Rankings of universities in Canada

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Several nationally, and internationally based publications release annual rankings of universities in Canada. Rankings have most often been conducted by magazines, newspapers, websites, governments, or academia. Ranking are established to help inform potential applicants about Canadian universities based on a range of criteria, including student body characteristics, classes, faculty, finances, library, and reputation. Various rankings consider combinations of factors, including funding and endowment, research excellence and/or influence, specialization expertise, admissions, student options, award numbers, internationalization, graduate employment, industrial linkage, historical reputation and other criteria. Various rankings also evaluate universities based on research output. Canadian-based publications have generally limited their evaluations on universities in Canada, whereas internationally based rankings ranked Canadian institutions alongside other higher education institutions around the world.

Several nationally based publication have ranked Canadian universities, the most prominent being the news magazine Maclean's under the name Guide to Canadian Universities which began in 1991.[1] Canadian universities have also ranked in prominent international rankings including the Academic Ranking of World Universities, QS World University Rankings, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and the U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking.

International rankings[edit]

Bibliometric-based rankings[edit]

Bibliometric rankings are based off citation analysis, evaluating the impact a university has on specialized journals and other academic publications. Bibliometrics is a field of statistics used to provide quantitative analysis of academic literature. Annual international rankings of this nature include the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities, and University Ranking by Academic Performance. Although these rankings attempt to provide a quantitative analysis of a university's academic performance, differences in methodologies, and weighting of factors differentiates these rankings.

The following table includes Canadian universities, and their most recent global rank (up to the top 1000) in the aforementioned publications (with national ranks in parenthesis):

University 2018 Academic Ranking of World Universities[2][3] 2018 Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities[4] 2018–19 University Ranking by Academic Performance[5]
University of Alberta 101 – 150 (5–6) 88 (4) 78 (4)
University of British Columbia 43 (2) 25 (2) 27 (2)
University of Calgary 151 – 200 (7–9) 134 (7) 139 (7)
Carleton University 701 – 800 (25–26) 501 – 550 (20–21) 536 (20)
Concordia University 601 – 700 (21–24) 701 – 750 (24) 612 (24)
Dalhousie University 301 – 400 (13–18) 292 (12) 302 (13)
University of Guelph 301 – 400 (13–18) 445 (17) 407 (18)
Université Laval 201 – 300 (10–12) 250 (11) 238 (11)
University of Manitoba 301 – 400 (13–18) 303 (13) 285 (12)
McGill University 70 (3) 42 (3) 37 (3)
McMaster University 86 (4) 112 (6) 126 (6)
Memorial University of Newfoundland 601 – 700 (21–24) 601 – 650 (23) 580 (22)
Université de Montréal 101 – 150 (5–6) 99 (5) 99 (5)
University of New Brunswick 901 – 1000 (27) N/A 925 (28)
University of Ontario Institute of Technology 701 – 800 (25–26) N/A N/A
University of Ottawa 151 – 200 (7–9) 146 (8) 152 (8)
Université du Québec à Montréal 501 – 600 (19–20) 551 – 600 (22) 605 (23)
Queen's University 201 – 300 (10–12) 335 (T–14) 353 (14)
University of Regina N/A N/A 898 (26)
Ryerson University 601 – 700 (21–24) N/A 730 (25)
University of Saskatchewan 301 – 400 (13–18) 451 (18) 365 (16)
Université de Sherbrooke 601 – 700 (21–24) 501 – 550 (20–21) 552 (21)
Simon Fraser University 301 – 400 (13–18) 335 (T–14) 362 (15)
University of Toronto 23 (1) 4 (1) 2 (1)
University of Victoria 301 – 400 (13–18) 372 (16) 370 (17)
University of Waterloo 151 – 200 (7–9) 240 (10) 191 (10)
University of Windsor N/A N/A 922 (27)
University of Western Ontario 201 – 300 (10–12) 199 (9) 187 (9)
York University 501 – 600 (19–20) 485 (19) 488 (19)

Opinion-based rankings[edit]

A number of international publications formulate their rankings using the weighted average of opinions gathered in surveys, including Quacquarelli Symonds's World University Ranking, The Times' Higher Education World University Ranking, and the U.S. News & World Report's Best Global University Ranking. The methodologies used in these rankings differ amongst one another, although most opinion-based rankings use opinion surveys to evaluate a university's rank. Those surveyed typically includes members of academia, and the business community. In addition to opinion surveys, the following publications also use a quantitative measure of a university's academic performance, similar to bibliometric-based rankings. However, in contrast to bibliometric rankings, the quantitative results are used alongside the qualitative results gathered from opinion surveys.[6][7][8]

