Ranheim played in the Norwegian Premier League in the seasons; 1937–38, 1938–39, 1939–40 and 1947–48, as well as in the seasons; 1949–50, 1952–53, 1954–55 and 1955–56.
Since 2006, Ranheim has acted as a farm club for Rosenborg, where the goal has been to establish a football team from Trøndelag in the First Division. Ranheim came close to qualifying in 2007 and 2008, but in the 2009 season it finally succeeded, and the club played in the First Division for the 2010 season. Ranheim finished 5th in 2010 Adeccoligaen and they qualified for the promotion playoffs for a place in the Tippeligaen. In the 2017 season Ranheim gained promotion to the top level for the first time since the 1955-56 after beating Sogndal. Over two legs, they first lost 1-0 away and went on to win 1-0 at home. After two scoreless periods of extra time they secured promotion by winning 5-4 on penalties.