Rape by gender

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Rape by gender classifies types of rape by the sex or gender of both the rapist and the victim. This scope includes both rape and sexual assault more generally. Most research indicates that rape affects women disproportionately, with the majority of people convicted being men; however, since the broadening of the definition of rape in 2012 by the FBI, more attention is being given to male rape, including females raping males.

Since only a small percentage of acts of sexual violence are brought to the attention of the authorities,[1][2] it is difficult to compile accurate rape statistics. Conviction rates differ by the gender of both the perpetrator and victim. Various studies argue that male-male and female-female prison rape are quite common and may be the least reported form of rape.[3][4][5] Furthermore, a large number of rape cases take place when the victims are below the age of consent, bringing in the issue of child sexual abuse or statutory rape.

Rape of females[edit]

In a 2000 research article from the Home Office, in England and Wales, around 1 in 20 women (5%) said that they had been raped at some point in their life from the age of 16 beyond.[6]

In 2011, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that "nearly 20% of all women" in the United States suffered attempted sexual assault, sexual assault (forced kissing and fondling), attempted rape, and rape sometime in their life. More than a third of the victims were raped before the age of 18.[7]

Along the CDC's report, the US census has recorded in 2011, in the United States, .052% of US women are forcibly raped annually, nearly half of what it was years before [8]

According to a 2013 report by the CDC, 28% of victimized heterosexual women and a full 48% of bisexual women experienced their first rape between the ages of 11 and 17.[9]

Rape of females by males[edit]

Many rapes by males against females in developping countries are unreported because of "fear of reprisal from the assailant"[10] and because of "shame...and deep-seated cultural notions that the woman is somehow to blame".[11] Pregnancy may result from rape. The rate varies between settings and depends particularly on the extent to which non-barrier contraceptives are being used. A study of adolescents in Ethiopia found that among those who reported being raped, 17% became pregnant after the rape,[12] a figure which is similar to the 15–18% reported by rape crisis centres in Mexico.[13][14] A longitudinal study in the United States of over 4000 women followed for 3 years found that the national rape related pregnancy rate was 5.0% per rape among victims aged 12–45 years, producing over 32,000 pregnancies nationally among women from rape each year.[15] Experience of coerced sex at an early age reduces a woman’s ability to see her sexuality as something over which she has control.[16][17][18][19]

The rape of women by men has been documented as a weapon of terror in warfare.[20]

Rape of females by females[edit]

Assault by forcible stimulation of female genitalia by a female perpetrator is possible by digital manipulation, oral sex, strap-ons, other dildos or other foreign objects, or tribadism.[21][22][23] A telephone survey conducted in 2010 for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 43.8% of lesbians reported having been raped, physically abused or stalked at some point by an intimate partner; of these, 67.4% reported the perpetrator or perpetrators as being exclusively female.[24]

Rape of males[edit]

Main article: Rape of males

A CDC study found that, in the US, 1 in 71 men had been raped or suffered an attempt within their lifetime. The same study found that approximately 1 in 21 or 4.8% men in a survey had been made to penetrate someone else, usually an intimate partner or acquaintance.[25] A NWAV Survey found that 0.1 percent of men surveyed had been raped in the previous 12 months, compared to 0.3 percent of women. Using these statistics it was estimated that, in the US, 92,748 men had been raped in the previous year.[26]

The rape of men has often been documented as a weapon of war.[27]

Male sexual assault is also prevalent on college campuses. On campuses, 1 in 16 men are survivors of sexual assault. Although the rate of male sexual assault is relatively high, many do not file reports due to the misconception of sexual assault being a women’s issue due to “preconceived notions about both sexual violence and gender."[28]

There are some cases when men will speak up about being a survivor, such as in the documentary The Hunting Ground, which is about the prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses and the failure of college administration to adequately deal with it.

