), and its average elevation is 651 m above sea level.

Ranchi is surrounded by lush agriculturally fertile land.

Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.

Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.[21]

Climate

Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas (Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.[22]

Climate data for Ranchi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
26.3
(79.3)
31.5
(88.7)
35.6
(96.1)
36.8
(98.2)
33.4
(92.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.2
(84.6)
29.4
(84.9)
28.9
(84.0)
26.5
(79.7)
24.0
(75.2)
29.3
(84.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
19.5
(67.1)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
30.1
(86.2)
28.5
(83.3)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
25.6
(78.1)
23.4
(74.1)
20.1
(68.2)
17.0
(62.6)
23.8
(74.8)
Average low °C (°F) 9.8
(49.6)
12.6
(54.7)
16.8
(62.2)
21.2
(70.2)
23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
22.7
(72.9)
22.4
(72.3)
21.8
(71.2)
18.6
(65.5)
13.6
(56.5)
9.9
(49.8)
18.0
(64.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16.7
(0.66)
21.2
(0.83)
25.0
(0.98)
21.8
(0.86)
61.7
(2.43)
249.4
(9.82)
336.6
(13.25)
319.1
(12.56)
247.3
(9.74)
76.6
(3.02)
10.8
(0.43)
11.6
(0.46)
1,397.7
(55.03)
Source: IMD

Demographics

Population

As of 2011 India census,[23] Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,126,741,[citation needed] making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 87.68%.

The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.[24]

Language

Hindi is the official language of Ranchi. The populace of Ranchi converse mainly in Hindi. Nagpuri is native language of the region. A number of other dialects and language spoken are Khortha and Kurmali. Tribal language Mundari is also spoken by the Munda tribe.

Religion

Religion in Ranchi
Religion Percent
Hinduism
64.31%
Islam
16.42%
Others
9.72%
Christianity
8.52%
Sikhism
0.39%
Jainism
0.22%
Buddhism
0.06%

Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi followed by 64.31% of the population. Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that did not state a religion are 0.35%, and others are 9.72%.[citation needed]

Health

Sports

Ranchi is a centre for numerous sports activities, including cricket, hockey, football, and many others.[26] The 34th National Games were successfully held in Ranchi in February 2011.

Ranchi Rhinos field hockey team is based in the city
JSCA Cricket Stadium Entrance

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.[27]

The Ranchi franchise for Hockey India League was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named the Ranchi Rhinos.[28]

Sports teams

Stadiums in Ranchi

Points of Interest

Asian Black Bear at Jharkhand Zoo in Ranchi
Bengal Tiger at Jharkhand Zoo

People from Ranchi

Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni is from Ranchi

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  2. ^ "Netarhat: Jharkhand's Secret Hill Station". Outlook.
  3. ^ "Jharkhand Movement". Country Studies. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005. Retrieved 7 May 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  4. ^ "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". Firstpost. 28 August 2015. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  5. ^ "Ranchi District: Ranchi, History of Ranchi District, Bundu, Kanke, Hatia, Rampur, Jharkhand, Churi, Ormanjhi Block, Tamar Block, Bero B". books.google.co.in.
  6. ^ Samar, Bosu Mullick. Sylvan tales : stories from the Munda country. Kolkata, India. ISBN 9789384465056. OCLC 935915532.
  7. ^ Cultural Configuration of Ranchi, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Rajendra Behari Lal, India. Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee, 1969, pg 306.
  8. ^ Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society Of Bengal, Volume 4, No. 11, 1927, "The Etymology of Ranchi", pg 601.
  9. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 220. ISBN 9788131711200.
  10. ^ "Archaeologists uncover remains of ancient empire in Jharkhand". oneindia.com. 11 May 2009.
  11. ^ "800 years come alive in Pithoria's relics - Archaeological explorations in two hamlets yield artefacts from 12th Century to colonial times". m.telegraphindia.com.
  12. ^ "Ancient capital to open for visitors - Caves & temples at Sutiambe to offer peek into history". m.telegraphindia.com.
  13. ^ "Jagannath Temple (Ranchi)". Jharkhand Samachar. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  14. ^ "400 stalls to offer rich fare at Rath Mela". timesofindia.com.
  15. ^ "CHOTA-NAGPUR (Zamindari)". members.iinet.net.au.
  16. ^ Asha Mishra; Chittaranjan Kumar Paty (2010). Tribal Movements in Jharkhand, 1857-2007. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-81-8069-686-2.
  17. ^ Mathur Das Ustad (1997). "The Role of Bishwanath Sahi of Lohardaga district, During the Revolt of 1857 in Bihar". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 58: 493–500. JSTOR 44143953.
  18. ^ "JPCC remembers freedom fighters Tikait Umrao Singh, Sheikh Bhikari". news.webindia123.com.
  19. ^ Neeraj (January 2009). Birsa Munda. New Delhi-110 002: Ocean Books P Ltd 4/19 Asif Ali Road. pp. 3–10. ISBN 9788188322930.
  20. ^ "CHOTA-NAGPUR (Zamindari)". members.iinet.net.au.
  21. ^ "Sultry weather likely to continue in city, for now - Times of India". Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  22. ^ "Ranchi, India Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
  23. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  24. ^ Assocham report, 2010 Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Central Institute of Psychiatry,Ranchi". cipranchi.nic.in. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  26. ^ "Sports". Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  27. ^ "Sania and Shoaib in Ranchi". Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  28. ^ "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  29. ^ "Jharkhand Zoo Authority". Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  30. ^ "Rajesh Chauhan". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

External links