Raspberry Pi 3 model B
|Release date||29 February 2016|
|Introductory price||35 US$|
Snappy Ubuntu Core
Windows 10 IoT Core
Arch Linux ARM
|System-on-chip used||Broadcom BCM2837|
|CPU||1.2 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53|
|Memory||1 GB LPDDR2 RAM at 900 MHz|
|Graphics||Broadcom VideoCore IV at higher clock frequencies (300 MHz & 400 MHz) than previous that run at 250 MHz|
|Power||800 mA (4.0 W)|
The Raspberry Pi is a series of credit card-sized single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and developing countries. The original Raspberry Pi and Raspberry Pi 2 are manufactured in several board configurations through licensed manufacturing agreements with Newark element14 (Premier Farnell), RS Components and Egoman. The hardware is the same across all manufacturers. The firmware is closed-source.
Several generations of Raspberry Pi's have been released. The first generation (Pi 1) was released in February 2012 in basic model A and a higher specification model B. A+ and B+ models were released a year later. Raspberry Pi 2 model B was released in February 2015 and Raspberry Pi 3 model B in February 2016. These boards are priced between 20 and 35 US$. A cut down "compute" model was released in April 2014, and a Pi Zero with smaller size and limited input/output (I/O), general-purpose input/output (GPIO), abilities released in November 2015 for 5 US$.
All models feature a Broadcom system on a chip (SoC), which includes an ARM compatible central processing unit (CPU) and an on chip graphics processing unit (GPU, a VideoCore IV). CPU speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.2 GHz for the Pi 3 and on board memory range from 256 MB to 1 GB RAM. Secure Digital SD cards are used to store the operating system and program memory in either the SDHC or MicroSDHC sizes. Most boards have between one and four USB slots, HDMI and composite video output, and a 3.5 mm phono jack for audio. Lower level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins which support common protocols like I²C. Some models have an 8P8C Ethernet port and the Pi 3 has on board Wi-Fi 802.11n and Bluetooth.
The Foundation provides Debian and Arch Linux ARM distributions for download, and promotes Python as the main programming language, with support for BBC BASIC (via the RISC OS image or the Brandy Basic clone for Linux), C, C++, PHP, Java, Perl, Ruby, Squeak Smalltalk, and more also available.
- 1 Hardware
- 2 Software
- 3 Reception and use
- 4 Astro Pi
- 5 History
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The Raspberry Pi hardware has evolved through several versions that feature variations in memory capacity and peripheral-device support.
This block diagram depicts models A, B, A+, and B+. Model A, A+, and Zero lack the Ethernet and USB hub components. The Ethernet adapter is connected to an additional USB port. In model A, A+, and Zero the USB port is connected directly to the system on a chip (SoC). On model B+ and later models the USB/Ethernet chip contains a five-point USB hub, of which four ports are available, while model B only provides two. On the model Zero, the USB port is also connected directly to the SoC, but it uses a micro USB (OTG) port.
The SoC used in the first generation Raspberry Pi is somewhat equivalent to the chip used in older smartphones (such as iPhone, 3G, 3GS). The Raspberry Pi is based on the Broadcom BCM2835 SoC, which includes an 700 MHz ARM1176JZF-S processor, VideoCore IV graphics processing unit (GPU), and RAM. It has a Level 1 cache of 16 KB and a Level 2 cache of 128 KB. The Level 2 cache is used primarily by the GPU. The SoC is stacked underneath the RAM chip, so only its edge is visible.
While operating at 700 MHz by default, the first generation Raspberry Pi provided a real-world performance roughly equivalent to 0.041 GFLOPS. On the CPU level the performance is similar to a 300 MHz Pentium II of 1997–99. The GPU provides 1 Gpixel/s or 1.5 Gtexel/s of graphics processing or 24 GFLOPS of general purpose computing performance. The graphics abilities of the Raspberry Pi are roughly equivalent to the performance of the Xbox of 2001.
The LINPACK single node compute benchmark results in a mean single precision performance of 0.065 GFLOPS and a mean double precision performance of 0.041 GFLOPS for one Raspberry Pi Model-B board. A cluster of 64 Raspberry Pi Model-B computers, labeled "Iridis-pi", achieved a LINPACK HPL suite result of 1.14 GFLOPS (n=10240) at 216 watts for c. 4 000 US$.
Raspberry Pi 2 includes a quad-core Cortex-A7 CPU running at 900 MHz and 1 GB RAM. It is described as 4–6 times more powerful than its predecessor. The GPU is identical to the original. In parallelized benchmarks, the Raspberry Pi 2 could be up to 14 times faster than a Raspberry Pi 1B+.
The Raspberry Pi 3, with a Quad core Cortex-A53 processor, is described as 10 times the performance of a Raspberry Pi 1.This was suggested to be highly dependent upon task threading and instruction set use. Benchmarks showed the Raspberry Pi 3 to be approximately 80% faster than the Raspberry Pi 2 in parallelized tasks.
The first generation Raspberry Pi chip operated at 700 MHz by default, and did not become hot enough to need a heat sink or special cooling unless the chip was overclocked. The second generation runs at 900 MHz by default; it also does not become hot enough to need a heatsink or special cooling, although overclocking may heat up the SoC more than usual.
Most Raspberry Pi chips could be overclocked to 800 MHz, and some to 1000 MHz. There are reports the second generation can be similarly overclocked, in extreme cases, even to 1500 MHz (discarding all safety features and over-voltage limitations). In the Raspbian Linux distro the overclocking options on boot can be done by a software command running "sudo raspi-config" without voiding the warranty. In those cases the Pi automatically shuts the overclocking down if the chip reaches 85 °C (185 °F), but it is possible to override automatic over-voltage and overclocking settings (voiding the warranty); an appropriately sized heatsink is needed to keep the chip from serious overheating.
Newer versions of the firmware contain the option to choose between five overclock ("turbo") presets that when used, attempt to maximize the performance of the SoC without impairing the lifetime of the board. This is done by monitoring the core temperature of the chip, the CPU load, and dynamically adjusting clock speeds and the core voltage. When the demand is low on the CPU or it is running too hot the performance is throttled, but if the CPU has much to do and the chip's temperature is acceptable, performance is temporarily increased with clock speeds of up to 1 GHz depending on the individual board and on which of the turbo settings is used.
The seven overclock presets are:
- none; 700 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 400 MHz SDRAM, 0 overvolt,
- modest; 800 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 400 MHz SDRAM, 0 overvolt,
- medium; 900 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 450 MHz SDRAM, 2 overvolt,
- high; 950 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 450 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolt,
- turbo; 1000 MHz ARM, 500 MHz core, 600 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolt,
- Pi2; 1000 MHz ARM, 500 MHz core, 500 MHz SDRAM, 2 overvolt,
- Pi3; 1100 MHz ARM, 550 MHz core, 500 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolt. In system information CPU speed will appear as 1200 MHz. When in idle speed lowers to 600 MHz.
In the highest (turbo) preset the SDRAM clock was originally 500 MHz, but this was later changed to 600 MHz because 500 MHz sometimes causes SD card corruption. Simultaneously in high mode the core clock speed was lowered from 450 to 250 MHz, and in medium mode from 333 to 250 MHz.
The Raspberry Pi Zero runs at 1 GHz.
On the older beta model B boards, 128 MB was allocated by default to the GPU, leaving 128 MB for the CPU. On the first 256 MB release model B (and model A), three different splits were possible. The default split was 192 MB (RAM for CPU), which should be sufficient for standalone 1080p video decoding, or for simple 3D, but probably not for both together. 224 MB was for Linux only, with only a 1080p framebuffer, and was likely to fail for any video or 3D. 128 MB was for heavy 3D, possibly also with video decoding (e.g. XBMC). Comparatively the Nokia 701 uses 128 MB for the Broadcom VideoCore IV. For the new model B with 512 MB RAM initially there were new standard memory split files released( arm256_start.elf, arm384_start.elf, arm496_start.elf) for 256 MB, 384 MB and 496 MB CPU RAM (and 256 MB, 128 MB and 16 MB video RAM). But a week or so later the RPF released a new version of start.elf that could read a new entry in config.txt (gpu_mem=xx) and could dynamically assign an amount of RAM (from 16 to 256 MB in 8 MB steps) to the GPU, so the older method of memory splits became obsolete, and a single start.elf worked the same for 256 and 512 MB Raspberry Pis.
