A rare-earth mineral contains one or more rare-earth elements as major metal constituents. Rare-earth minerals are usually found in association with alkaline to peralkaline igneous complexes, in pegmatites associated with alkaline magmas and in or associated with carbonatite intrusives. Perovskite mineral phases are common hosts to rare-earth elements within the alkaline complexes. Mantle-derived carbonate melts are also carriers of the rare earths. Hydrothermal deposits associated with alkaline magmatism contain a variety of rare-earth minerals.
The following includes the relatively common hydrothermal rare-earth minerals and minerals that often contain significant rare-earth substitution:
- Jones, Adrian P., Francis Wall and C. Terry Williams, eds. (1996) Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits, The Mineralogy Society Series #7, 372 pp. ISBN 978-0-412-61030-1