Rapid transit in India

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Rapid transit in India consists of bus, metro, monorail and light rail systems. The first rapid transit system in India was the Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro was India's first modern metro and the third rapid transit system in India overall, after the Kolkata Metro and Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System (Chennai MRTS), beginning operations in 2002. Rapid Metro Rail Gurgaon, which started operations in November 2013, is India's first privately owned and operated metro.[1] The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 7 February 2014 is the first monorail in India, since the closing of the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in 1927.

In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy proposed the construction of a metro rail system in every city with a population of 20 lakh.[2] On 11 August 2014, Union Urban Development Minister M. Venkaiah Naidu announced that the Union Government would provide financial assistance, for the implementation of a metro rail system, to all Indian cities having population of more than 1 million.[3][4] In May 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved the Union Urban Development Ministry's proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities. The majority of the planned projects will be implement through special purpose vehicles, which will be established as 50:50 joint ventures between the Union and respective State Government. The Union Government will invest an estimated 5 lakh crore (US$75 billion).[5][6] Currently, rapid transit systems operate in 15 cities and more are under construction or in planning in several cities of India.[7][8]

Bus Rapid Transit System[edit]

Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is a rapid transit for city bus service in India. The following table shows BRTS in India along with details.

Green background for the systems that are under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning. Yellow background for other proposed systems but no planning yet. Pink background for systems that are defunct.

System City Start of Operations System Lines System Length (KM) Stations
Ahmedabad BRTS Ahmedabad 14 October 2009 12 87 126
Delhi BRTS Delhi 2008 7 115.5
Indore BRTS Indore 2013 10 126.46 N/A
Jaipur BRTS Jaipur July 2010 2
Rajkot BRTS Rajkot 1 October 2012 1 63 19
Surat BRTS Surat 26 January 2014 2 29.9 50
Vijayawada BRTS Vijayawada 2011
Amritsar BRTS Amritsar november 2015 7(phase 1) 31 62
Bhopal BRTS Bhopal 10 186 230
Bhubaneswar BRTS Bhubaneswar 2015 2 66.32 TBD
Hubli-Dharwad BRTS Hubli, Dharwad 2014 2 70 33
Kolkata BRTS Kolkata 1 15.5
Ludhiana BRTS Ludhiana 48
Mumbai BRTS Mumbai 2014 1 11.7
Rainbow BRTS Pune December 2006 4 23.6
Visakapatnam BRTS Vishakhapatnam 42
Bangalore BRTS Bangalore 14 282
Chennai BRTS Chennai 1 70.3 21
Coimbatore BRTS Coimbatore 1 27.6
Hyderabad BRTS Hyderabad 2 39
Lucknow BRTS Lucknow
Madurai BRTS Madurai 2
Mysore BRTS Mysore
Nagpur BRTS Nagpur
Tiruchirappalli BRTS Tiruchirappalli
Guwahatii BRTS[9] Guwahati
Pimpri-Chinchwad BRTS Pimpri-Chinchwad 4 112
Pune BRTS Pune December 2006 4 23.6

Metro rail[edit]

There are currently 8 operational metro systems in India.

Metro rail lines in India are composed of both standard gauge and broad gauge. Projects like the Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but most new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock imported from Europe is on Standard Gauge. One exception is the Ahmedabad Metro, which will use Broad gauge, as there is more space available inside the coach.[10]

Green background for the systems that are under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning. Yellow background for other proposed systems but no planning yet. Pink background for systems that are defunct.

