Ratha Yatra

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Ratha Yatra
Rath Yatra Puri 07-11027.jpg
Three chariots of the deities with the Temple in the background, Puri
Also calledGhosa Jatra
Observed byHindu
TypeReligious
BeginsAshadha Shukla Dwitiya
EndsAshadha Shukla Dashami
2020 date23 June (Tuesday)[1]
2021 date12 July (Monday)[2]
2022 date1 July (Friday)
Frequencyannual

Ratha Yatra (/ˈrʌθə ˈjɑːtrə/; lit.'chariot journey'), also known Ratha Jatra (in Odia) or Chariot festival (in English) is a Hindu festival celebrated Odisha for Jagannath and associated Hindu deities.

His image, along with the other two associated deities, is ceremoniously brought out of the sacrosanctum (Garbhagriha) of his chief temple in Jagannath Puri (Oriya: Bada Deula). They are placed in a chariot which is then pulled by numerous volunteers to the Gundicha Temple, (located at a distance of nearly 3 km or 1.9 mi). Coinciding with the Ratha Yatra festival at Puri, similar processions are organized at Jagannath temples throughout the world. During the festive public procession of Jagannath in Puri lakhs of devotees visit Puri to see Lord Jagganath in chariot.[3]

Western impressions of Ratha Yatra as a display of unstoppable force are the origin of the English word juggernaut.

Ratha jatra in Hinduism
Kalpathy Chariot festival last day.jpg
Viswanatha (Shiva) and Visalakshi (Parvati) rathajatra in Kerala
India - Kanchipuram - 022 - chariot unveiled for upcoming festival (2508349542).jpg
Ratha in Tamil Nadu
FeteVarkala.jpg
Krishna and Arjuna at a ratha festival
Living Goddess Kumari in Chariot during Indrajatra festival in Kathmandu.JPG
A girl as goddess in a Nepalese ratha
A Krishna Radha couple at the Festival Of Chariots 2010.jpg
Krishna and Radha, London chariot festival
Srinivasa Perumal roof.jpg
Thiruvizha festival
Rathajatra are festival processions, occasions for religious, social and cultural celebrations.

Etymology[edit]

Ratha-jatra is derived from two Sanskrit words, Ratha (रथ) which means chariot or carriage, and jātrā (ଯାତ୍ରା) which means journey or pilgrimage.[4] In other Indian languages such as Odia, the phonetic equivalents are used, such as ratha and yatra. Other names for the festival are ratha jatra or chariot festival.

Description[edit]

Ratha Yatra in Moscow

Rathajatra is a journey in a chariot accompanied by the public. It typically refers to a procession (journey) of deities, people dressed like deities, or simply religious saints and political leaders.[5] The term appears in medieval texts of India such as the Puranas, which mention the Rathajatra of Surya (Sun god), of Devi (Mother goddess), and of Vishnu. These chariot journeys have elaborate celebrations where the individuals or the deities come out of a temple accompanied by the public journeying with them through the Ksetra (region, streets) to another temple or to the river or the sea. Sometimes the festivities include returning to the sacrosanctum of the temple.[5][6]

Places[edit]

Jagannath Puri Rath jatra in Odisha[edit]

Rathajatra in Odisha, India.

During the Jagannath Rath jatra, the triads are usually worshiped in the sanctum of the temple at Puri, but once during the month of Asadha (Rainy Season of Odisha, usually falling in month of June or July), they are brought out onto the Bada Danda (main street of Puri)[7] and travel (3 km) to the Shri Gundicha Temple, in huge chariots (ratha), allowing the public to have darśana (Holy view). This festival is known as Rath Jatra, meaning the journey (jatra) of the chariots (ratha). The Rathas are huge wheeled wooden structures, which are built anew every year and are pulled by the devotees. The chariot for Jagannath is approximately 45 feet high and 35 feet square and takes about 2 months to construct.[8] The artists and painters of Puri decorate the chariots and paint flower petals and other designs on the wheels, the wood-carved charioteer and horses, and the inverted lotuses on the wall behind the throne.[9] The Ratha-Jatra is also termed as the Shri Gundicha jatra.

