Rap rock

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Not to be confused with Rape rock.

Rap rock is a music genre that fuses vocal and instrumental elements of hip hop with various forms of rock. Rap rock's most popular subgenres include rap metal and rapcore, which include heavy metal and hardcore punk-oriented influences, respectively. One of the earliest examples would be "The Magnificent Seven" by The Clash, which fused new wave, hip hop, and funk.

Characteristics[edit]

AllMusic describes rap metal as having "big, lurching beats and heavy, heavy riffs" that "occasionally [...] [sound] as if the riffs were merely overdubbed over scratching and beat box beats",[1] and described rap rock as having a more organic sound,[1] characterizing many songs in the genre as rock songs in which the vocals were rapped rather than sung.[1] Allmusic also states that the rhythms of rap rock are rooted in that of hip hop, with more funk influences than normal hard rock.[1]

New York-based hip hop group Beastie Boys are considered highly influential within the rap rock genre.

Hed PE, which fuses punk rock with hip hop, sometimes incorporates reggae and heavy metal influences.[2] According to Rolling Stone writer Rob Kemp, Incubus' 1997 album S.C.I.E.N.C.E. "links funk metal to the rap metal".[3] Kottonmouth Kings perform a style which they refer to as "psychedelic hip-hop punk rock".[4] Kid Rock incorporates country and Southern rock influences,[5] and is backed by a 10 piece band, while Everlast fuses blues and rock with hip hop,[6] performing with a live band that includes a DJ.[7][8] An example of rap rock is the album Collision Course (album), it's a collaboration between the rapper Jay Z and the band Linkin Park.[9]

The lyrical themes of rap rock vary. According to Allmusic, "most rap-metal bands during the mid- to late '90s blended an ultra-aggressive, testosterone-heavy theatricality with either juvenile humor or an introspective angst learned through alternative metal".[10] However, as the genre began to become more established, several bands branched out into political or social commentary in their lyrics, most notably Rage Against the Machine and Senser which distinguished them from less politically concerned bands such as Linkin Park and Limp Bizkit.

Although many nu metal bands incorporate hip hop beats, rap rock bands are always fronted by rappers.[10] Rock bands generally not associated with rap rock have experimented with hip hop influences, including rapping. Such bands have included Blondie,[11] Rush,[12] Beck[13] and Cake.[14] Many rappers have been noted for a prominent use of samples derived from rock songs, including Eminem,[15] Ice-T,[16] The Fat Boys,[16] LL Cool J,[16] Public Enemy,[16] Whodini,[16] Vanilla Ice,[17] and Esham.[18][19]

History[edit]

Early development (1980s)[edit]

One of the earliest examples of rapping in rock music is "Year of the Guru" by Eric Burdon and the Animals, a psychedelic rock song in which Eric Burdon, according to AllMusic, "[took] the role of a modern rapper".[20] In 1983, KISS released the song "All Hell's Breakin' Loose" on the album Lick It Up with singer Paul Stanley rapping the verses. In 1986, Run–D.M.C. collaborated with Aerosmith on a remake of the latter's earlier song, "Walk This Way", first released in 1975. The success of the "Walk This Way" remake helped bring hip hop into popularity with a mainstream white audience,[21] following an earlier experimental track by rap artist LL Cool J, "Rock the Bells", where he had fused conventional rap lyrics over a hard rock arrangement. Beastie Boys, formerly a hardcore punk group, began working in the hip hop genre. Their debut album, Licensed to Ill, largely featured a rock-based sound.[22] The three aforementioned artists all collaborated with producer Rick Rubin, who is credited with creating the rap rock genre. In 1989, Tone-Lōc's[23] "Wild Thing"[24] off of his debut album, Lōc-ed After Dark[25] that reached No. 1 on the Billboard 200 was critically acclaimed and reached No. 2 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100. In 1991, thrash metal band Anthrax collaborated with political hip hop outfit Public Enemy on a version of the latter's "Bring the Noise", which saw rapped vocals shared between the Anthrax's Scott Ian and Public Enemy's Chuck D over a heavy electric guitar and electric bass riff. Public Enemy's track, "She Watch Channel Zero?!" features Chuck D rapping over a riff from the Slayer song "Angel of Death".[citation needed]

