Rapid transit in India

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Rapid transit in India consists of bus, metro, monorail and light rail systems. The first rapid transit system in India was the Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro was the first modern metro in India. The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 7 February 2014 is the first monorail in India, since the closing of the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in 1927.

In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy proposed the construction of a metro rail system in every city with a population of 20 lakh (2 million).[1] On 11 August 2014, Union Urban Development Minister M. Venkaiah Naidu announced that the Union Government would provide financial assistance, for the implementation of a metro rail system, to all Indian cities having population of more than 1 million.[2][3] In May 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved the Union Urban Development Ministry's proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities. The majority of the planned projects will be implement through special purpose vehicles, which will be established as 50:50 joint ventures between the Union and respective State Government. The Union Government will invest an estimated 5 lakh crore (US$78 billion).[4][5] In new draft policy unveiled in March 2017, the Central Government stated that it wanted State Governments to consider metro rail as the "last option" and implement it only after considering all other possible mass rapid transit systems. The decision was taken due to the high cost of constructing metro rail systems.[6]

Currently, rapid transit systems operate in 15 cities and more are under construction or in planning in several cities of India.[7][8]

Bus Rapid Transit System[edit]

Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is a rapid transit for city bus service in India. The following table shows BRTS in India along with details.

System City State Start of Operations System Lines System Length (KM) Stations
Ahmedabad BRTS Ahmedabad Gujarat 2009 October 14 12 87 126
Indore BRTS Indore Madhya Pradesh 2013 10 126.46 N/A
Jaipur BRTS Jaipur Rajasthan 2010 July 2
Rainbow BRTS Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad Maharashtra 2006 December 4 23.6
Rajkot BRTS Rajkot Gujarat 2012 October 1 1 63 19
Surat BRTS Surat Gujarat 2013 January 26 2 114 148
Vijayawada BRTS Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 2011
Amritsar BRTS Amritsar Punjab 15 December,2016 7 68 136
Bhopal BRTS Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 10 186 230
Bhubaneswar BRTS Bhubaneswar Odisha 2015 2 66.32 TBD
Raipur and Naya Raipur BRTS Raipur and New Raipur Chhattisgarh 2016 Nov 1 2 60 10
Hubli-Dharwad BRTS Hubli, Dharwad Karnataka 2014 2 70 33
Kolkata BRTS Kolkata West Bengal 1 15.5
Jodhpur BRTS Jodhpur Rajasthan 2016 January 15
Ludhiana BRTS Ludhiana Punjab 48
Mumbai BRTS Mumbai Maharashtra 2014 1 11.7
Visakhapatnam BRTS Vishakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 42
Chennai BRTS Chennai Tamil Nadu 1 70.3 21
Coimbatore BRTS Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 1 27.6
Hyderabad BRTS Hyderabad Telangana 2 39
Madurai BRTS Madurai Tamil Nadu 2
Tiruchirappalli BRTS Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 4 112
Guwahati BRTS[9] Guwahati Assam
Delhi BRTS Delhi Delhi 2008 7 115.5
  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Proposed to be scrapped

Gallery

Metro rail[edit]

There are currently 8 operational metro systems in India. As of September 2016, India has 324 km of operational metro lines. A further 520 km of lines are under construction.