The following table includes Canadian universities, and their most recent global rank (up to the top 1000) in the aforementioned publications (with national ranks in parenthesis):

University 2019 QS World University Ranking[note 1][9] 2019 Times Higher Education World University Ranking[note 2][10] 2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking[note 3][11]
University of Alberta 109 (4) 132 (6) 137 (6)
University of British Columbia 47 (3) 37 (2) 29 (2)
University of Calgary 229 (9) 199 (9) 178 (7)
Carleton University 651 – 700 (22–25) 501 – 600 (19–21) 489 (19)
Concordia University 464 (17) 601 – 800 (22–26) 643 (22)
Dalhousie University 279 (12) 251 – 300 (11–14) 307 (14)
University of Guelph 581 – 590 (20) 501 – 600 (19–21) 423 (18)
Université Laval 402 (15) 251 – 300 (11–14) 299 (13)
University of Manitoba 601 – 650 (21) 401 – 500 (17–18) 397 (16)
McGill University 33 (2) 44 (3) 43 (3)
McMaster University 146 (5) 77 (4) 130 (4)
Memorial University of Newfoundland 651 – 700 (22–25) 501 – 600 (19–21) 647 (23)
Université de Montréal 149 (6) 90 (5) 136 (5)
University of New Brunswick N/A N/A 905 (26)
University of Northern British Columbia N/A 800 – 1000 (27) N/A
University of Ontario Institute of Technology N/A N/A 942 (27)
University of Ottawa 289 (13) 176 (7) 208 (8)
Université du Québec 541 – 550 (19) 601 – 800 (22–26) [note 4]
Queen's University 239 (10) 251 – 300 (11–14) 371 (15)
University of Regina N/A 601 – 800 (22–26) 961 (28)
Ryerson University 801 – 1000 (26) N/A 816 (25)
University of Saskatchewan 461 (16) 401 – 500 (17–18) 538 (21)
Université de Sherbrooke 651 – 700 (22–25) 600 – 800 (22–26) 663 (24)
Simon Fraser University 264 (11) 251 – 300 (11–14) 288 (12)
University of Toronto 28 (1) 21 (1) 20 (1)
University of Victoria 359 (14) 301 – 350 (15) 272 (10)
University of Waterloo 163 (7) 201 – 250 (10) 215 (9)
University of Western Ontario 214 (8) 190 (8) 276 (11)
University of Windsor 651 – 700 (22–25) 601 – 800 (22–26) 992 (29)
York University 481 (18) 351 – 400 (16) 408 (17)

National rankings[edit]

Opinion-based rankings[edit]

A number of Canadian-based publications have ranked universities in the Canada. The most prominent of which is Maclean's, a Toronto-based news magazine that has published an annual rankings of Canadian universities since 1991.[1] In addition to the Maclean's ranking, there are other Canadian-based publications that also rank Canadian universities. In 2012, the Toronto-based Higher Education Strategy Associates published a study ranking Canadian Universities based on research strength. The study ranks Canadian Universities in two broad fields: Science and Engineering, and Social Sciences and Humanities.[12]

A number of nationally based organizations have also crafted ranking using input from students and alumni. In 2014, the Toronto-based CampusRanking.ca began publication of its annual Canadian University and College Rankings, focusing on undergraduate education. The student-generated rankings asked over 40,000 undergraduate students and alumni to rate their schools. The survey was done across 135 schools in Canada.[13] This data was used to develop a school matching quiz, MatchU, where students are matched to schools based on their personality type and school preferences.[14] In February 2017, UniversityMagazine.ca, based in Windsor and Edmonton, started publishing its list of Top 10 universities in Canada.[15] UniversityMagazine.ca surveyed undergraduate and graduate students at 96 Canadian universities, using this information to rank the universities

Maclean's[edit]

Maclean's publishes an annual ranking of Canadian universities, intended to measure a university's overall "undergraduate experience".[16] The rankings are split into three categories: medical/doctoral, comprehensive, and undergraduate.

