Ranina ranina

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Ranina ranina
Ranina ranina.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Brachyura
Family: Raninidae
Genus: Ranina
Lamarck, 1801
Species: R. ranina
Binomial name
Ranina ranina
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
  • Cancer ranina Linnaeus, 1758
  • Ranina dentata Latreille, 1825
  • Ranina serrata Lamarck, 1801
  • Ranina cristata Desjardins, 1835
  • Albunea scabra Weber, 1795 (nomen nudum)
Ranina ranina by Kawahara Keiga, 1823 - 1829. Siebold Collection.

Ranina ranina, also known as the (red) frog crab or spanner crab,[1] is a species of edible crab,[2] found throughout tropical and subtropical habitats.[3] It is the only extant species in its genus.[4]

Description[edit]

It may grow up to 150 millimetres (5.9 in) long, and may weigh up to 900 grams (2.0 lb).[5] The carapace is wider at the front, reddish brown in color, with ten white spots.[3] Ranina ranina is mainly nocturnal, and remains buried in the sand during the day.[1] Ranina ranina is easily distinguished from other crab species in its habitat due to its red carapace and elongated mid section.[5]

Distribution and ecology[edit]

Spanner crabs inhabit coastal waters along the east coast of Australia, from Yeppoon in Queensland to Nowra on the south coast of New South Wales. There is also a population to the north of Perth in Western Australia.[5] Ranina ranina is abundant in the coastal waters of south-western Mindanao, Philippines. These crabs are also found in the eastern coast of Africa, across the Indian Ocean to Indonesia, Japan and Hawaii and Vietnam.[6]

Ranina ranina inhabits depths of 10–100 metres (33–328 ft) on sandy-smooth substrata in which they bury themselves from where they attack small bottom-dwelling fish.[7] When waiting for prey, Ranina ranina will cover itself with sand, but leave its eye and mouthparts sticking out to help detect its food.[1] Offshore areas within this range in a subtropical or tropical environment serves as a habitat for Ranina ranina, but they must have ample sand for Ranina ranina to flourish, as covering themselves in sand is instrumental in their method of catching prey.

Fishery[edit]

The species is commercially exploited over much of its range, but the largest fishery is in Australia, where the annual commercial catch an estimated at 3,592 tonnes (7,919,000 lb).[8][3] In Queensland, only adults above 100 mm (3.9 in) carapace length may be landed.[9] In the Philippines in 2008, prices for Ranina ranina were around 200–300 pesos per kilogram.[3] Ranina ranina populations have been surveyed to avoid overfishing and are currently stable.[10]

Although Ranina ranina is a target of commercial fishing operations, little is known about the species' biology, population dynamics and ecology.[9] Attempts have been made to grow Ranina ranina in captivity, but have so far been met with little success.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Phyu Phyu Than, Taizo Sakata, Kazuhisa Hamada & Keinosuke Imaizumi (1999). "Characteristics of dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crab, Ranina ranina" (PDF). Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries: 1–6. 
  2. ^ S. L. Slattery, A. L. Ford & S. M. Nottingham (1992). "Cooking methods for spanner crabs Ranina ranina (L) and their effect on cadmium residues". Food Australia 44 (5): 206–210. 
  3. ^ a b c d Oliver D. Tito & Jonalyn P. Alanano (2008). "Some aspects of fisheries and biology of spanner crab (Ranina ranina, Linnaeus) in Maluso, Basilan Province, Philippines" (PDF). Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries: 40–48. 
  4. ^ Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 17: 1–286. 
  5. ^ a b c "Spanner crab Ranina ranina". Fishing and Aquaculture. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. 2005. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  6. ^ Juliana C. Baylon & Oliver D. Tito (2012) “Natural diet and feeding habits of the red frog crab (Ranina ranina) from southwestern Mindanao, Philippines” Philip. Agric. Scientist Vol. 95 No. 4, 391–398.
  7. ^ Sydney Fish Market, “Species information: Spanner Crab” (2013) www.sydneyfishmarket.com
  8. ^ Queensland Fisheries (2010) “Stock Status of Queensland's Fisheries Resources 2009-10” Queensland Australia: Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation. 65
  9. ^ a b J. M. Kirkwood, I. W. Brown, S. W. Gaddes & S. Hoyle (2005). "Juvenile length-at-age data reveal that spanner crabs (Ranina ranina) grow slowly". Marine Biology 147 (2): 331–339. doi:10.1007/s00227-005-1574-0. 
  10. ^ J. McGilvray, I. Brown, E. Jebreen & D. Smallwood (2006) Fisheries Long Term Monitoring Program Summary of spanner crab (Ranina ranina) survey results: 2000-2005. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland, QI06095, Brisbane, Australia.