Metro rail lines in India are composed of both standard gauge and broad gauge. Projects like the Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but most new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock imported from Europe is on Standard Gauge. One exception is the Ahmedabad Metro, which will use Broad gauge, as there is more space available inside the coach.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
City State System Start of operations System Length (km) Lines[a] Stations[b] Traction Track gauge Notes
IO[c] UC[d] Planned[e]
Kolkata West Bengal Kolkata Metro 24 October 1984 27.22 km 67.46 km 12.42 km 1 24 750 V DC Third rail 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) First mass rapid transit system in India and the 17th zone of the Indian Railways.
Chennai Tamil Nadu Chennai MRTS 1 November 1995 19.34 km 4.5 km 1 17 25kV AC OHE 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) The MRTS to be taken over by the Chennai Metro Rail Limited by 2021.[10]
Delhi NCR Delhi Delhi Metro 24 December 2002 213 km 140 km[11] 103 km[12] 6 160 25kV AC OHE 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
India's first modern rapid transit system.
Bengaluru Karnataka Namma Metro 20 October 2011 31.52 km 10.78 km 89.09 km 2 30 750 V DC Third rail 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) First metro in southern India and also first to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains.[13]
Gurgaon Haryana Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon 14 November 2013 11.7 km 1 11 750 V DC Third rail 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) India's first fully privately financed metro,[14] and the first metro system in the country to auction naming rights for its stations.[15]
Mumbai Maharashtra Mumbai Metro 8 June 2014 11.4 km 124.1 km 38.5 km 1 12 25kV AC OHE 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Jaipur Rajasthan Jaipur Metro 3 June 2015 9.63 km 2.4 km 23.01 km 1 9 25kV AC OHE 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Double-story elevated road and Metro track project for the first time in the country.
Chennai Tamil Nadu Chennai Metro 29 June 2015 27.88 km 19.17 km 104.4 km 2 20 25kV AC OHE 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) First metro rail in the country to have tracks without stones and underground stations with sliding doors.
Kochi Kerala Kochi Metro June 2017[16] 18 km 25.6 km 1 23 750 V DC Third rail 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Kochi is the first Tier-II city in India to be granted a metro under the Central Government's plan to allow cities having population more than 20 lakhs to have a metro rail system.[17]
Lucknow Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Metro June 2017[18] 33 km 22.878 km 25kV AC OHE 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) First metro system to be constructed successfully in shortest span of time.[19]
Noida Uttar Pradesh Noida Metro April 2018[20] 29.7 km 1 22 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Navi Mumbai Maharashtra Navi Mumbai Metro May 2018[21] 11.10 km 12.30 km[22] 25kV AC OHE 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Hyderabad Telangana Hyderabad Metro July 2018[23] 71.6 km 168 km 3 64 25kV AC OHE 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) India's first metro to have CBTC and integrated telecommunications and supervision systems, i.e. driver less metro.
Nagpur Maharashtra Nagpur Metro 2019[24] 38.2 km 2 36 25kV AC OHE 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Construction began on 30 May 2015.[25]
Ahmedabad & Gandhinagar Gujarat Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad (MEGA) 2020[26] 37.766 km[27] 750 V DC Third rail 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Construction began on 15 March 2015.[28]
Kanpur Uttar Pradesh Kanpur Metro 2021 38 km 25 kv AC

OHE

1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) First phase is expected to be completed by 2019. Construction began on 4 October 2016.[29]
Pune Maharashtra Pune Metro 2021[30] 60.51 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Construction began in May 2017.[31]
Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh Vijayawada Metro 2019 26 km[32] N/A 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Pending Union Government approval.[33]
Varanasi Uttar Pradesh Varanasi Metro 25 km[34] N/A 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) DPR approved by Union Cabinet.[35]
Agra Uttar Pradesh Agra Metro 2028[36] 27 km[36] N/A 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) DPR submitted to state government.[37]
Meerut Uttar Pradesh Meerut Metro 2021[38] 30 km N/A 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) DPR submitted to state government.[39]
Patna Bihar Patna Metro 2021 60 km N/A 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) DPR approved by State Cabinet in February 2017.[40] Construction is expected to begin by the end of 2017.[41]
Thiruvananthapuram Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro 2027[42] 22 km[43] N/A TBD DPR approved and submitted by DMRC; awaiting cabinet approval[44]
Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh Visakhapatnam Metro(Vizag Metro) 39 km N/A 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Construction of Phase-1 to be completed by December 2018.[45] DPR prepared and to be submitted .[46][47][48]
Kozhikode Kerala Kozhikode Light Metro 2025[49] 22 km[50] N/A 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) DPR approved and submitted by DMRC on October 2014; awaiting cabinet approval[51]
Guwahati Assam Guwahati Metro 2021 61.4 km N/A TBD DPR approved by State Cabinet.[52]
Bhopal Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Metro 2024[53] 85 km[54] 25kV AC 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) DPR approved by State Cabinet.[55]
Indore Madhya Pradesh Indore Metro 2025[56] 107 km[57] 25kV AC 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) DPR approved by State Cabinet.[58]
Chandigarh Tricity Punjab Chandigarh Metro 2022[59] 37.5 km N/A TBD DPR already prepared and submitted[60]
Dehradun - Rishikesh - Haridwar Uttarakand Dehradun Metro N/A TBD DPR being prepared.[61][62]
Surat Gujarat Surat Metro N/A N/A DPR being prepared.[63]
Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Srinagar Metro N/A N/A DPR being prepared.[64]
Gwalior Madhya Pradesh Gwalior Metro 2021 105 km N/A N/A DPR being prepared
Nasik Maharashtra Greater Nasik Metro N/A N/A Proposed Metro line which will connect Igatpuri, Deolali, Nasik Road, Nasik Central and Ojhar Airport.[65]
Mumbai Maharashtra Western railway elevated corridor 63.27 km N/A 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) Rejected because of unfeasibility.