The Raspberry Pi 2 and the Raspberry Pi 3 have 1 GB of RAM. The Raspberry Pi Zero has 512 MB of RAM.
The model A, A+ and Zero have no Ethernet circuitry and are commonly connected to a network using an external user-supplied USB Ethernet or Wi-Fi adapter. On the model B and B+ the Ethernet port is provided by a built-in USB Ethernet adapter using the SMSC LAN9514 chip. The Raspberry Pi 3 is equipped with 2.4 GHz WiFi 802.11n (150 Mbit/s) and Bluetooth 4.1 (24 Mbit/s) in addition to the 10/100 Ethernet port.
The video controller can emit standard modern TV resolutions, such as HD and Full HD, and higher or lower monitor resolutions and older standard CRT TV resolutions. As shipped (i.e., without custom overclocking) it can emit these: 640×350 EGA; 640×480 VGA; 800×600 SVGA; 1024×768 XGA; 1280×720 720p HDTV; 1280×768 WXGA variant; 1280×800 WXGA variant; 1280×1024 SXGA; 1366×768 WXGA variant; 1400×1050 SXGA+; 1600×1200 UXGA; 1680×1050 WXGA+; 1920×1080 1080p HDTV; 1920×1200 WUXGA.
Higher resolutions, such as, up to 2048×1152, may work or even 3840×2160 at 15 Hz (too low a framerate for convincing video). Note also that allowing the highest resolutions does not imply that the GPU can decode video formats at those; in fact, the Pis are known to not work reliably for H.265 (at those high resolution, at least), commonly used for very high resolutions (most formats, commonly used, up to full HD, do work).
Although the Raspberry Pi 3 does not have H.265 decoding hardware, the CPU, more powerful than its predecessors, is potentially able to decode H.265-encoded videos in software. The Open Source Media Center (OSMC) project said in February 2016:
The new BCM2837 based on 64-bit ARMv8 architecture is backwards compatible with the Raspberry Pi 2 as well as the original. While the new CPU is 64-bit, the Pi retains the original VideoCore IV GPU which has a 32-bit design. It will be a few months before work is done to establish 64-bit pointer interfacing from the kernel and userland on the ARM to the 32-bit GPU. As such, for the time being, we will be offering a single Raspberry Pi image for Raspberry Pi 2 and the new Raspberry Pi 3. Only when 64-bit support is ready, and beneficial to OSMC users, will we offer a separate image. The new quad core CPU will bring smoother GUI performance. There have also been recent improvements to H265 decoding. While not hardware accelerated on the Raspberry Pi, the new CPU will enable more H265 content to be played back on the Raspberry Pi than before.— Raspberry Pi 3 announced with OSMC support
The Raspberry Pis can also generate 576i and 480i composite video signals, as used on old-style (CRT) TV screens through standard connectors—either RCA or 3.5mm phone connector depending on models. The television signal standards supported are PAL-BGHID, PAL-M, PAL-N, NTSC and NTSC-J.
The Raspberry Pi does not have a built-in real-time clock, and does not "know" the time of day. As a workaround, a program running on the Raspberry Pi can get the time from a network time server or user input at boot time, thus knowing the time while powered on.
A real-time hardware clock with battery backup, such as the DS1307, which is fully binary coded, may be added (often via the I²C interface).
|Type||Model A||Model B||Compute Module*||Zero|
|Generation||1||1 +||1||1 +||2||3||N/A||N/A|
|Release date||February 2013||November 2014||April–June 2012||July 2014||February 2015||February 2016||April 2014||November 2015|
|Target price||25 US$||20 US$||35 US$||25 US$||35 US$||35 US$||30 US$ (in batches of 100)||5 US$|
|Architecture||ARMv6 (32-bit)||ARMv7 (32-bit)||ARMv8 (64/32-bit)||ARMv6 (32-bit)|
|SoC||Broadcom BCM2835||Broadcom BCM2836||Broadcom BCM2837||Broadcom BCM2835|
|CPU||700 MHz single-core ARM1176JZF-S||900 MHz 32-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A7||1.2 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53||700 MHz single-core ARM1176JZF-S||1 GHz ARM1176JZF-S single-core|
|GPU||Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 250 MHz (BCM2837: 3D part of GPU @ 300 MHz, video part of GPU @ 400 MHz)
OpenGL ES 2.0 (BCM2835, BCM2836: 24 GFLOPS / BCM2837: 28.8 GFLOPS)
MPEG-2 and VC-1 (with license), 1080p30 H.264/MPEG-4 AVC high-profile decoder and encoder (BCM2837: 1080p60)
|Memory (SDRAM)||256 MB (shared with GPU)||512 MB (shared with GPU) as of 4 May 2016. Older boards had 256 MB (shared with GPU)||1 GB (shared with GPU)||512 MB (shared with GPU)|
|USB 2.0 ports||1 (direct from BCM2835 chip)||2 (via the on-board 3-port USB hub)||4 (via the on-board 5-port USB hub)||1 (direct from BCM2835 chip)||1 Micro-USB (direct from BCM2835 chip)|
|Video input||15-pin MIPI camera interface (CSI) connector, used with the Raspberry Pi camera or Raspberry Pi NoIR camera||2× MIPI camera interface (CSI)||MIPI camera interface (CSI) (rev 1.3)|
|Video outputs||HDMI (rev 1.3) composite video (RCA jack)||HDMI (rev 1.3), composite video (3.5 mm TRRS jack)||HDMI (rev 1.3), composite video (RCA jack)||HDMI (rev 1.3), composite video (3.5 mm TRRS jack)||HDMI, 2× MIPI display interface (DSI) for raw LCD panels, composite video||Mini-HDMI, 1080p60, composite video via GPIO|
|Audio inputs||As of revision 2 boards via I²S|
|Audio outputs||Analog via 3.5 mm phone jack; digital via HDMI and, as of revision 2 boards, I²S||Analog, HDMI, I²S||Mini-HDMI, stereo audio through PWM on GPIO|
|On-board storage||SD, MMC, SDIO card slot (3.3 V with card power only)||MicroSDHC slot||SD, MMC, SDIO card slot||MicroSDHC slot||4 GB eMMC flash memory chip;||MicroSDHC|
|On-board network||None||10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet (8P8C) USB adapter on the USB hub||10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet,
|Low-level peripherals||8× GPIO plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio +3.3 V, +5 V, ground
||17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus||8× GPIO plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio +3.3 V, +5 V, ground.
An additional 4× GPIO are available on the P5 pad if the user is willing to make solder connections
|17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus||46× GPIO, some of which can be used for specific functions including I²C, SPI, UART, PCM, PWM||40× GPIO ("unpopulated header")|
|Power ratings||300 mA (1.5 W)||200 mA (1 W)||700 mA (3.5 W)||600 mA (3.0 W)||800 mA (4.0 W)||200 mA (1 W)||~160 mA (0.8 W)|
|Power source||5 V via MicroUSB or GPIO header|
|Size||85.60 mm × 56.5 mm (3.370 in × 2.224 in), not including protruding connectors||65 mm × 56.5 mm × 10 mm (2.56 in × 2.22 in × 0.39 in), same as HAT board||85.60 mm × 56.5 mm (3.370 in × 2.224 in), not including protruding connectors||67.6 mm × 30 mm (2.66 in × 1.18 in)||65 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm (2.56 in × 1.18 in × 0.20 in)|
|Weight||31 g (1.1 oz)||23 g (0.81 oz)||45 g (1.6 oz)||7 g (0.25 oz)||9 g (0.32 oz)|
|Console||Micro-USB cable or a serial cable with optional GPIO power connector|
|Generation||1||1 +||1||1 +||2||3||N/A||N/A|
|Type||Model A||Model B||Compute Module*||Zero|
* - all interfaces are via 200-pin DDR2 SO-DIMM connector.