The most significant ritual associated with the Ratha-jatra is the chhera pahara. During the festival, the Gajapati King wears the outfit of a sweeper and sweeps all around the deities and chariots in the Chera Pahara (sweeping with water) ritual. The Gajapati King cleanses the road before the chariots with a gold-handled broom and sprinkles sandalwood water and powder with utmost devotion. As per the custom, although the Gajapati King has been considered the most exalted person in the Kalingan kingdom, he still renders the menial service to Jagannath. This ritual signified that under the lordship of Jagannath, there is no distinction between the powerful sovereign Gajapati King and the most humble devotee.[10]

Chera pahara is held on two days, on the first day of the Ratha Jatra, when the deities are taken to garden house at Mausi Maa Temple and again on the last day of the festival, when the deities are ceremoniously brought back to the Shri Mandir.

As per another ritual, when the deities are taken out from the Shri Mandir to the Chariots in Pahandi Vijay.

In the Ratha Jatra, the three deities are taken from the Jagannath Temple in the chariots to the Gundicha Temple, where they stay for nine days. Thereafter, the deities again ride the chariots back to Shri Mandir in bahuda Jatra. On the way back, the three chariots halt at the Mausi Maa Temple and the deities are offered Poda Pitha, a kind of baked cake which are generally consumed by the people of Odisha.

The observance of the Rath Jatra of Jagannath dates back to the period of the Puranas. Vivid descriptions of this festival are found in Brahma Purana, Padma Purana, and Skanda Purana. Kapila Samhita also refers to Rath Jatra. In Moghul period also, King Ramsingh of Jaipur, Rajasthan has been described as organizing the Rath Jatra in the 18th Century. In Odisha, Kings of Mayurbhanj and Parlakhemundi were organizing the Rath Jatra, though the most grand festival in terms of scale and popularity takes place at Puri.

Moreover, Starza[11] notes that the ruling Ganga dynasty instituted the Rath Jatra at the completion of the great temple around 1150 AD. This festival was one of those Hindu festivals that was reported to the Western world very early. Friar Odoric of Pordenone visited India in 1316–1318, some 20 years after Marco Polo had dictated the account of his travels while in a Genoese prison.[12] In his own account of 1321, Odoric reported how the people put the "idols" on chariots, and the King and Queen and all the people drew them from the "church" with song and music.[13] [14]

International Jagannath Ratha Jatra[edit]

The Ratha Jatra festival has become a common sight in most major cities of the world since 1968 through the Hare Krishna movement. Local chapters put on the festival annually in over a hundred cities worldwide.[15]

Dhamrai Jagannath Roth festival[edit]

Dhamrai Jagannath Rath is a chariot temple, a Roth, dedicated to the Hindu God Jagannath located in Dhamrai, Bangladesh. The annual Jagannath Roth Jatra is a famous Hindu festival attracting thousands of people. The Roth Jatra in Dhamrai is one of the most important events for the Hindu community of Bangladesh.[16] The original historical Roth was burnt down by the Pakistan Army in 1971[6] The Roth has since been rebuilt with Indian assistance.

The ISKCON Jagganath deities after the Rath-Yatra at the Parade Brigade Ground, Dharmatala, Kolkata.

Ratha Jatra of Mahesh[edit]

The Ratha Yatra of Mahesh is the second oldest chariot festival in India (after Rath Yatra at Puri) and oldest in Bengal,[17] having been celebrated since 1396 CE.[18] It is a month-long festival held at Mahesh in Serampore of West Bengal and a grand fair is held at that time. People throng to have a share in pulling the long ropes (Roshi) attached to the chariots of Lord Jagannath, Balarama and Subhadra on the journey from the temple to Gundicha Bari (Masir bari) and back.

