p-Hydroxybenzyl acetone; 4-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone; Frambinone; Oxyphenylon; Rheosmin; Rasketone
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||164.20 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||82 to 84 °C (180 to 183 °F; 355 to 357 K)|
|Boiling point||140 to 146 °C (284 to 295 °F; 413 to 419 K) at 0.5 mmHg|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Raspberry ketone occurs in a variety of fruits, including raspberries, cranberries, and blackberries. It is biosynthesized from coumaroyl-CoA. It can be extracted from the fruit, yielding about 1–4 mg per kg of raspberries.
Since the natural abundance of raspberry ketone is very low, it is prepared industrially by a variety of methods from chemical intermediates. One of the ways this can be done is through a crossed aldol condensation followed by catalytic hydrogenation. First, acetone is condensed with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to form an α,β-unsaturated ketone. Then the alkene portion is reduced to the alkane. This two-step method produces raspberry ketone in 99% yield.
Raspberry ketone is sometimes used in perfumery, in cosmetics, and as a food additive to impart a fruity odor. It is one of the most expensive natural flavor components used in the food industry. The natural compound can cost as much as $20,000 per kg. Synthetic raspberry ketone is cheaper, with estimates ranging from a couple of dollars per pound to one fifth of the cost of the natural product.
Although products containing this compound are marketed for weight loss, there is no clinical evidence for this effect in humans.
Little is known about the long-term safety of raspberry ketone supplements, especially since little research has been done with humans. Because it is chemically related to the stimulant synephrine, there are some concerns about its safety. Toxicological models indicate a potential for cardiotoxic effects, as well as effects on reproduction and development. Furthermore, in many dietary supplements containing raspberry ketones, manufacturers add other ingredients such as caffeine which may have unsafe effects.
In 1965, the US Food and Drug Administration classified raspberry ketone as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for the small quantities used to flavor foods. In the UK, raspberry ketone supplements are on the Food Standards Agency's unauthorized list.
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