General purpose input-output (GPIO) connector
RPi A+, B+, 2B and Zero GPIO J8 have a 40-pin pinout. Model 3 has 40 pins as well, but someone will need to confirm that the pin layout is the same as its predecessor. Models A and B have only the first 26 pins.
|GPIO#||2nd func.||Pin#||Pin#||2nd func.||GPIO#|
|+3.3 V||1||2||+5 V|
|2||SDA1 (I²C)||3||4||+5 V|
|11||SCLK (SPI)||23||24||CE0_N (SPI)||8|
|(RPi 1 Models A and B stop here)|
Model B rev. 2 also has a pad (called P5 on the board and P6 on the schematics) of 8 pins offering access to an additional 4 GPIO connections.
|Function||2nd func.||Pin#||Pin#||2nd func.||Function|
|N/A||+5 V||1||2||+3.3 V||N/A|
Models A and B provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 16. Models A+ and B+ provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 47, and the power status LED using GPIO 35.
- Camera – On 14 May 2013, the foundation and the distributors RS Components & Premier Farnell/Element 14 launched the Raspberry Pi camera board with a firmware update to accommodate it. The camera board is shipped with a flexible flat cable that plugs into the CSI connector located between the Ethernet and HDMI ports. In Raspbian, one enables the system to use the camera board by the installing or upgrading to the latest version of the operating system (OS) and then running Raspi-config and selecting the camera option. The cost of the camera module is €20 in Europe (9 September 2013). It can produce 1080p, 720p and 640x480p video. The dimensions are 25 mm x 20 mm x 9 mm. In May 2016, v2 of the camera came out, and is a 8 megapixel camera.
- Gertboard – A Raspberry Pi Foundation sanctioned device, designed for educational purposes, that expands the Raspberry Pi's GPIO pins to allow interface with and control of LEDs, switches, analog signals, sensors and other devices. It also includes an optional Arduino compatible controller to interface with the Pi.
- Infrared Camera – In October 2013, the foundation announced that they would begin producing a camera module without an infrared filter, called the Pi NoIR.
- HAT (Hardware Attached on Top) expansion boards – Together with the model B+, inspired by the Arduino shield boards, the interface for HAT boards was devised by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. Each HAT board carries a small EEPROM (typically a CAT24C32WI-GT3) containing the relevant details of the board, so that the Raspberry Pi's OS is informed of the HAT, and the technical details of it, relevant to the OS using the HAT. Mechanical details of a HAT board, that use the four mounting holes in their rectangular formation, are available online.
The Raspberry Pi primarily uses Linux-kernel-based operating systems.
The ARM11 chip at the heart of the Pi (first generation models) is based on version 6 of the ARM which means that Ubuntu, and several other popular versions of Linux, do not run on this model. The primary supported operating system is Raspbian, although it is compatible with many others. The Raspberry Pi 2 has much wider support, including the current release of Ubuntu and Windows 10 IoT Core. No version of the Pi can run traditional Microsoft Windows.
The install manager for the Raspberry Pi is NOOBS. The operating systems included with NOOBS are:
- Arch Linux ARM
- OSMC (formerly Raspbmc) and the Kodi open source digital media center
- Pidora (Fedora Remix)
- Puppy Linux
- RISC OS – is the operating system of the first ARM-based computer.
- Raspbian (recommended for Raspberry Pi 1) – is maintained independently of the Foundation; based on the Debian ARM hard-float (armhf) architecture port originally designed for ARMv7 and later processors (with Jazelle RCT/ThumbEE and VFPv3), compiled for the more limited ARMv6 instruction set of the Raspberry Pi 1. A minimum size of 4 GB SD card is required for the Raspbian images provided by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. There is a Pi Store for exchanging programs.
- The Raspbian Server Edition, and later Raspbian Lite Edition, is a stripped down version with fewer software packages bundled as compared to the usual desktop computer oriented Raspbian. The graphics-related packages are not present by default, resulting in it not being able to start in graphics mode by default, and have a much smaller download size. It is more suited for headless operation, without any display or human interface devices attached.
- The Wayland display server protocol enables efficient use of the GPU for hardware accelerated GUI drawing functions. On 16 April 2014, a GUI shell for Weston called Maynard was released.
- PiBang Linux – is derived from Raspbian.
- Raspbian for Robots – is a fork of Raspbian for robotics projects with Lego, Grove, and Arduino.
- Other operating systems
- Xbian – using the Kodi (formerly XBMC) open source digital media center
- Raspberry Pi Fedora Remix
- Gentoo Linux
- Ubuntu MATE
- Diet Pi, Includes a diverse range of servers for media, VPN, Minecraft and many others
- CentOS for Raspberry Pi 2 and later
- RedSleeve (a RHEL port) for Raspberry Pi 1
- Slackware ARM – version 13.37 and later runs on the Raspberry Pi without modification. The 128–496 MB of available memory on the Raspberry Pi is at least twice the minimum requirement of 64 MB needed to run Slackware Linux on an ARM or i386 system. (Whereas the majority of Linux systems boot into a graphical user interface, Slackware's default user environment is the textual shell / command line interface.) The Fluxbox window manager running under the X Window System requires an additional 48 MB of RAM.
- Plan 9 from Bell Labs and Inferno (in beta)
- Moebius – is a light ARM HF distribution based on Debian. It uses Raspbian repository, but it fits in a 128 MB SD card. It has only minimal services and its memory use is optimized to be small.
- OpenWrt – is primarily used on embedded devices to route network traffic.
- Kali Linux – is a Debian-derived distro designed for digital forensics and penetration testing.
- Pardus ARM – is a Debian-based operating system which is the light version of the Pardus (operating system).
- Instant WebKiosk – is an operating system for digital signage purposes (web and media views).
- Ark OS – is designed for website and email self-hosting.
- ROKOS – is a Raspbian-based operating system with integrated clients for the Bitcoin and OKCash cryptocurrencies.
- MinePeon – is a dedicated operating system for mining cryptocurrency.
- Kano OS
- Nard SDK – is a software development kit (SDK) for industrial embedded systems.
- Sailfish OS with Raspberry Pi 2 (due to use ARM Cortex-A7 CPU; Raspberry Pi 1 uses different ARMv6 architecture and Sailfish requires ARMv7.)
- Tiny Core Linux – a minimal Linux operating system focused on providing a base system using BusyBox and FLTK. Designed to run primarily in RAM.
- Windows 10 IoT Core – a free edition of Windows 10 offered by Microsoft that runs natively on the Raspberry Pi 2.
- WTware for Raspberry Pi – is a free operating system for creating Windows thin client from Pi 2 and Pi 3.
- IPFire – is a dedicated firewall/router distribution for the protection of a SOHO LAN; runs only on a Raspberry Pi 1; porting to the Raspberry Pi 2 is not planned for now.
- xv6 – is a modern reimplementation of Sixth Edition Unix OS for teaching purposes; it is ported to Raspberry Pi from MIT xv6; this xv6 port can boot from NOOBS.
- Alpine Linux – is a Linux distribution based on musl and BusyBox, primarily designed for "power users who appreciate security, simplicity and resource efficiency".
- Void Linux – a rolling release Linux distribution which was designed and implemented from scratch, provides images based on musl or glibc.
- Tingbot OS – based on Raspbian, primarily designed for use with the Tingbot addon and running Tide apps.
- Media center operating systems:
- Audio operating systems :
- Retrogaming operating systems:
- Retropie – http://blog.petrockblock.com/2015/08/11/retropie-3-0-is-released/
- Recalbox – http://www.recalbox.com/
- Happi game center – http://happi-game-center.com/
- Lakka – http://www.lakka.tv/
- Piplay – http://piplay.org/
- Planned operating systems
- Haiku – This open source BeOS clone has been targeted for the Raspberry Pi and several other ARM boards. Work began in 2011 on model 1, but only the model 2 will be supported.