Monorail[edit]

The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014 is the first operational monorail system used for rapid transit in independent India.[66] Many other Indian cities have monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, in different phases of planning.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
City System Operations began System length (km) Lines Stations Notes
Mumbai Mumbai Monorail 2 February 2014 8.26 km 1 7
Chennai Chennai Monorail 2018 57 km 3 37 Centre approved Chennai monorail project to be implemented under DBFOT model.[67][68][69][70][71]
Kolkata Kolkata Monorail 72 km 2
Coimbatore Coimbatore Monorail 2
Allahabad Allahabad Monorail 70.4 km 2
Bangalore Bangalore Monorail 60 km
Delhi Delhi Monorail 90 km 6
Indore Indore Monorail
Kanpur Kanpur Monorail 63 km 3
Navi Mumbai Navi Mumbai Monorail 36.82 km 2
Patna Patna Monorail 32 km 4
Pune Pune Monorail 52 km 2
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Monorail 30 km 4
Aizawl Aizawl Monorail
Jodhpur Jodhpur Monorail [72][73][74][75][76][77][78]
Kota Kota Monorail [72][73][74][75][76][77][78]
Nagpur Nagpur Monorail 50 km DPR is being Prepared[79]
Nashik Nashik Monorail 130 km DPR is being Prepared

| |style="background:#FFFF00;"| Jabalpur | Jabalpur Monorail

Light rail[edit]

Green background for the systems that are under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning. Yellow background for other proposed systems but no planning yet. Pink background for systems that are defunct.

SN City State System Opening Year System length (km) No. of lines
1 Kolkata Kolkata LRTS West Bengal 2
2 Delhi Delhi Light Rail Transit Delhi 45 3
4 Kozhikode Kozhikode Light Metro Kerala 2016
5 Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro Kerala 2019

Metro coach factories in India[edit]

There are three metro rolling stock manufacturers in India. Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) is the only Indian rolling stock manufacturer. The other manufactuerers are the Indian subsidiaries of Canadian firm Bombardier and French company Alstom. Under the Union Government's Make in India program, 75% of the rolling stock procured for use on Indian metro systems are required to be manufactured in India.[80]

BEML Ltd[edit]

BEML Bharat Earth Movers limited manufactures of Rolling Stock consortium with Hyundai Mitsubishi Rotem BEML.

  • Delhi Metro – 200 coaches
  • Namma Metro – 150 coaches
  • Jaipur Metro – 40 coaches
  • Hyderabad Metro – 171 coaches
  • Kolkata Metro – 84 coaches

Bombardier[edit]

Bombardier built a £26m factory in Savli, Gujarat after it won a contract to supply 614 cars to the Delhi Metro.[81] Production at Savli began in June 2009.[82]

In June 2012, the plant won an order to supply semi-finished bogies to Australia.[82]

Alstom India[edit]

In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro.[83] The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad.[84]

  • Chennai Metro – 168 coaches
  • Kochi Metro – 75 coaches
  • Lucknow Metro – 80 coaches

Chinese firm CRRC is planning to set up a manufacturing plant in Nagpur, Maharashtra

Legislation[edit]

The subject of Railways is in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, giving Parliament the exclusive power to enact legislation concerning it. According to Ministry of Urban Development (India) Kamal Nath, "Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."[85]

Construction of metros in India are governed by the centrally enacted "The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978" which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith.[86] Operation and maintenance of metros is governed by "The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002". Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of "The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009".[87] The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.

Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India.[88] Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refuses certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.[88]

See also[edit]

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Indicates lines that are in operation for operational systems, lines that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed lines for proposed systems.
  2. ^ Indicates stations that are in operation for operational systems, stations that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed stations for proposed systems.
  3. ^ In Operation. The length of the system currently in operation.
  4. ^ Under construction. The length of the system currently under construction.
  5. ^ Planned. The length of the system currently planned to be built, but construction has not yet started.