Rap rock began to enter the mainstream arena in the 1990s. American rock bands such as 311, 24-7 Spyz, Faith No More and Rage Against the Machine fused rock and hip hop influences.[16][26] Simultaneously, British bands like Pop Will Eat Itself and Senser were similarly shaping the genre across Europe. The soundtrack for the 1993 film Judgment Night featured 11 collaborations between hip hop and rock musicians.[27] Urban Dance Squad mixed funk, heavy metal, hip hop and punk.[28] Biohazard, who collaborated with hardcore hip hop group Onyx on the track "Judgement Night" from the soundtrack of the same name, is also considered to be a pioneering act in the genre.[29] Cypress Hill's Black Sunday featured a rock-based sound and artwork which, according to Allmusic reviewer Steve Huey, resembled that of heavy metal bands.[30]

Mainstream popularity (1990s and early 2000s)[edit]

Rap rock gained mainstream popularity in the 1990s. Rap rock bands and artists with mainstream success included 311,[31] Bloodhound Gang,[32] Kid Rock[33] and Limp Bizkit.[10]

Rapcore[edit]

Rapcore, punk rap or hip punk is a fusion genre of hip hop and punk rock or hardcore punk.[34][35][36][37][38] Beastie Boys, formerly a hardcore punk group, began working in the hip hop genre. Their debut album, Licensed to Ill, largely featured a rock-based sound.[39] Biohazard is considered to be a strong influence on the genre's development.[40] Huntington Beach-based punk band Hed PE performs a fusion of styles ranging from hip hop and reggae to punk rock, hardcore punk and heavy metal.[41] Although they are considered to be performers in the rapcore genre,[42] they refer to their musical style as "G-punk".[43][44] Kottonmouth Kings perform a style which they refer to as "psychedelic hip-hop punk rock".[4] Three of the earliest formative rapcore bands were 311, Rage Against the Machine, and Every Day Life.[45] Professional critic Mark Allan Powell considers the rap rock song "Jesus Freak" by DC Talk, which was marginalized by many critics due to its Christian lyrical content, the turning point of when the popularity of grunge gave way to rapcore.[45]