Raspberry Pi can use a VideoCore IV GPU via a binary blob, which is loaded into the GPU at boot time from the SD-card, and additional software, that initially was closed source. This part of the driver code was later released. However, much of the actual driver work is done using the closed source GPU code. Application software use calls to closed source run-time libraries (OpenMax, OpenGL ES or OpenVG) which in turn calls an open source driver inside the Linux kernel, which then calls the closed source VideoCore IV GPU driver code. The API of the kernel driver is specific for these closed libraries. Video applications use OpenMAX, 3D applications use OpenGL ES and 2D applications use OpenVG which both in turn use EGL. OpenMAX and EGL use the open source kernel driver in turn.
Third party application software
- AstroPrint – Since August 2014, AstroPrint's Wireless 3D Printing software can be run on the Pi 2
- Mathematica & the Wolfram Language – Since 21 November 2013, Raspbian includes a full installation of this proprietary software for free. As of 24 August 2015[update], the version is Mathematica 10.2. Programs can be run either from a command line interface or from a Notebook interface. There are Wolfram Language functions for accessing connected devices. There is also a Wolfram Language desktop development kit allowing development for Raspberry Pi in Mathematica from desktop machines.
- Minecraft – Released 11 February 2013, a version for the Raspberry Pi, in which you can modify the game world with code, the only official version of the game in which you can do so.
- UserGate Web Filter – On 20 September 2013, Florida-based security vendor Entensys announced porting UserGate Web Filter to Raspberry Pi platform.
Software development tools
- AlgoIDE – Learn programming for kids and beginners.
- BlueJ – For teaching Java to beginners.
- Fawlty Language – A freely usable IDL (programming language) clone for Pi 2.
- Greenfoot – Greenfoot teaches object orientation with Java. Create 'actors' which live in 'worlds' to build games, simulations, and other graphical programs.
- Julia – Since May 2015, the interactive and cross-platform programming language/environment, Julia, runs on the Pi 2 (and the original).
- Lazarus – The professional Free Pascal RAD IDE.
- LiveCode – educational RAD IDE descended from HyperCard using English-like language to write event-handlers for WYSIWYG widgets runnable on desktop, mobile and Raspberry Pi platforms
- Object Pascal
- Ninja-IDE – A cross-platform integrated development environment (IDE) for Python.
- Xojo – A cross-platform, professional RAD tool that can create desktop, web and console apps for Pi 2.
- V-Play Game Engine – A cross-platform development framework that supports mobile game and app development with the V-Play Game Engine, V-Play Apps and V-Play Plugins.
Reception and use
Technology writer Glyn Moody described the project in May 2011 as a "potential BBC Micro 2.0", not by replacing PC compatible machines but by supplementing them. In March 2012 Stephen Pritchard echoed the BBC Micro successor sentiment in ITPRO. Alex Hope, co-author of the Next Gen report, is hopeful that the computer will engage children with the excitement of programming. Co-author Ian Livingstone suggested that the BBC could be involved in building support for the device, possibly branding it as the BBC Nano. Chris Williams, writing in The Register sees the inclusion of programming languages such as Kids Ruby, Scratch and BASIC as a "good start" to equip kids with the skills needed in the future – although it remains to be seen how effective their use will be. The Centre for Computing History strongly supports the Raspberry Pi project, feeling that it could "usher in a new era". Before release, the board was showcased by ARM's CEO Warren East at an event in Cambridge outlining Google's ideas to improve UK science and technology education.
Harry Fairhead, however, suggests that more emphasis should be put on improving the educational software available on existing hardware, using tools such as Google App Inventor to return programming to schools, rather than adding new hardware choices. Simon Rockman, writing in a ZDNet blog, was of the opinion that teens will have "better things to do", despite what happened in the 1980s.
In October 2012, the Raspberry Pi won T3's Innovation of the Year award, and futurist Mark Pesce cited a (borrowed) Raspberry Pi as the inspiration for his ambient device project MooresCloud. In October 2012, the British Computer Society reacted to the announcement of enhanced specifications by stating, "it's definitely something we'll want to sink our teeth into."
In February 2015, a switched-mode power supply chip, designated U16, of the Raspberry Pi 2 model B version 1.1 (the initially released version) was found to be vulnerable to flashes of light, particularly the light from xenon camera flashes and green and red laser pointers. However, other bright lights, particularly ones that are on continuously, were found to have no effect. The symptom was the Raspberry Pi 2 spontaneously rebooting or turning off when these lights were flashed at the chip. Initially, some users and commenters suspected that the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from the xenon flash tube was causing the problem by interfering with the computer's digital circuitry, but this was ruled out by tests where the light was either blocked by a card or aimed at the other side of the Raspberry Pi 2, both of which did not cause a problem. The problem was narrowed down to the U16 chip by covering first the system on a chip (main processor) and then U16 with Blu-Tack (an opaque poster mounting compound). Light being the sole culprit, instead of EMP, was further confirmed by the laser pointer tests, where it was also found that less opaque covering was needed to shield against the laser pointers than to shield against the xenon flashes. The U16 chip seems to be bare silicon without a plastic cover (i.e. a chip-scale package or wafer-level package), which would, if present, block the light. Unofficial workarounds include covering U16 with opaque material (such as electrical tape, lacquer, poster mounting compound, or even balled-up bread), putting the Raspberry Pi 2 in a case, and avoiding taking photos of the top side of the board with a xenon flash. This issue was not caught before the release of the Raspberry Pi 2 because while commercial electronic devices are routinely subjected to tests of susceptibility to radio interference, it is not standard or common practice to test their susceptibility to optical interference.
The Raspberry Pi community was described by Jamie Ayre of FLOSS software company AdaCore as one of the most exciting parts of the project. Community blogger Russell Davis said that the community strength allows the Foundation to concentrate on documentation and teaching. The community developed a fanzine around the platform called The MagPi which in 2015, was handed over to the Raspberry Pi Foundation by its volunteers to be continued in-house. A series of community Raspberry Jam events have been held across the UK and around the world.
Use in education
As of January 2012[update], enquiries about the board in the United Kingdom have been received from schools in both the state and private sectors, with around five times as much interest from the latter. It is hoped that businesses will sponsor purchases for less advantaged schools. The CEO of Premier Farnell said that the government of a country in the Middle East has expressed interest in providing a board to every schoolgirl, in order to enhance her employment prospects.
In 2014, the Raspberry Pi Foundation hired a number of its community members including ex-teachers and software developers to launch a set of free learning resources for its website. The resources are freely licensed under Creative Commons, and contributions and collaborations are encouraged on social coding platform GitHub.
The Foundation also started a teacher training course called Picademy with the aim of helping teachers prepare for teaching the new computing curriculum using the Raspberry Pi in the classroom. The continued professional development course is provided free for teachers and is run by the Foundation's education team.
A project was launched in December 2014 at an event held by the UK Space Agency. The Astro Pi competition was officially opened in January and was opened to all primary and secondary school aged children who were residents of the United Kingdom. During his mission, British ESA Astronaut Tim Peake plans to deploy the computers on board the International Space Station. He will then load up the winning code while in orbit, collect the data generated and then send this to Earth where it will be distributed to the winning teams. The themes of Spacecraft Sensors, Satellite Imaging, Space Measurements, Data Fusion and Space Radiation were devised to stimulate creative and scientific thinking.
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2015)|
In 2006, early concepts of the Raspberry Pi were based on the Atmel ATmega644 microcontroller. Its schematics and PCB layout are publicly available. Foundation trustee Eben Upton assembled a group of teachers, academics and computer enthusiasts to devise a computer to inspire children. The computer is inspired by Acorn's BBC Micro of 1981. Pi's model A, model B and model B+ are references to the original models of the British educational BBC Micro computer, developed by Acorn Computers. The first ARM prototype version of the computer was mounted in a package the same size as a USB memory stick. It had a USB port on one end and an HDMI port on the other.