City System Start of operations System Length Lines[a] Stations[b] Voltage Notes
IO[c] P[d] UC[e]
Kolkata Kolkata Metro 24 October 1984 028.400 km 120.250 km 090.000 km 1 24 750 V DC Third rail First mass rapid transit system in India and the 17th zone of the Indian Railways.
Chennai Chennai MRTS 1 November 1995 019.340 km 024.235 km 004.500 km 1 17 25kV AC OHE It is planned for the MRTS to be taken over by the Chennai Metro Rail Limited.[11]
Delhi - NCR Delhi Metro 24 December 2002 208.000 km 126.547 km [12] 122.205 km [13] 6 156 25kV AC OHE India's first modern rapid transit system.
Bangalore Namma Metro 20 October 2011 019.1 km 072.0 km 023.2 km 2 19 750 V DC Third rail First metro in India to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains.[14]
Gurgaon Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon 14 November 2013 005.100 km 007.000 km [15] 1 6 750 V DC Third rail India's first fully privately financed metro,[16] and the first metro system in the country to auction naming rights for its stations.[17]
Mumbai Mumbai Metro 8 June 2014 011.400 km 105.500 km[18][19] 1 12 25kV AC OHE
Jaipur Jaipur Metro 3 June 2015 009.200 km 032.500 km 002.400 km 1 9 25kV AC OHE Double-storey elevated road and Metro track project for the first time in the country.
Chennai Chennai Metro 29 June 2015 010.100 km[20] 063.000 km 035.000 km 1 7 25kV AC OHE
Hyderabad Hyderabad Metro April 2016[21] 092.000 km 071.600 km 25kV AC OHE India's first metro to have CBTC and integrated telecommunications and supervision systems, i.e. driver less metro.
Kochi Kochi Metro 7 June 2016[22] 025.600 km 750 V DC Third rail Kochi is the first Tier-II city in India to be granted a metro under the Central Government's plan to allow cities having population more than 20 lakhs to have a metro rail system.[23]
Navi Mumbai Navi Mumbai Metro May 2017[24] 106.400 km[25] N/A
Lucknow Lucknow Metro 2017 036.000 km 25kV AC OHE
Noida, Jewar & Greater Noida Noida Metro Rail Corporation 2017 [26] 029.707 km [27] 25kV AC OHE
Ahmedabad & Gandhinagar MetroLink Express Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad (MEGA) 2018[28][29] 037.766 km[30] 750 V DC Third rail
Nagpur Nagpur Metro 2018[31] 038.200 km N/A Construction began on 30 May 2015.[32]
Kanpur Kanpur Metro 2017 084.000 km N/A DPR being prepared.[33] Construction work starts on Jan 2016[34]
Meerut Meerut Metro 2021[35] 030.000 km N/A DPR being prepared.[36] Construction work starts by 2016 end.[37]
Patna Patna Metro 060.000 km N/A DPR being prepared.[38]
Vijayawada Vijayawada Metro 2018[39][40] 026.000 km[41] N/A DPR Approved by AP Cabinet,Construction works are yet to start,First Phase scheduled to run from August 2018 [42] Construction work starts by June 2015[43][44][45][46]
Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro 2021[47] 022.000 km[48] N/A DPR approved and submitted by DMRC; awaiting cabinet approval[49]
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam Metro(Vizag Metro) 039.000 km N/A Construction of Phase-1 to be completed by December 2018.[50] DPR prepared and to be submitted .[51][52][53]
Kozhikode Kozhikode Light Metro 2021[54] 022.000 km[55] N/A DPR approved and submitted by DMRC on October 2014; awaiting cabinet approval[56]
Guwahati Guwahati Metro 2021 044.200 km N/A DPR being prepared.[9][57]
Bhopal Bhopal Metro 2018[58] 085.000 km[59] 25kV AC DPR being prepared[60]
Indore Indore Metro 2021[61] 030.000 km 25kV AC
National Capital Region National Capital Region Metro 2021 381.000 km[62] 25kV AC
Chandigarh Tricity Chandigarh Metro 2018[63] 037.500 km N/A DPR already prepared and submitted[64]
Agra Agra Metro 2021[65] 027.000 km[66] N/A DPR being prepared for submission[67]
Varanasi Varanasi Metro 025.000 km[68] N/A DPR being prepared for submission[69]
Allahabad Allahabad Metro 025.000 km[70] N/A DPR being prepared[71]
Pune Pune Metro[72] 082.000 km N/A DPR already submitted to CM[73]
Bhubaneswar & Cuttack Bhubaneswar Metro 030.000 km[74] N/A DPR being prepared[75]
Dehradun - Rishikesh - Haridwar Dehradun Metro[76] N/A DPR submitted[77]
Gwalior Gwalior Metro N/A Under feasibility study[78]
Surat Surat Metro N/A Under feasibility study by MEGA.[79]
Nasik Greater Nasik Metro N/A Proposed Metro line which will connect Igatpuri, Deolali, Nasik Road, Nasik Central and Ojhar Airport.[80]
Srinagar Srinagar Metro N/A
Mumbai Western railway elevated corridor 063.270 km N/A

1In operation Number of lines currently operating. Line is considered to be operating if services are running on at least one section.
2Planned Lines that are planned to b


The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014 is the first operational monorail system used for rapid transit in independent India.[81] Many other Indian cities have monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, in different phases of planning.

Green background for the systems that are under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning. Yellow background for other proposed systems but no planning yet. Pink background for systems that are defunct.