Rape of males by males[edit]

Several studies argue that male-male prisoner rape, as well as female-female prisoner rape, are common types of rape which go unreported even more frequently than rape in the general population.[note 1][note 2][note 3] The rape of men by men has been documented as a weapon of terror in warfare (see also War rape).[27] In the case of the Syrian Civil War (2011–present), the male detainees experienced sexual abuse like being forced to sit on a broken glass bottle, getting their genitals tied to a heavy bag of water, or being forced to watch the rape of another detainee by the officials.[29]

Rape of males by females[edit]

Male victims of sexual abuse by females[30] often face social, political, and legal double standards.[31] Some cases in the United States have received increased attention and sparked awareness within the population. Sometimes referred to as "made to penetrate" cases, male rape victims are forced to engage in penetration of the female without proper consent. Many times the male victims are under the influence of drugs or being held in life-threatening positions. The case of Cierra Ross'[32] sexual assault of a man in Chicago gained national headlines and Ross was convicted of aggravated criminal sexual abuse and armed robbery with a bail set at $75,000. A similar case includes James Landrith, who was made to penetrate a female acquaintance in a hotel room while incapacitated from drinking, along with his rapist citing the fact that she was pregnant to advise him not to struggle, as this might hurt the baby.[33][34]

Some male victims, including underage children, have been forced to pay child-support to their attacker when their rapist conceives a baby as a result of the attack.[35][36][37]

Several widely publicized cases of female-on-male statutory rape in the United States involved school teachers engaging in sexual intercourse with their underage students. Each of the 50 states has laws regarding the age of consent, but all have it set at 16, 17 or 18. These laws make any sexual encounters between adults and minors under the age of consent sexual assault (see Mary Kay Letourneau and Debra Lafave).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Human Rights Watch No Escape: Male Rape In U.S. Prisons. Part VII. Anomaly or Epidemic: The Incidence of Prisoner-on-Prisoner Rape.; estimates that 100,000–140,000 violent male-male rapes occur in U.S. prisons annually; compare with FBI statistics that estimated 90,000 violent male-female rapes occur annually.
  2. ^ Robert W. Dumond, "Ignominious Victims: Effective Treatment of Male Sexual Assault in Prison," August 15, 1995, p. 2; states that "evidence suggests that [male-male sexual assault in prison] may a staggering problem"). Quoted in Mariner, Joanne; (Organization), Human Rights Watch (2001-04-17). No escape: male rape in U.S. prisons. Human Rights Watch. p. 370. ISBN 978-1-56432-258-6. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  3. ^ Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Struckman-Johnson, David (2006). "A Comparison of Sexual Coercion Experiences Reported by Men and Women in Prison". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 21 (12): 1591–1615. doi:10.1177/0886260506294240. ISSN 0886-2605. PMID 17065656. ; reports that "Greater percentages of men (70%) than women (29%) reported that their incident resulted in oral, vaginal, or anal sex. More men (54%) than women (28%) reported an incident that was classified as rape."