The Foundation's goal was to offer two versions, priced at 25 US$ and 35 US$. They started accepting orders for the higher priced model B on 29 February 2012, the lower cost model A on 4 February 2013. and the even lower cost (20 US$) A+ on 10 November 2014. On November 26, 2015, the cheapest Raspberry PI yet, the Raspberry PI Zero was launched at 5 US$ or 4 £.
- July 2011Trustee Eben Upton publicly approached the RISC OS Open community in July 2011 to enquire about assistance with a port. Adrian Lees at Broadcom has since worked on the port, with his work being cited in a discussion regarding the graphics drivers. This port is now included in NOOBS.:
- August 2011 – 50 alpha boards are manufactured. These boards were functionally identical to the planned model B, but they were physically larger to accommodate debug headers. Demonstrations of the board showed it running the LXDE desktop on Debian, Quake 3 at 1080p, and Full HD MPEG-4 video over HDMI.
- October 2011 – A version of  was demonstrated in public, and following a year of development the port was released for general consumption in November 2012.
- December 2011 – Twenty-five model B Beta boards were assembled and tested from one hundred unpopulated PCBs. The component layout of the Beta boards was the same as on production boards. A single error was discovered in the board design where some pins on the CPU were not held high; it was fixed for the first production run. The Beta boards were demonstrated booting Linux, playing a 1080p movie trailer and the Rightware Samurai OpenGL ES benchmark.
- Early 2012 – During the first week of the year, the first 10 boards were put up for auction on eBay. One was bought anonymously and donated to the museum at The Centre for Computing History in Cambridge, England. The ten boards (with a total retail price of £220) together raised over £16,000, with the last to be auctioned, serial number No. 01, raising £3,500. In advance of the anticipated launch at the end of February 2012, the Foundation's servers struggled to cope with the load placed by watchers repeatedly refreshing their browsers.
- 19 February 2012 – The first proof of concept SD card image that could be loaded onto an SD card to produce a preliminary operating system is released. The image was based on Debian 6.0 (Squeeze), with the LXDE desktop and the Midori browser, plus various programming tools. The image also runs on QEMU allowing the Raspberry Pi to be emulated on various other platforms.
- 29 February 2012 – Initial sales commence 29 February 2012 at 06:00 UTC;. At the same time, it was announced that the model A, originally to have had 128 MB of RAM, was to be upgraded to 256 MB before release. The Foundation's website also announced: "Six years after the project's inception, we're nearly at the end of our first run of development – although it's just the beginning of the Raspberry Pi story." The web-shops of the two licensed manufacturers selling Raspberry Pi's within the United Kingdom, Premier Farnell and RS Components, had their websites stalled by heavy web traffic immediately after the launch (RS Components briefly going down completely). Unconfirmed reports suggested that there were over two million expressions of interest or pre-orders. The official Raspberry Pi Twitter account reported that Premier Farnell sold out within a few minutes of the initial launch, while RS Components took over 100,000 pre orders on day one. Manufacturers were reported in March 2012 to be taking a "healthy number" of pre-orders.
- March 2012 – Shipping delays for the first batch were announced in March 2012, as the result of installation of an incorrect Ethernet port, but the Foundation expected that manufacturing quantities of future batches could be increased with little difficulty if required. "We have ensured we can get them [the Ethernet connectors with magnetics] in large numbers and Premier Farnell and RS Components [the two distributors] have been fantastic at helping to source components," Upton said. The first batch of 10,000 boards was manufactured in Taiwan and China.
- 8 March 2012 – Release Raspberry Pi Fedora Remix, the recommended Linux distribution, developed at Seneca College in Canada.
- March 2012 – The Debian port is initiated by Mike Thompson, former CTO of Atomz. The effort was largely carried out by Thompson and Peter Green, a volunteer Debian developer, with some support from the Foundation, who tested the resulting binaries that the two produced during the early stages (neither Thompson nor Green had physical access to the hardware, as boards were not widely accessible at the time due to demand). While the preliminary proof of concept image distributed by the Foundation before launch was also Debian-based, it differed from Thompson and Green's Raspbian effort in a couple of ways. The POC image was based on then-stable Debian Squeeze, while Raspbian aimed to track then-upcoming Debian Wheezy packages. Aside from the updated packages that would come with the new release, Wheezy was also set to introduce the armhf architecture, which became the raison d'être for the Raspbian effort. The Squeeze-based POC image was limited to the armel architecture, which was, at the time of Squeeze's release, the latest attempt by the Debian project to have Debian run on the newest ARM embedded-application binary interface (EABI). The armhf architecture in Wheezy intended to make Debian run on the ARM VFP hardware floating-point unit, while armel was limited to emulating floating point operations in software. Since the Raspberry Pi included a VFP, being able to make use of the hardware unit would result in performance gains and reduced power use for floating point operations. The armhf effort in mainline Debian, however, was orthogonal to the work surrounding the Pi and only intended to allow Debian to run on ARMv7 at a minimum, which would mean the Pi, an ARMv6 device, would not benefit. As a result, Thompson and Green set out to build the 19,000 Debian packages for the device using a custom build cluster.
- 16 April 2012 – Reports appear from the first buyers who had received their Raspberry Pi.
- 20 April 2012 – The schematics for the model A and model B are released.
- 18 May 2012 – The Foundation reported on its blog about a prototype camera module they had tested. The prototype used a 14-megapixel module.
- 22 May 2012 – Over 20,000 units had been shipped.
- 16 July 2012 – It was announced that 4,000 units were being manufactured per day, allowing Raspberry Pis to be bought in bulk.
- 24 August 2012 – Hardware accelerated video (H.264) encoding becomes available after it became known that the existing license also covered encoding. Formerly it was thought that encoding would be added with the release of the announced camera module. However, no stable software exists for hardware H.264 encoding. At the same time the Foundation released two additional codecs that can be bought separately, MPEG-2 and Microsoft's VC-1. Also it was announced that the Pi will implement CEC, enabling it to be controlled with the television's remote control.
- July 2012 – Release of Raspbian.
- 5 September 2012 – The Foundation announced a second revision of the Raspberry Pi Model B. A revision 2.0 board is announced, with a number of minor corrections and improvements.
- 6 September 2012 – Announcement that in future the bulk of Raspberry Pi units would be manufactured in the UK, at Sony's manufacturing facility in Pencoed, Wales. The Foundation estimated that the plant would produce 30,000 units per month, and would create about 30 new jobs.
- 15 October 2012 – It is announced that new Raspberry Pi Model Bs are to be fitted with 512 MB instead of 256 MB RAM.
- 24 October 2012 – The Foundation announces that "all of the VideoCore driver code which runs on the ARM" had been released as free software under a BSD-style license, making it "the first ARM-based multimedia SoC with fully-functional, vendor-provided (as opposed to partial, reverse engineered) fully open-source drivers", although this claim has not been universally accepted. On 28 February 2014, they also announced the release of full documentation for the VideoCore IV graphics core, and a complete source release of the graphics stack under a 3-clause BSD license
- October 2012 – It was reported that some customers of one of the two main distributors had been waiting more than six months for their orders. This was reported to be due to difficulties in sourcing the CPU and conservative sales forecasting by this distributor.
- 17 December 2012 – The Foundation, in collaboration with IndieCity and Velocix, opens the Pi Store, as a "one-stop shop for all your Raspberry Pi (software) needs". Using an application included in Raspbian, users can browse through several categories and download what they want. Software can also be uploaded for moderation and release.
- 3 June 2013 – 'New Out Of Box Software or NOOBS is introduced. This makes the Raspberry Pi easier to use by simplifying the installation of an operating system. Instead of using specific software to prepare an SD card, a file is unzipped and the contents copied over to a FAT formatted (4 GB or bigger) SD card. That card can then be booted on the Raspberry Pi and a choice of six operating systems is presented for installation on the card. The system also contains a recovery partition that allows for the quick restoration of the installed OS, tools to modify the config.txt and an online help button and web browser which directs to the Raspberry Pi Forums.