City System Operations began System length (km) Lines Stations Notes
Mumbai Mumbai Monorail 2 February 2014 8.26 km 1 7
Chennai Chennai Monorail 2018 57 km 3 37 Centre approved Chennai monorail project to be implemented under DBFOT model.[82][83][84][85][86]
Kolkata Kolkata Monorail 72 km 2
Coimbatore Coimbatore Monorail 2
Ranchi Ranchi Monorail March 2016 25 km 2 33
Allahabad Allahabad Monorail 70.4 km 2
Bangalore Bangalore Monorail 60 km
Delhi Delhi Monorail 90 km 6
Indore Indore Monorail
Kanpur Kanpur Monorail 63 km 3
Navi Mumbai Navi Mumbai Monorail 36.82 km 2
Patna Patna Monorail 32 km 4
Pune Pune Monorail 52 km 2
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Monorail 30 km 4
Aizawl Aizawl Monorail
Jodhpur Jodhpur Monorail [87][88][89][90][91][92][93]
Kota Kota Monorail [87][88][89][90][91][92][93]

Light rail[edit]

Green background for the systems that are under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning. Yellow background for other proposed systems but no planning yet. Pink background for systems that are defunct.

SN City System Opening Year System length (km) No. of lines
1 Kolkata Kolkata LRTS 2
2 Delhi Delhi Light Rail Transit 45 3
3 Pune Pune LRTS
4 Guwahati Guwahati LRTS 2025


The subject of Railways is in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, giving Parliament the exclusive power to enact legislation concerning it. According to Ministry of Urban Development (India) Kamal Nath, "Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."[94]

To facilitate the construction of the Calcutta Metro (now Kolkata Metro), the first metro system in the country, the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978 was enacted. This Act was initially applicable to Calcutta but contained a provision that, by a notification in the Official Gazette, the Central Government could also extend it to the metropolitan cities of Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi. In 2000, the Central Government extended the Act to the city of Delhi.[95]

However, the Act had several limiations. Firstly, there was no provision in this Act to extend it to any city, other than the four cities mentioned previously. Secondly, the Act covered only the construction stage of a metro system and did not provide legal cover to their operation and maintenance stage. When the first section of Calcutta Metro had to be opened for public carriage of passengers, the Central Government had to hastily promulgated an ordinance titled the Calcutta Metro (Operation and Maintenance) Temporary Provisions Ordinance, 1984. This Ordinance was converted the following year into the Calcutta Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Temporary Provisions Act, 1985. This latter Act also suffered from several deficiencies. As its very title indicates, it is applicable to Calcutta Metro only, and there is no provision in it to enable the Central Government to extend it to other cities of the country. Besides, it contained only bare minimum provisions which were essential to enable commissioning of Calcutta Metro for public carriage of passengers. The Central Government’s intention probably was that after sufficient experience in operating and maintaining Calcutta Metro has been gained, many more provisions would be included in this Act to make it self-contained and the world ‘Temporary Provisions’ would be dropped therefrom.[95]

Construction of Delhi Metro was done under the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978, after the same was extended to the city of Delhi. The Central Government had, however, to enact another legislation titled ‘Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002 before its first section from Shahdara to Tis Hazari could be opened for public carriage of passengers.[95]

Construction of metros in India are governed by the centrally enacted "The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978" which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith.[96] Operation and maintenance of metros is governed by "The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002". Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of "The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009".[97] The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.

Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India.[98] Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refuses certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.[98]

Metro coach factories in India[edit]

Hyundai Mitsubishi Rotem BEML[edit]

BEML manufactures Rolling Stock for Delhi Metro and Namma Metro in a consortium with Hyundai Mitsubishi Rotem BEML has supplied more than 200 coaches to DMRC and has an order of 150 coaches from Bangalore Metro. Metro Systems using/will be using BEML Rolling Stocks are:[citation needed]

  • Delhi Metro – 200 coaches
  • Namma Metro – 150 coaches
  • Jaipur Metro – 40 coaches
  • Hyderabad Metro – 171 coaches


Bombardier built a £26m factory in Savli, Gujarat after it won a contract to supply 614 cars to the Delhi Metro.[99] Production at Savli began in June 2009.[100]

In June 2012, the plant won an order to supply semi-finished bogies to Australia.[100]


In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro.[101] The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad.[102]

See also[edit]


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  100. ^ a b [1]
  101. ^ [2]
  102. ^ [3]


  1. ^ Indicates lines that are in operation for operational systems, lines that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed lines for proposed systems.
  2. ^ Indicates stations that are in operation for operational systems, stations that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed stations for proposed systems.
  3. ^ In Operation. The length of the system currently in operation.
  4. ^ Planned. The length of the system currently planned to be built, but construction has not yet started.
  5. ^ Under construction. The length of the system currently under construction.