Among the first wave of bands to gain mainstream success were 311,[46] Bloodhound Gang[34] and Limp Bizkit.[47] Although the popularity of rapcore declined,[26] some believe that rapcore may regain popularity, with younger music fans discovering bands in the genre.[48] Drew Simollardes of the rapcore band Reveille states that "I feel like lately it’s more appropriate. People are sick of a lot of the stuff that’s out there right now."[48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Genre: Rap-Rock". AllMusic. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  2. ^ Sculley, Alan (August 28, 2008). "(Hed) p.e. wants (no) interference". Naperville, Illinois: The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved 2008-08-23. [dead link]
  3. ^ Kemp, Rob (2004). "Incubus". In Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). Simon and Schuste. p. 403. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. 
  4. ^ a b Ankeny, Jason. "Biography for Kottonmouth Kings". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  5. ^ Hess, Mickey (2007). "White Rappers". Hip Hop Dead? The Past, Present, and Future of America's Most Wanted Music. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-275-99461-9. 
  6. ^ "Everlast, Mike Ness, Willie Nelson Soothe Nerves with Early Sunday Sets". MTV News. July 26, 1999. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  7. ^ Sullivan, Jim (September 28, 1998). "Scrambling genres works for Everlast". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  8. ^ Johnson, Brett (August 14, 1999). "Everlast succeeds with introspection". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  9. ^ Paoletta, Michael (December 11, 2004). "Mash-Ups: Linkin Park, Jay-Z Come Together on 'Collision Course'". Billboard - The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 116 (50) – via ProQuest. 
  10. ^ a b c "Genre: Rap-Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  11. ^ Christgau, Robert. "Review of Autoamerican". Retrieved December 31, 2008. Guarisco, Donald A. "Review of 'The Magnificent Seven'". Allmusic. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  12. ^ Roberto, Leonard (2000). "Roll the Bones". A Simple Kind Mirror: The Lyrical Vision of Rush. iUniverse. p. 45. ISBN 0-595-21362-6. 
  13. ^ Black, Johnny (March 2003). "The Greatest Songs Ever! Loser". Blender. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  14. ^ McCoy, Heath (August 16, 2001). "Comfort Eagle is modest slice of new Cake album". Calgary Herald (Postmedia Network). 
  15. ^ Sing for the Moment
  16. ^ a b c d e f Henderson, Alex. "Genre essay: Rap-Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  17. ^ Hess, Mickey (2007). "Vanilla Ice: The Elvis of Rap". Is Hip Hop Dead?. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 118. ISBN 0-275-99461-9. 
  18. ^ Keyes, Cheryl Lynette (2002). "Blending and Shaping Styles: Rap and Other Musical Voices". Rap Music and Street Consciousness. University of Illinois Press. p. 108. ISBN 9780252072017. 
  19. ^ Ketchum III, William E. (October 15, 2008). "Mayor Esham? What?". Detroit, Michigan: Metro Times. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  20. ^ Bruce Eder. "Every One of Us - Eric Burdon & the Animals | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  21. ^ Sanneh, Kelefa (December 3, 2000). "Rappers Who Definitely Know How to Rock". The New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  22. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Review of Licensed to Ill". Allmusic. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  23. ^ Tone Lōc
  24. ^ Wild Thing
  25. ^ Lōc-ed After Dark
  26. ^ a b Grierson, Tim. "What Is Rap-Rock: A Brief History of Rap-Rock". About.com. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  27. ^ Greene, Jr, James (April 4, 2008). "Review of Judgment Night: Music from the Motion Picture". PopMatters. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  28. ^ Jenkins, Mark (July 14, 1990). "Urban Dance Squad". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Pop and Jazz Guide". The New York Times. December 26, 2003. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  30. ^ Huey, Steve. "Review of Black Sunday". Allmusic. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  31. ^ Nixon, Chris (August 16, 2007). "Anything goes". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  32. ^ Potterf, Tina (October 1, 2003). "Turners blurs line between sports bar, dance club". The Seattle Times. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  33. ^ "Long Live Rock n' Rap: Rock isn't dead, it's just moving to a hip-hop beat. So are its mostly white fans, who face questions about racial identity as old as Elvis". Newsweek. July 19, 1999. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  34. ^ a b Ambrose, Joe (2001). "Moshing - An Introduction". The Violent World of Moshpit Culture. Omnibus Press. p. 5. ISBN 0711987440. 
  35. ^ McIver, Joel (2002). "The Shock of the New". Nu-metal: The Next Generation of Rock & Punk. Omnibus Press. p. 10. ISBN 0711992096. 
  36. ^ Dent, Susie (2003). The Language Report. Oxford University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0198608608. 
  37. ^ Signorelli, Luca (ed.). "Stuck Mojo". Metallus. Il libro dell'Heavy Metal (in Italian). Giunti Editore Firenze. p. 173. ISBN 8809022300. 
  38. ^ Bush, John (2002). "Limp Bizkit". All Music Guide to Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 656. ISBN 087930653X. One of the most energetic groups in the fusion of metal, punk and hip-hop sometimes known as rapcore 
  39. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Review of Licensed to Ill". AllMusic. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  40. ^ "Biohazard stays on top of the hard-core underground". The News-Sentinel. November 15, 2001. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  41. ^ Sculley, Alan (August 28, 2008). "(Hed) p.e. wants (no) interference". Naperville, Illinois: The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved 2008-08-23. [dead link]
  42. ^ "(hed) PE-style". Idaho Statesman. July 13, 2007. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  43. ^ Scire, Dawn (March 14, 2003). "(hed) p.e.'s frontman touches down.". Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Sarasota, Florida). Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  44. ^ Owen, Arrissia (November 25, 1999). "Not So Hed, Not so (pe)". OC Weekly. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  45. ^ a b Powell, Mark Allan (2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music. Hendrickson Publisher. pp. 241, 311. ISBN 1-56563-679-1. 
  46. ^ Armstrong, Sara (October 22, 1999). "CD Review: 311's Soundsystem". University Wire. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  47. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Three Dollar Bill Y'All - Limp Bizkit". AllMusic. Retrieved March 8, 2012. Limp Bizkit quickly rose to the top of the alt-metal subgenre known as 'rapcore'. 
  48. ^ a b Wedge, Dave (December 24, 2008). "Reveille answers wake-up call". Boston Herald. Retrieved December 31, 2008.