- October 2013 – The Foundation announces that the one millionth Pi had been manufactured in the United Kingdom.
- November 2013: they announce that the two millionth Pi shipped between 24 and 31 October.
- 28 February 2014 – On the day of the second anniversary of the Raspberry Pi, Broadcom, together with the Raspberry PI foundation, announced the release of full documentation for the VideoCore IV graphics core[clarification needed], and a complete source release of the graphics stack under a 3-clause BSD license.
- 7 April 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi Compute Module, a device in a 200-pin DDR2 SO-DIMM-configured memory module (though not in any way compatible with such RAM), intended for consumer electronics designers to use as the core of their own products.
- June 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog mentioned that the three millionth Pi shipped in early May 2014.
- 14 July 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi Model B+, "the final evolution of the original Raspberry Pi. For the same price as the original Raspberry Pi model B, but incorporating numerous small improvements people have been asking for".
- 10 November 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi Model A+. It is the smallest and cheapest (20 US$) Raspberry Pi so far and has the same processor and RAM as the model A. Like the A, it has no Ethernet port, and only one USB port, but does have the other innovations of the B+, like lower power, micro-SD-card slot, and 40-pin HAT compatible GPIO.
- 2 February 2015 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi 2. Looking like a Model B+, it has a 900 MHz quad-core ARMv7 Cortex-A7 CPU, twice the memory (for a total of 1 GB) and complete compatibility with the original generation of Raspberry Pis.
- 14 May 2015 – The price of Model B+ was decreased from 35 to 25 US$, purportedly as a "side effect of the production optimizations" from the Pi 2 development. Industry observers have skeptically noted, however, that the price drop appeared to be a direct response to the "C.H.I.P.", a lower-priced competitor.
- 26 November 2015 – The Raspberry Pi Foundation launched the Raspberry Pi Zero, the smallest and cheapest member of the Raspberry Pi family yet, at 65 mm × 30 mm, and 5 US$. The Zero is similar to the model A+ without camera and LCD connectors, while smaller and uses less power. It was given away with the Raspberry PI magazine Magpi #40 that was distributed in the UK and USA that day – the MagPi was sold out at almost every retailer internationally due to the freebie.
- 29 February 2016 – Raspberry Pi 3 with a BCM2837 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad processor based on the ARMv8 Cortex A53, with built-in Wi-Fi BCM43438 802.11n 2.4 GHz and Bluetooth 4.1 Low Energy (BLE). Starting with a 32-bit Raspbian version.
- 25 April 2016 - Raspberry Pi Camera v2.1 announced with 8 Mpixels, in normal and NoIR (can receive IR) versions. The camera uses the Sony IMX219 chip. The specific resolution is 3280 × 2464 to make use of the new resolution the software has to be updated.
- "Windows 10 for IoT". Raspberry Pi Foundation. 30 April 2015.
- "Raspberry Pi 3 is out now! Specs, Benchmarks & More". The MagPi Magazine. 1 April 2016.
- Cellan-Jones, Rory (5 May 2011). "A £15 computer to inspire young programmers". BBC News.
- Price, Peter (3 June 2011). "Can a £15 computer solve the programming gap?". BBC Click. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- Bush, Steve (25 May 2011). "Dongle computer lets kids discover programming on a TV". Electronics Weekly. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "about the Licensed manufacturing deal". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Compiling Haiku for Arm". www.haiku-os.org. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "Raspberry Pi downloads".
- "David Braben on Raspberry Pi". Edge. 25 November 2011. Archived from the original on 7 Jan 2012.
- "Brandy Basic". Jaguar.orpheusweb.co.uk. 26 July 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "Oracle Java on Raspberry Pi". Raspberry Pi. 26 September 2013.
- "Event driven Raspberry Pi GPIO programming in Ruby". github.com/jwhitehorn. 15 September 2014.
- Alex Hern. "Raspberry Pi 3: the credit card-sized 1.2GHz PC that costs $35". the Guardian.
- "Raspberry Pi 3 on sale now at $35". Raspberry Pi. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016.
- "BCM2835 Media Processor; Broadcom". Broadcom.com. 1 September 2011. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Brose, Moses (30 January 2012). "Broadcom BCM2835 SoC has the most powerful mobile GPU in the world?". Grand MAX. Retrieved 13 April 2012.[dead link]
- "Raspberry Pi 2 on sale now at $35". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- Upton, Eben (2016-02-29). "Raspberry Pi 3 on sale now at $35 - Raspberry Pi". Raspberry Pi. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- "Performance - measures of the Raspberry Pi's performance.". RPi Performance. eLinux.org. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Benchoff, Brian. "64 Rasberry Pis turned into a supercomputer". Hackaday. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Cox, Simon J.; et al. "Iridis-pi: a low-cost, compact demonstration cluster" (PDF). Cluster Computing, June 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "Raspberry Pi2 – Power and Performance Measurement". RasPi.TV. RasPi.TV. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- "How Much Power Does Raspberry Pi3B Use? How Fast Is It Compared To Pi2B?". RasPi.TV. RasPi.TV. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- "INTRODUCING TURBO MODE: UP TO 50% MORE PERFORMANCE FOR FREE". Raspberrypi.org. 19 Sep 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- "Introducing turbo mode: up to 50% more performance for free". Raspberrypi.org. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "asb/raspi-config on Github". asb. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "I have a raspberry pi beta board ama". Reddit.com. 15 January 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Raspberry Pi boot configuration text file
- "Nokia 701 has a similar Broadcom GPU". Raspberrypi.org. 2 February 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "introducing new firmware for the 512 MB Pi". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Microchip/SMSC LAN9514 data sheet;" (PDF). Microchip. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "Verified USB Peripherals and SDHC Cards;". Elinux.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi, supported video resolutions". eLinux.org. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Pi Screen limited to 1920 by RISC OS:-". RISC OS Open. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
2048 × 1152 monitor is the highest resolution the Pi’s GPU can handle [presumably with non-low frame-rate ..] The monitors screen info confirms the GPU is outputting 2048×1152
- "RISC OS Open: Forum: Latest Pi firmware?".
- "Raspberry Pi and 4k @ 15Hz". Retrieved 6 January 2016.
I have managed to get 3840 x 2160 (4k x 2k) at 15Hz on a Seiki E50UY04 working
- "Raspberry Pi 3 announced with OSMC support". 28 February 2016.
- "Raspberry Pi 3 Model B" (PDF).
- Ozolins, Jason. "examples of Raspberry Pi composite output". Raspberrypi.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi Model A+ on sale now at $20". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- "Introducing Raspberry Pi Model B+". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Raspberry Pi Compute Module: New Product!". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Raspberry Pi Zero: the $5 Computer". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "Introducing Raspberry Pi Model A+". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- Bowater, Donna (29 February 2012). "Mini Raspberry Pi computer goes on sale for £22". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Eben Upton (14 May 2015). "Price Cut! Raspberry Pi Model B+ Now Only $25".
- "Q&A with our hardware team". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- Halfacree, Gareth. "Raspberry Pi - The Model B". bit-tech.net. Dennis Publishing Limited. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- "New video features! MPEG-2 and VC-1 decode, H.264 encode, CEC". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
- "Raspberry Pi Model A+ 512MB". Farnell. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
- "SMSC LAN9512 Website;". Smsc.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "diagram of Raspberry Pi with CSI camera connector". Elinux.org. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Adams, James (3 April 2014). "Raspberry Pi Compute Module electrical schematic diagram" (PDF). Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Adams, James (3 April 2014). "Raspberry Pi Compute Module IO Board elecrical schematic diagram" (PDF). Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Upton, Eben (16 May 2016). "zero grows camera connector". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- "Raspberry Pi Wiki, section screens". Elinux.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "diagram of Raspberry Pi with DSI LCD connector". Elinux.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Adams, James (7 April 2014). "Comment by James Adams on Compute Module announcement". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Pi Zero - The New Raspberry Pi Board • Pi Supply". Pi Supply.