The Maclean's ranking of "medical/doctoral universities" includes universities that are heavily research-based, and have a broad range of graduate-level programs.[17] Universities placed within Maclean's comprehensive rankings includes universities with a significant degree of research activity and a wide range of programs at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels.[18] Universities placed in their primarily undergraduate rankings features universities that are smaller in size and offer fewer graduate programs than universities found in other categories.[19]

In addition to these three main categories, Maclean's also produces a reputation ranking for universities, as well as rankings for individual subjects. The reputation ranking ranks universities without separation by category.[20]

Criticism[edit]

The University of Calgary produced a formal study examining the ranking methodology, illuminating the factors that determined its rank and criticising certain aspects of the methodology. The University of Alberta, the University of Manitoba, and the University of Toronto have also criticized Maclean's annual universities rankings.[22]

Since September 2006, over 20 Canadian universities, including several of Canada's largest universities such as the University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, Concordia University, Dalhousie University, McMaster University, University of Ottawa, and the University of Toronto, jointly refused to participate.[22][23][24] University of Alberta president Indira Samarasekera wrote that Maclean's initially filed a "Freedom of Information" request but that it was "too late" for the universities to respond. Samarasekera further stated, "Most of [the universities] had already posted the data online, and we directed Maclean's staff to our Web sites. In instances where the magazine staff couldn’t find data on our Web site, they chose to use the previous year's data."[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Although 2019 is used in the title, the following was released in June 2018
  2. ^ Although 2019 is used in the title, the following was released in September 2018
  3. ^ a b c d Although 2019 is used in the title, the following was released in October 2018
  4. ^ Publication did not look at the Université du Québec system as a whole, but at its individual component institutions. The Université du Québec à Montréal was ranked 533 (20) in the U.S. News & World Report's 2018 ranking.

Works cited

  1. ^ a b Honey, Kim (29 October 2015). "2016 Maclean's University Rankings: A letter from the editor". Maclean's. Rogers Media. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  2. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  3. ^ "ARWU World Top 500 Candidates 2018". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  4. ^ "World University Rankings By 2018". NTU Rankings. 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  5. ^ "2018-2019 RANKING BY COUNTRY". Informatics Institute of Middle East Technical University. 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Methodology". QS World University Rankings. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 6 June 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  7. ^ "World University Rankings 2018 methodology". Times Higher Education World University Rankings. TES Global Limited. 29 August 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  8. ^ Krivian, Alexis; Morse, Robert; Martin, Elizabeth (29 October 2018). "How U.S. News Calculated the Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report L.P. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  9. ^ "QS World University Rankings - 2019". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  10. ^ "World University Rankings 2019". Times Higher Education. 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  11. ^ "Best Global Universities in Canada". U.S. News & World Report LP. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  12. ^ Jarvey, Paul; Usher, Alex (2012). "Measuring Academic Research in Canada: Field-Normalized University Rankings 2012" (PDF). Higher Education Strategy Associates. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  13. ^ "School Rankings". Campusranking.ca. Student Life Network. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  14. ^ "MatchU". Campusranking.ca. Student Life Network. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Top Universities in Canada". UniversityMagazine.ca. AMG Brands. 19 February 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Maclean's – Maclean's unveils its 21st annual University Rankings". Cision. CNW Group Ltd. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  17. ^ a b "University Rankings 2019: Canada's top Medical/Doctoral schools". Maclean’s. Rogers Media. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  18. ^ a b "University Rankings 2019: Canada's top Comprehensive schools". Maclean's. Rogers Media. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  19. ^ "University Rankings 2019: Canada's top Primarily Undergraduate schools". Maclean's. Rogers Media. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d "Canada's Top School by Reputation 2019". Maclean's. Rogers Media. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  21. ^ "University Rankings 2019: Canada's top Primarily Undergraduate schools". Maclean's. Rogers Media. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  22. ^ a b Iype, Mike (10 November 2010). "Maclean's releases its 20th university rankings". Vancouver Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  23. ^ Alphonso, Caroline (14 August 2006). "11 universities opt outof Maclean's survey". The Globe and Mail. The Woodbridge Company. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  24. ^ Schmidt, S. (2 September 2006). "Universities continue to shun Maclean's ranks". Canada.com. Postmedia News. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
  25. ^ Samarasekera, Indira (2 April 2007). "Rising Up Against Rankings". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 13 October 2018.