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|Aesculapian snake (Zamenis longissimus)|
Rat snakes (or ratsnakes) are members – along with kingsnakes, milk snakes, vine snakes and indigo snakes – of the subfamily Colubrinae of the family Colubridae. They are medium to large constrictors and are found throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. They feed primarily on rodents and birds. With some species exceeding 3 m (10 ft) in total length, they can occupy top levels of some food chains. Many species make attractive and docile pets and one, the corn snake, is one of the most popular reptile pets in the world. Other species can be very skittish and sometimes aggressive, but bites are rarely serious. Like nearly all colubrids, rat snakes pose no threat to humans. Rat snakes were long thought to be completely nonvenomous, but recent studies have shown that some Old World species do possess small amounts of venom, though the amount is negligible relative to humans.
Previously, most rat snakes were assigned to the genus Elaphe, but many have been since renamed following mitochondrial DNA analysis performed in 2002. For the purpose of this article, names will be harmonized with the TIGR Database[clarification needed].
Old World rat snakes
- Philippine rat snake, C. erythrurus (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
- Black copper rat snake or yellow striped snake, C. flavolineatus (Schlegel, 1837)
- Trinket snake, C. helena (Daudin, 1803)
- Copperhead rat snake, C. radiata (F. Boie, 1827)
- Indonesian rat snake, C. subradiata (Schlegel, 1837)
- Twin-spotted rat snake, Elaphe bimaculata Schmidt, 1925
- King rat snake, Elaphe carinata (Günther, 1864)
- Japanese rat snake, E. climacophora (H. Boie, 1826)
- David's rat snake, E. davidi (Sauvage, 1884)
- Dione rat snake, E. dione (Pallas, 1773)
- Japanese four-lined rat snake, E. quadrivirgata (H. Boie, 1826)
- Four-lined snake, E. quatuorlineata (Lacépède, 1789)
- Red-backed rat snake, E. rufodorsata (Cantor, 1842)
- Eastern four-lined snake, E. sauromates (Pallas, 1811)
- Russian rat snake, E. schrenckii Strauch, 1873
- Japanese forest rat snake, E. conspicillatus (H. Boie, 1826)
- Mandarin rat snake, E. mandarinus (Cantor, 1842)
- Green trinket snake, G. frenatum (Gray, 1853)
- Celebes black-tailed rat snake, G. jansenii (Bleeker, 1858)
- Red-tailed green rat snake, G. oxycephalum (F. Boie, 1827)
- Mountain rat snake, O. porphyracea (Cantor, 1839)
- Cantor's rat snake, O. cantoris (Boulenger, 1894)
- Hodgson's rat snake, O. hodgsoni (Günther, 1860)
- 100 flower rat snake, O. moellendorffi (Boettger, 1886)
- Beauty snake, O. taeniurus (Cope, 1861)
- Keeled rat snake, P. carinata (Günther, 1858)
- P. dhumnades (Cantor, 1842)
- Sulawesi black racer, P. dipsas (Schlegel, 1837)
- White-bellied rat snake, P. fusca (Günther, 1858)
- Chinese rat snake, P. korros (Schlegel, 1837)
- P. luzonensis (Günther, 1873)
- Oriental rat snake, P. mucosus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Green rat snake, P. nigromarginatus (Blyth, 1854)
- Green bush snake, R. prasinus (Blyth, 1854)
- Transcaucasian rat snake, Z. hohenackeri (Strauch, 1873)
- Italian Aesculapian snake, Z. lineatus (Camerano, 1891)
- Aesculapian snake, Z. longissimus (Laurenti, 1768)
- Persian rat snake, Z. persicus (F. Werner, 1913)
- Indian rat snake,
- Leopard snake, Z. situla (Linnaeus, 1758)
New World rat snakes
- Baja California ratsnake, B. rosaliae (Mocquard, 1899)
- Trans-Pecos ratsnake, B. subocularis (Brown, 1901)
- Eastern ratsnake, P. alleghaniensis (Holbrook, 1836)
- Baird's ratsnake, P. bairdi (Yarrow, 1880)
- Great Plains ratsnake, P. emoryi (Baird & Girard, 1853)
- Eastern foxsnake, P. gloydi (Conant, 1940)
- Cornsnake, P. guttatus (Linnaeus, 1766)
- Black ratsnake, P. obsoletus (Say, 1823)
- Western foxsnake, Pantherophis ramspotti (Crother, White, Savage, Eckstut, Graham & Gardner, 2011)
- Gray ratsnake, P. spiloides (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
- Eastern foxsnake, P. vulpinus (Baird & Girard, 1853)
- Mexican ratsnake, P. flavirufa (Cope, 1867)
- Green ratsnake, S. triaspis (Cope, 1866)
- Chicken snake or yellow rat snake, S. pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Nota bene: In the above species lists, an authority's name in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a different genus. An authority's name not in parentheses indicates that the species is still assigned to the original genus in which it was described.
In recent years, some taxonomic controversy has occurred over the genus of North American rat snakes. Based on mitochondrial DNA, Utiger et al. (2002) showed that North American rat snakes of the genus Elaphe, along with closely related genera such as Pituophis and Lampropeltis, form a monophyletic group separate from Old World members of the genus. They therefore suggested the resurrection of the available name Pantherophis Fitzinger for all North American taxa (north of Mexico). Crother et al. (2008) accepted the taxonomic change to Pantherophis.
Rat snakes are commonly kept as pets by reptile enthusiasts. The corn snake, one of the most popular pet reptiles, is a rat snake. New World species are generally thought to be more docile in captivity as opposed to Old World rat snakes, of which the opposite is assumed.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zamenis longissimus.|
- Fry, Bryan G.; Lumsden, Natalie G.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Wickramaratna, Janith C.; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Kini, R. Manjunatha (2003-10-01). "Isolation of a neurotoxin (alpha-colubritoxin) from a nonvenomous colubrid: evidence for early origin of venom in snakes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 57 (4): 446–452. ISSN 0022-2844. PMID 14708577. doi:10.1007/s00239-003-2497-3.
- Utiger, U., Helfenberger, N., Schätti, B., Schmidt, C., Ruf, M., & Ziswiler, V. (2002). "Molecular systematics and phylogeny of Old and New World ratsnakes, Elaphe auct., and related genera (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae)" (PDF). Russian Journal of Herpetology. 9 (2): 105–124.
- Elaphe obsoleta at The Center for North American Herpetology. Accessed 20 June 2008.
- Crother BI, et al. (2008) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico: 6th edition. Herp. Rev. 37, pp. 58–59. or see pp. 64 ff in the 7th edition.
- Bartlett, Richard D.; Bartlett, Patricia Pope. Corn Snakes and Other Rat Snakes: Everything about Acquiring, Hosuing, Health, and Breeding. Barron's Educational Series. p. 8. ISBN 9780764134074.