- "I2S driver development thread". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Use an Android tablet as a Raspberry Pi Console terminal and Internet router". Elinux.org. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- More GPIOs can be used if the low level peripherals are unused
- Since the release of the revision 2 model
- "Raspberry Pi GPIO Connector;". Elinux.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Adams, James (7 April 2014). "Comment by James Adams on Compute Module announcement". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Power supply confirmed as 5V micro USB". Raspberrypi.org. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Eric Brown (2 February 2015). "Raspberry Pi 2 has quad-core SoC, keeps $35 price". linuxgizmos.com. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- Ben Martin (27 February 2015). "Performance Testing the New $35 Raspberry Pi 2". linux.com. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Adams, James (7 April 2014). "Comment by James Adams on Compute Module announcement". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "MagPi, issue 40, Raspberry Pi Zero release article" (PDF). Raspberry Pi Foundation. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "Raspberry Pi USB Serial Connection and power supply". Elinux.org. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "Elinux Wiki: Description of Raspberry Pi Camera Board". Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "RPI Camera board - Raspberry-Pi - Raspberry Pi Kamera-Board, 5MP | Farnell Deutschland". de.farnell.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "Gertboard is here!". Raspberry Pi Foundation. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Pi NoIR". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "hats/eeprom-circuit.png at master · raspberrypi/hats · GitHub". GitHub. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "hats/eeprom-format.md at master · raspberrypi/hats · GitHub". GitHub. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "raspberrypi/hats · GitHub". GitHub. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- raspberrypi. "hats/hat-board-mechanical.pdf at master · raspberrypi/hats · GitHub" (PDF). GitHub.
- raspberrypi. "GitHub - raspberrypi/hats". GitHub.
- Gareth Halfacree. "Raspberry Pi review: Eben Upton reveals all". linuxuser.co.uk.
- "WilyWerewolf/ReleaseNotes - Ubuntu Wiki".
- Dallas, Kevin (2 February 2015). "Windows 10 Coming to Raspberry Pi 2". Building Apps for Windows. Microsoft. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Booting the Raspberry Pi for the first time". Raspberry Pi HQ. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Bellavance, Nicolas (17 April 2012). "Quelle distribution utiliser sur Raspberry Pi ?". Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Supported Devices". Osmc.tv. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "Raspbmc has evolved". Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "About". Osmc.tv. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "PuppyLinux: Puppi". puppylinux.org.
- Holwerda, Thom (31 October 2011). "Raspberry Pi To Embrace RISC OS". OSNews. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- "Raspbian – Debian optimized for the Raspberry Pi hardware".
- "Welcome to Raspbian". Raspbian. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Vallance, Chris (10 January 2012). "Raspberry Pi bids for success with classroom coders". BBC News. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- "Introducing the Pi Store". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Yau, Lawrence. "Raspbian Server Edition Version 2.4". The Rantings and Ravings of a Madman. sirlagz.net - Lawrence Yau. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "Raspbian wheezy". Downloads. Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- Eben Upton (24 May 2013). "Wayland". Raspberry Pi. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Inspired by CrunchBang Linux, and based on Raspbian. Features the Openbox desktop environment".
- "Dexter_Industries_Raspbian_Flavor: Modified Raspbian Image for Use with the BrickPi Robot".
- "XBian is a small, fast and lightweight media center distribution for the Raspberry Pi". xbian.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "openSUSE on a Raspberry Pi".
- "Raspberry Pi". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Raspberry Pi - Gentoo Wiki". Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- "Raspberry Pi - Diet Pi". Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- SlackwareARM for the Raspberry Pi
- "ArmedSlack working :)". raspberrypi.org. 18 May 2012.
- "alt.os.linux.slackware – ARMed Slack running on Raspberry Pi". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "raspberrypi.org – ArmedSlack 13.37". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "The Slackware Linux Project: Installation Help". Slackware.com. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "Slackware Linux Essentials: The Shell". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- v1.0.2 (en), xiando. "Desktops: KDE vs Gnome". Linux Reviews. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "FreeBSD – Raspberry Pi".
- "NetBSD – Raspberry Pi".
- "NetBSD 6.0 released with initial Raspberry Pi support". The H. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Richard Miller (18 August 2012). "9pi". 9fans.net mail archive.
- Liz (5 December 2012). "Wednesday grab bag". Raspberry Pi Foundation. See the "Plan 9" section.
- "Inferno OS ported to Raspberry Pi".
- "Moebius". sourceforge.net.
- "FAQ - Moebius". sourceforge.net.
- "Pardus ARM". www.pardusarm.com.
- "ROKOS Core OS for Raspberry Pi and IoT Devices with integrated Bitcoin Support".
- "Kano - Downloads". kano.me.
- "Nard SDK". arbetsmyra.dyndns.org.
- "Sailfish on a Raspberry Pi". together.jolla.com. Jolla. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Sauter, Marc (2 February 2015). "Internet der Dinger: Windows 10 läuft kostenlos auf dem Raspberry Pi 2" (in German). Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "WTware for Raspberry Pi". www.winterminal.com.
- "ARM". wiki.ipfire.org/. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Xv6, a simple Unix-like teaching operating system". MIT.
- "Tingbot - Raspberry Pi made even more fun!". Tingbot.
- "Tingbot - Tide.app". Tingbot.
- djwm (13 September 2011). "Raspberry Pi warms up". The H. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi maker says code for ARM chip is now open source". Ars Technica. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Libraries, codecs, OSS". raspberrypi.org. 31 January 2012.
- Brothers, Ruiz. "WiFi 3D Printing". Adafruit. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Raspberry Pi Includes Mathematica Free". The Verge. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Wolfram Language™ & Mathematica free on every Raspberry Pi".
- Mathematica and the Wolfram Language on Raspberry Pi, Raspberry Pi Blog, January, 2014.
- "Mathematica 10 – now available for your Pi! - Raspberry Pi". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Wolfram Language Documentation Center.
- Wolfram Language™ & Mathematica PILOT RELEASE FOR THE RASPBERRY PI, Wolfram.com.
- "Minecraft: Pi Edition - Minecraft: Pi Edition updates and downloads". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Pearce, Rohan (20 September 2013). "Entensys builds mini Web filtering appliance with Raspberry Pi". Techworld Australia.
- "Julia Downloads: Nightly builds". Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- "Raspberry Pi". 21 January 2016.
- Moody Glyn (9 May 2011). "As British as Raspberry Pi?". Computerworld UK Open Enterprise blog. Computerworld. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Pritchard, Stephen (1 March 2012). "Raspberry Pi: A BBC Micro for today's generation". ITPRO. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Stanford, Peter (3 December 2011). "Computing classes don't teach programming skills". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- Williams, Chris (28 November 2011). "Psst, kid... Wanna learn how to hack?". The Register. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "One of the First Raspberry Pi Computers Donated to Museum". The Centre for Computing History. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Osborn, George (23 February 2012). "How Google can really help improve STEM teaching in the UK". Cabume. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Fairhead, Harry (2 December 2011). "Raspberry Pi or Programming – What shall we teach the children?". I Programmer. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- Rockman, Simon (21 February 2012). "Is raspberry pi a mid-life crisis?". ZDNet. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
Just because young teens led the way in computing in the 1980s doesn’t mean it should, will or can happen again. Those outside the tech age bubble have better things to do.
