Rapid response team

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A rapid response team (RRT) is a team of health care providers that responds to hospitalized patients with early signs of clinical deterioration on non-intensive care units to prevent respiratory or cardiac arrest. The health care providers are trained in early resuscitation interventions and advanced life support and often include a physician, nurse, and respiratory therapist. The RRT, medical emergency team (MET), critical care outreach team (CCOT), and rover team are all different forms of the efferent component of the rapid response system. The team responds to calls placed by clinicians or families at the bedside who have detected deterioration.[1][2][3]


Rapid response teams appear to decrease the rates of respiratory and cardiac arrest outside the intensive care unit.[4][5] However, the overall effectiveness of RRTs in improving patient safety is controversial due to the variability across studies in whether they reduce the rates of hospital-wide mortality and respiratory and cardiac arrest.[4][6][7][8][9][10][11]


  1. ^ Jones, DA; DeVita, MA; Bellomo, R (Jul 14, 2011). "Rapid-response teams." (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine 365 (2): 139–46. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0910926. PMID 21751906. 
  2. ^ Devita, MA; Bellomo, R; Hillman, K; Kellum, J; Rotondi, A; Teres, D; Auerbach, A; Chen, WJ; Duncan, K; Kenward, G; Bell, M; Buist, M; Chen, J; Bion, J; Kirby, A; Lighthall, G; Ovreveit, J; Braithwaite, RS; Gosbee, J; Milbrandt, E; Peberdy, M; Savitz, L; Young, L; Harvey, M; Galhotra, S (Sep 2006). "Findings of the first consensus conference on medical emergency teams.". Critical Care Medicine 34 (9): 2463–78. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000235743.38172.6E. PMID 16878033. 
  3. ^ National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Clinical guideline 50: Acutely ill patients in hospital. London, 2007.
  4. ^ a b Chan, PS; Jain, R; Nallmothu, BK; Berg, RA; Sasson, C (2010-01-11). "Rapid Response Teams: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.". Archives of Internal Medicine 170 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.424. PMID 20065195. 
  5. ^ Winters, BD; Weaver, SJ; Pfoh, ER; Yang, T; Pham, JC; Dy, SM (Mar 5, 2013). "Rapid-response systems as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.". Annals of internal medicine 158 (5 Pt 2): 417–25. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-158-5-201303051-00009. PMID 23460099. 
  6. ^ Hillman, K; Chen, J; Cretikos, M; Bellomo, R; Brown, D; Doig, G; Finfer, S; Flabouris, A; MERIT study, investigators (Jun 18–24, 2005). "Introduction of the medical emergency team (MET) system: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.". Lancet 365 (9477): 2091–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66733-5. PMID 15964445. 
  7. ^ Massey, D; Aitken, LM; Chaboyer, W (Dec 2010). "Literature review: do rapid response systems reduce the incidence of major adverse events in the deteriorating ward patient?". Journal of clinical nursing 19 (23-24): 3260–73. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03394.x. PMID 21029228. 
  8. ^ Ranji, SR; Auerbach, AD; Hurd, CJ; O'Rourke, K; Shojania, KG (Nov 2007). "Effects of rapid response systems on clinical outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.". Journal of hospital medicine : an official publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine 2 (6): 422–32. doi:10.1002/jhm.238. PMID 18081187. 
  9. ^ Tibballs, J; van der Jagt, EW (Aug 2008). "Medical emergency and rapid response teams.". Pediatric clinics of North America 55 (4): 989–1010, xi. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2008.04.006. PMID 18675030. 
  10. ^ Winters, BD; Pham, JC; Hunt, EA; Guallar, E; Berenholtz, S; Pronovost, PJ (May 2007). "Rapid response systems: a systematic review.". Critical Care Medicine 35 (5): 1238–43. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000262388.85669.68. PMID 17414079. 
  11. ^ Stahel, PF; Fakler, JK; Flierl, MA; Moldenhauer, K; Mehler, PS (Mar 2010). "[Current concepts of patient safety: rapid response system].". Der Unfallchirurg 113 (3): 239–46. doi:10.1007/s00113-009-1734-7. PMID 20174916.