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Secretary Generals database on violence against women". UN Secretary General's Database on Violence Against Women. 2009-07-24. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2013-02-03. 
  2. ^ "A gap or a chasm? Attrition in reported rape cases" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-12-31. 
  3. ^ Human Rights WatchNo Escape: Male Rape In U.S. Prisons. Part VII. Anomaly or Epidemic: The Incidence of Prisoner-on-Prisoner Rape.; estimates that 100,000–140,000 violent male-male rapes occur in U.S. prisons annually.
  4. ^ Robert W. Dumond, "Ignominious Victims: Effective Treatment of Male Sexual Assault in Prison," August 15, 1995, p. 2; states that "evidence suggests that [male-male sexual assault in prison] may a staggering problem"). Quoted in Mariner, Joanne; (Organization), Human Rights Watch (2001-04-17). No escape: male rape in U.S. prisons. Human Rights Watch. p. 370. ISBN 978-1-56432-258-6. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  5. ^ Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Struckman-Johnson, David (2006). "A Comparison of Sexual Coercion Experiences Reported by Men and Women in Prison". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 21 (12): 1591–1615. doi:10.1177/0886260506294240. ISSN 0886-2605. PMID 17065656. ; reports that "Greater percentages of men (70%) than women (29%) reported that their incident resulted in oral, vaginal, or anal sex. More men (54%) than women (28%) reported an incident that was classified as rape."
  6. ^ Rape and sexual assault of women: findings from the British Crime Survey. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
  7. ^ "Nearly 20% of women in the US are raped or suffer attempted rape at some point in their lives, a US study says.". BBC World. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011. 
  8. ^ http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s0314.pdf
  9. ^ Heavey, Susan (January 25, 2013). "Data shows domestic violence, rape an issue for gays". Reuters. Retrieved October 31, 2013. 
  10. ^ "(CVS)". Crime Victim Services. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  11. ^ "Rape and Sexual Assault". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  12. ^ Mulugeta, E; Kassaye, M; Berhane, Y (1998). "Mulugeta E, Kassaye M, Berhane Y. Prevalence and outcomes of sexual violence among high school students". Ethiopian medical journal 36 (3): 167–74. PMID 10214457. 
  13. ^ Evaluacio´n de proyecto para educacio´n, capacitacio´n y atencio´n a mujeres y menores de edad en materia de violencia sexual, enero a diciembre 1990. [An evaluation of a project to provide education, training and care for women and minors affected by sexual violence, January–December 1990.] Mexico City, Asociación Mexicana contra la Violencia a las Mujeres, 1990.
  14. ^ Carpeta de información básica para la atención solidaria y feminista a mujeres violadas. [Basic information file for mutually supportive feminist care for women rape victims.] Mexico City, Centro de Apoyo a Mujeres Violadas, 1985.
  15. ^ Holmes, MM; Resnick, HS; Kilpatrick, DG; Best, CL (1996). "Rape-related pregnancy: estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 175 (2): 320–4; discussion 324–5. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(96)70141-2. PMID 8765248. 
  16. ^ Jewkes, R; Vundule, C; Maforah, F; Jordaan, E (2001). "Relationship dynamics and adolescent pregnancy in South Africa". Social science & medicine (1982) 52 (5): 733–44. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(00)00177-5. PMID 11218177. 
  17. ^ Boyer, D.; Fine, D. (1992). "Sexual abuse as a factor in adolescent pregnancy". Family Planning Perspectives 24 (1): 4–19. doi:10.2307/2135718. JSTOR 2135718. PMID 1601126. 
  18. ^ Roosa, M. W.; Tein, J. Y.; Reinholtz, C.; Angelini, P. J. (1997). "The relationship of childhood sexual abuse to teenage pregnancy" (PDF). Journal of Marriage and the Family 59 (1): 119–130. JSTOR 353666. 
  19. ^ Stock, JL; Bell, MA; Boyer, DK; Connell, FA (1997). "Adolescent pregnancy and sexual risk taking among sexually abused girls". Family Planning Perspectives 29 (5): 200–3, 227. doi:10.2307/2953395. PMID 9323495. 
  20. ^ "Rape as a Weapon of War and it's (sic) Long-term Effects on Victims and Society" (PDF). Ts-si.org. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  21. ^ Renzetti, Claire M. Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1992, ISBN 0-8039-3888-8.
  22. ^ Ristock, Janice. No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships. New York: Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-92946-6.
  23. ^ Girshick, Lori B. Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? (The Northeastern Series on Gender, Crime, and the Law). Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000, ISBN 1-55553-527-5.
  24. ^ "National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  25. ^ Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pp.1-2.
  26. ^ P., Tjaden, & N., Thoennes (2000). Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequence of Violence Against Women. US Department of Justice, pp. 26.
  27. ^ a b Storr, Will (17 July 2011). "The rape of men : Society : The Observer". The Observer (London: Guardian.co.uk). Retrieved 17 July 2011. Sexual violence is one of the most horrific weapons of war, an instrument of terror used against women. Yet huge numbers of men are also victims. 
  28. ^ "Sign In" (PDF). jmm.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2016-04-24. 
  29. ^ Amnesty International. 2012. 'I Wanted to Die': Syria's torture survivors speak out. London: Amnesty International Publications.
  30. ^ Barbara Krahé; Renate Scheinberger-Olwig; Steffen Bieneck (2003). "Men's Reports of Nonconsensual Sexual Interactions with Women: Prevalence and Impact". Archives of Sexual Behavior 32 (5): 165–175. doi:10.1023/A:1022456626538. 
  31. ^ Myriam S. Denov (2004). Perspectives on female sex offending: a culture of denial. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-3565-9. 
  32. ^ Cierra Ross, Chicago Mom, Charged With Raping Man At Gunpoint, Huffington Post, September 6, 2013.
  33. ^ "Against his will: The reality of male rape". CNN.com. 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  34. ^ http://goodmenproject.com/featured-content/ive-got-the-t-shirt-and-the-trauma-response-to-go-with-it/
  35. ^ "Court Tells Youth to Support Child He Fathered at Age 13". New York Times. 1993-03-06. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  36. ^ "Arizona Is Requiring A Male Statutory Rape Victim To Pay Child Support". Business Insider. 2014-09-02. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  37. ^ "Statutory Rape Victim Ordered To Pay Child Support". Chicago Tribune. 1996-12-22. Retrieved 2016-03-20.