Manipur[edit]

The practice of Ratha Yatra in Manipur was introduced in the nineteenth century. The Khaki Ngamba chronicle mentions that on a Monday in either April or May 1829, the King of Manipur Gambhir Singh was passing through Sylhet whilst on a British expedition against the Khasis. Two processions were being prepared by Sylhet's Muslim and Hindu communities respectively. The Islamic month of Muharram in the history of Sylhet was a lively time during which tazia processions were common. This happened to fall on the same day as Ratha Yatra. Sensing possible communal violence, the Faujdar of Sylhet, Ganar Khan, requested the Hindu community to delay their festival by one day. Contrary to the Nawab's statement, a riot emerged between the two communities. As a Hindu himself, Singh managed to defend the Hindus and disperse the Muslim rioters with his Manipuri troops. The Ratha Yatra was not delayed, and Singh stayed to take part in it. Revered by the Hindu community as a defender of their faith, he enjoyed the procession and initiated the practice of celebrating Ratha Yatra and worshipping Jagannath in his own homeland of Manipur.[19]

Examples[edit]

Left: A 1914 painting of Rathajatra in Chennai; Right: A Matsyendranath Rathajatra in Nepal
  • Ratha-Jatra, Puri, at Puri in the state of Odisha, is the largest and most visited Rath Jatra in the world attracting a large crowd every year.
  • Baripada Ratha Jatra is the second oldest in the world. So Baripada is also called as Dwitiya Shrikhetra or 2nd Puri. Ratha Jatra has been celebrated here since 1575 without any interruption.
  • Rath Jatra of Kendujhar is the second largest Rath Jatra in the world. The Keonjhar Ratha (Chariot) - Nandighosh is the Tallest Ratha in the World.
  • Rath Yatra (Ahmedabad) - Rath Jatra also takes place in Ahmedabad, Gujarat State, which is known to be the third largest in the world.[20]
  • Sukinda Ratha Jatra in Odisha is also known to attract a large number of devotees.
  • Dhamrai Jagannath Roth, at Dhamrai in Bangladesh, is the most famous Rath Yatra in Bangladesh.
  • ISKCON Dhaka Ratha Jatra is the second famous Rath Yatra in Bangladesh.
  • Rajbalhat Ratha Jatra, West Bengal, India.
The Ratha-Jatra of Jagannath In Nabadwip features unusual images with hands.[21]

Ratha jatra in Baldevjew Temple, Kendrapara ...The chariot is named as Brahmataladwajha where lord Baldevjew is the presiding deity along with lord Jaganath and Devi Subhadra..

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "National Portal of India". india.gov.in. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  2. ^ "National Portal of India". india.gov.in. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  3. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduikm: N-Z. Rosen Publishing. p. 567. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.
  4. ^ Nori J. Muster (2013). Betrayal of the Spirit. University of Illinois Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-252-09499-6.
  5. ^ a b Michaels; Cornelia Vogelsanger; Annette Wilke (1996). Wild Goddesses in India and Nepal: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Berne and Zurich, November 1994. P. Lang. pp. 270–285. ISBN 978-3-906756-04-2.
  6. ^ a b Mandai, Paresh Chandra (2012). "Rathajatra". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  7. ^ "Hopes of Puri Rath Yatra Dying Fast". Odisha Television. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  8. ^ Starza 1993, p. 16.
  9. ^ Das 1982, p. 40.
  10. ^ Karan, Jajati (4 July 2008). "Lord Jagannath jatra to begin soon". IBN Live. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  11. ^ Starza 1993, p. 133.
  12. ^ Mitter 1977, p. 10.
  13. ^ Starza 1993, p. 129.
  14. ^ Das 1982, p. 48.
  15. ^ Festival of India
  16. ^ "Rathajatra festival today". The New Nation, Dhaka – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 24 June 2009. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  17. ^ "Rathayatra celebrated in West Bengal". The Hindu. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  18. ^ "Bengal celebrates Rathajatra festival". Monsters and Critics. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  19. ^ Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1980). Religious Developments in Manipur in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Manipur State Kala Akademi. pp. 165–166. Gonarkhan
  20. ^ "About Ahmedabad Rath Jatra : Jamalpur Jagannath Temple".
  21. ^ Nabadwip Jagannath
  22. ^ S Banerjee, Partha (2008). "Dussehra in Bastar -- a riot of colours - Economic Times". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 9 January 2013. The Bastar royal family figures prominently in the script and the props include a huge chariot that is first built, then ritually 'stolen', and then again recovered and pulled ceremonially through the streets of Jagdalpur
  23. ^ "Tribals celebrate unique Dussehra in Bastar - Oneindia News". news.oneindia.in. 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2013. The another attraction of this 'tribal Dusshra', is a double-decked Rath (Chariot) with eight wheels and weighing about 30 tonnes.

Bibliography[edit]