A rat race is an endless, self-defeating, or pointless pursuit. The phrase equates humans to rats attempting to earn a reward such as cheese, in vain. It may also refer to a competitive struggle to get ahead financially or routinely.
The term is commonly associated with an exhausting, repetitive lifestyle that leaves no time for relaxation or enjoyment.
The earliest known occurrence is 1934. In reference to aviation training a rat race was originally a "follow-the-leader" game in which a trainee fighter pilot had to copy all the actions (loops, rolls, spins, Immelmann turns etc.) performed by an experienced pilot. From 1945, the phrase took on the meaning of "competitive struggle."
- The Rat Race was used as a title for a novel written by Jay Franklin in 1947 for Colliers Magazine and first published in book form in 1950. It is dedicated To those few rats in Washington who do not carry brief-cases.
- The term "rat race" was used in an article about Samuel Goudsmit published in 1953 entitled: A Farewell to String and Sealing Wax~I in which Daniel Lang wrote,
Sometimes when his sardonic mood is on him, he wonders whether the synchrotrons, the betatrons, the cosmotrons, and all the other contrivances physicists have lately rigged up to create energy by accelerating particles of matter aren't playing a wry joke on their inventors. "They are accelerating us too," he says, in a voice that still betrays a trace of the accent of his native Holland. In protesting against the speedup, Goudsmit can speak with authority, for in the course of only a few years, he, like many other contemporary physicists, has seen his way of life change from a tranquil one of contemplation to a rat race.
"Maybe," McLean said softly, "you and I can then get off this rat race. You and I and all the rest of us. And live like human beings." "Rat race," Fowler murmured. "Rats in a maze. Doing tricks. Performing chores thought up by somebody else." McClean caught Fowler's eye. "By somebody of another species."
- Jim Bishop used the term rat race in his book The Golden Ham: A Candid Biography of Jackie Gleason. The term occurs in a letter Jackie Gleason wrote to his wife in which he says: "Television is a rat race, and remember this, even if you win you are still a rat."
- William H. Whyte used the term rat race in The Organization Man:
The word collective most of them can't bring themselves to use—except to describe foreign countries or organizations they don't work for—but they are keenly aware of how much more deeply beholden they are to organization than were their elders. They are wry about it, to be sure; they talk of the "treadmill," the "rat race," of the inability to control one's direction.
- Merle A. Tuve used the term rat race in an article entitled Is Science Too Big for the Scientist? 
There is a growing conviction among many of my friends in academic circles that the university today is no place for a scholar in science. A professor's life nowadays is a rat-race of busyness and activity, managing contracts and projects, guiding teams of assistants, bossing crews of technicians, making numerous trips, sitting on committees for government agencies, and engaging in other distractions necessary to keep the whole frenetic business from collapse.
"Escaping the rat race" can have a number of different meanings:
- Movement from work or geographical location into (typically) a more rural area
- Retirement, quitting or ceasing work
- Moving from a job of high strenuosity to one of lesser strenuosity, like the tang ping lifestyle of young Chinese
- Adopting a Buddha-like mindset
- Changing to a different job altogether
- Remote work
- Becoming financially independent from an employer
- Living in harmony with nature
- Developing an inner attitude of detachment from materialistic pursuits
- Alienation from the norms of society
- Have a Blast Periphery II by Periphery (2012)
- "Slave to the Wage" by English alternative rock band Placebo is a song that describes the classical Rat Race, on the 2000 album Black Market Music.
- "Escape (Free Yo Mind From This Rat Race)" was released as the b-side of "Glam Slam", the second single from Prince's album Lovesexy and was later included on The B-Sides compilation.
- "Rat Race" by English ska band The Specials
- "Mice Race" by British Anarcho-punk band Rudimentary Peni.
- Rat Race Devil's Playground by Billy Idol (2005)
- Rat Race Rastaman Vibration by Bob Marley (1976)
- Rat Race by Babbu Maan (album Pagal Shayar-2020)
- The Clockwise Witness by DeVotchKa is a song that describes the futility of Rat Race (album A Mad & Faithful Telling-2008)
- Even if You Win, You're Still a Rat by Architects (2012)
- RatRace by English metal band Skindred (2007)
- The Racing Rats by English rock band Editors (2007)
- Abilene paradox
- Crab bucket
- Sisyphus, a Greek mythological figure
- The Myth of Sisyphus, an essay by Albert Camus
- Work–life balance
- "Rat-race". Online Etymology Dictionary. 2020.
- Lang, Daniel (November 7, 1953). "A farewell to string and sealing wax~I". The New Yorker. p. 47.
- Bishop, Jim (1956). The Golden Ham: A Candid Biography of Jackie Gleason. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 258.
- Whyte, Jr., William H. (1956). The Organization Man (First ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 4.
- Tuve, Merle A. (June 6, 1959). "Is Science Too Big for the Scientist?". Saturday Review: 48–51.