- "Raspberry Pi - Innovation of the Year". T3 Gadget Awards. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- "Showtime | Crowdfunding the Light". 5 October 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "Latest Raspberry Pi has double the RAM". BCS website. BCS. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- several authors (7–9 February 2015). "Raspberry Pi Forums: Why is the PI2 camera-shy?". Raspberry Pi Forums. Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- Benchoff, Brian (8 February 2015). "Photonic Reset of the Raspberry Pi 2". Hackaday. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Bridgwater, Adrian (15 March 2012). "Community strength blossoms for Raspberry Pi". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- "The MagPi – Raspberry Pi online magazine launched". The Digital Lifestyle.com. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "All change - meet the new MagPi". Raspberry Pi. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Raspberry Jam". Raspberry Pi web. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Moorhead, Joanna (9 January 2012). "Raspberry Pi device will 'reboot computing in schools'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Arthur, Charles (5 March 2012). "Raspberry Pi demand running at '700 per second'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi mini computer sells out after taking 700 orders per second". Digital Trends. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Upton, Liz (2 April 2014). "Welcome to our new website". Raspberry Pi Foundation (Cambridge). Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Philbin, Carrie Anne (17 March 2014). "Picademy - free CPD for teachers". Raspberry Pi Foundation (Cambridge). Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Wong, George (24 October 2011). "Build your own prototype Raspberry Pi minicomputer". ubergizmo. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Raspberry Pi • View topic - Raspberry Pi as the successor of BBC Micro". raspberrypi.org. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
The Foundation trustees tried very hard to get an agreement to use the BBC Micro name, right up to May 2011. /../ Eben touched on the subject a bit during his speech at the Beeb@30 celebration at the beginning of the month: http://www.raspberrypi.org/archives/970 starting at time index 11:30
- Quested, Tony (29 February 2012). "Raspberry blown at Cambridge software detractors". Business Weekly. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- "Tiny USB-Sized PC Offers 1080p HDMI Output". Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Richard Lawler, 29 February 2012, Raspberry Pi credit-card sized Linux PCs are on sale now, $25 Model A gets a RAM bump, Engadget
- "launch of the model A announced". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Raspberry PI Zero, at swag store". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Upton, Eben (23 July 2011). "Yet another potential RISC OS target?". RISC OS Open. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Hansen, Martin (31 October 2011). "Raspberry Pi To Embrace RISC OS". RISCOScode. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Lees, Adrian (8 February 2012). "RISC OS on the Raspberry Pi". RISC OS Open. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- JamesH (29 December 2011). "GPU binary blob question". Raspberry Pi. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Humphries, Matthew (28 July 2011). "Raspberry Pi $25 PC goes into alpha production". Geek.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- "Raspberry Pi YouTube Channel". Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- "Full HD video demo at TransferSummit Oxford". Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- Dewhurst, Christopher (December 2011). "The London show 2011". Archive (magazine) 23 (3). p. 3.
- Lee, Jeffrey. "Newsround". The Icon Bar. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- eben. "RISC OS for Raspberry Pi". Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "What happened to the beta boards?". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "We have PCBs!". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "More on the beta boards". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Bringing up a beta board". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "We’re auctioning ten beta Raspberry Pi's;". Raspberrypi.org. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Williams, Chris (3 January 2012). "That Brit-built £22 computer: Yours for just £1,900 or more". The Register. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Cheerin, Iris (11 January 2012). "Raspberry Pi Goes Into Production". TechWeekEurope UK. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- "eBay list of items sold by Raspberry Pi ''(retrieved 13 January 2012)''". Ebay.co.uk. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi Model B beta board - #01 of a limited series of 10". Ebay.co.uk. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- ""Set your alarms!" – Raspberry Pi looks ready for early Wednesday launch". Cabume. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- "linuxnews showing the first release of Debian Squeeze for Raspberry running on QEMU". Linuxnewshere.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "Getting ready for launch: first root filesystem available for download". Raspberry Pi Foundation. 17 February 2012. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- "The Raspberry Pi £22 computer goes on general sale". BBC News. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- Subramanian, Karthik (2 March 2012). "Low-cost mini-PC Raspberry Pi gets heavily booked". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Paul, Ryan (29 February 2012). "Raspberry Pi retailers toppled by demand as $35 Linux computer launches". Ars Technica. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- Naughton, John (4 March 2012). "The Raspberry Pi can help schools get with the programme". The Observer (London). Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi Buying Guide". Elinux.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Upton, Liz (8 March 2012). "Manufacturing hiccup". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Gilbert, David (9 March 2012). "Raspberry Pi £22 Computer Delayed Due to 'Manufacturing Hiccup'". International Business Times. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Gilbert, David (13 March 2012). "Interview with Eben Upton – Raspberry Pi Founder". International Business Times. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Lee, Robert (17 January 2012). "Raspberry Pi Balks At UK Tax Regime". Tax-News.com. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Weakley, Kirsty. "UK computing charity opts to manufacture product abroad". Civil Society Media. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi Fedora Remix, our recommended distro, is ready for download!". Raspberrypi.org. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Chung, Emily (24 February 2012). "$35 computer 'Raspberry Pi' readies for launch". Canada: CBC. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Brodkin, Jon (6 March 2013). "How two volunteers built the Raspberry Pi’s operating system". Ars Technica. Technology Lab / Information Technology. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "ArmHardFloatPort". Debian Wiki. Debian. 20 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "ArmEabiPort". Debian Wiki. Debian. 28 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- Connors, Jim (16 March 2013). "Is it armhf or armel?". Jim Connors' Weblog. Oracle Blogs. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "ArmHardFloatPort VfpComparison". Debian Wiki. Debian. 27 April 2011. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "the first reports of forum members reporting they received their Raspberry Pi". Raspberrypi.org. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "engadget reports raspberry pi begins shipping (video)". Engadget.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "schematic design, applicable for both version A and B of the Raspberry Pi revision 1.0". Raspberrypi.org. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "CAMERA MODULE – FIRST PICTURES!". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Add your Raspberry Pi to the Rastrack map". Raspberrypi.org. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- "Raspberry Pi lifts sale restrictions, open to bulk buyers". Electronista (Macintosh News Network). 16 July 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Want to buy more than one Raspberry Pi? Now you can!". Raspberrypi.org. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- "Hardware-assisted H.264 video encoding". raspberrypi.org. 7 February 2012.
- Jurczak, Paul. "Raspberry Pi camera module". Raspberrypi.org. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "H.264 Hardware encoding performance".
- Owano, Nancy (18 July 2012). "Raspberry Pi gets customized OS called Raspbian". PhysOrg. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Upcoming board revision". Raspberrypi.org. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "board revision for rev 2.0". Raspberrypi.org. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Dunn, John E (7 September 2012). "Raspberry Pi resurrects UK computer industry with new jobs". Computerworld UK. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "Made in the UK!". Raspberrypi.org. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Model B now ships with 512 MB of RAM". Raspberrypi.org. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Brodkin, Jon (28 February 2014). "Raspberry Pi marks 2nd birthday with plan for open source graphics driver". Ars Technica. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Upton, Eben (28 February 2014). "A birthday present from Broadcom". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Shead, Sam (18 October 2012). "Raspberry Pi delivery delays leave buyers hungry (and angry)". ZDNet. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Introducing the Pi Store". Raspberry Pi Foundation. 17 December 2012.
- Upton, Liz (3 June 2013). "Introducing the New Out Of Box Software (NOOBS)". RPF. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "BBC News - Baked in Britain, the millionth Raspberry Pi". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Two Million!". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- "RASPBERRY PI AT BUCKINGHAM PALACE, 3 MILLION SOLD". Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "Raspberry Pi 2 on sale now at $35 Raspberry Pi". Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Price cut! Raspberry Pi Model B+ now only $25". 14 May 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
- "Raspberry Pi slashes price after rival launches on Kickstarter". 18 May 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
- Upton, Eben (2016-02-29). "Raspberry Pi 3 available". Raspberry Pi Foundation. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
- "New 8-megapixel camera board on sale at $25". 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
both visible-light and infrared cameras based on the Sony IMX219 8-megapixel sensor, at the same low price of $25. They’re available today from our partners RS Components and element14
- Raspberry Pi For Dummies; Sean McManus and Mike Cook; 432 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1118554210.
- Getting Started with Raspberry Pi; Matt Richardson and Shawn Wallace; 176 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1449344214.
- Raspberry Pi User Guide; Eben Upton and Gareth Halfacree; 312 pages; 2014; ISBN 978-1118921661.
- Hello Raspberry Pi!; Ryan Heitz; 320 pages; 2016; ISBN 978-1617292453.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Raspberry Pi.|