(J.D. Hooker) Seemann
Raukaua is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araliaceae. It has an austral distribution, being indigenous to southern Argentina and Chile, as well as New Zealand and the island of Tasmania.
Raukaua is a genus of woody plants. They vary in habit: for example R. laetevirens is a small tree, while R. valdiviensis is a liana. Like most of Araliaceae, they have palmately compound leaves. The leaves are heteroblastic, that is, conspicuously different in form from juvenile to adult. R. simplex often produces root suckers and on these, the further the sucker is from the main shoot, the more juvenile the form of the leaves.
All of the species of Raukaua have been placed in Pseudopanax at one time or another, and sometimes in other genera as well. Molecular phylogenetic comparisons of DNA sequences have shown that Raukaua is closely related to Schefflera sensu strictissimo, Cheirodendron, Motherwellia, and Cephalaralia (not Cephalaria!). It might not be as close to Pseudopanax as was once believed.
Raukaua is known to be polyphyletic and will eventually be revised, but in its current circumscription, it comprises six species. R. gunnii is endemic to Tasmania. R. laetevirens and R. valdiviensis are from southern Chile and Argentina, the latter being restricted to the Valdivian temperate rain forest. R. anomalus, R. edgerleyi, and R. simplex are from New Zealand. There are naturally occurring hybrids between R. simplex and the other two New Zealand species.
Species and hybrids
The genus Raukaua was erected by Berthold Carl Seemann in 1866 in Journal of Botany, British and Foreign. The genus name is a Latinization of Raukawa, the Māori name for Raukaua edgerleyi. Upon publication, the name was misspelled as Raukana, complicating issues of priority and valid publication, but Seeman published a correction in 1868 that read "Raukaua, Seem., read always Raukaua.".
Subsequently, most authors did not recognize Seemann's genus, and they usually placed its species in other genera, usually Pseudopanax. In cases where Raukaua was accepted, it usually included only the New Zealand species.
Raukaua was last revised in 1997, in the New Zealand Journal of Botany. The status of the two hybrids was clarified in 1998. In 2003, a checklist and nomenclator was published for Araliaceae.
Phylogenetic studies of Araliaceae have indicated that Raukaua might be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The polyphyly of Raukaua was confirmed and clarified in 2012, in a molecular phylogenetic study. The following relationships were resolved. The New Zealand species are sister to a clade consisting of Schefflera sensu strictissimo and Cheirodendron. Schefflera s.ss. is a Melanesian and Polynesian group. Cheirodendron is endemic to Hawaii. The South American species are sister to a clade comprising the Tasmanian R. gunnii and the monospecific mainland Australian genera Cephalaralia and Motherwellia. R. gunnii is sister to the clade [Cephalaralia + Motherwellia]. Because of the polyphyly of Raukaua, its South American and Tasmanian species must eventually be transferred to other genera. A treatment of Araliaceae has already been submitted for the book series entitled The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants.
- David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4. (See External links below).
- Roderick J. Weston. 2004. Essential Oils of the Leaves of the Raukaua Genus (Araliaceae). Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. Tubingen-Mainz, Series C (A Journal of Biosciences) volume 59,pages 35-38. (See External links below).
- David G. Frodin and Rafaël Govaerts. 2003. World Checklist and Bibliography of Araliaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 978-1-84246-048-1. (See External links below).
- Anthony D. Mitchell, Rong Li, Joseph W. Brown, Ines Schönberger, and Jun Wen. 2012. Ancient divergence and biogeography of Raukaua (Araliaceae) and close relatives in the southern hemisphere. Australian Systematic Botany 25(6):432-446. doi:10.1071/SB12020. (See External links below).
- Antoine N. Nicolas and Gregory M. Plunkett. 2009. The demise of subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the realignment of its genera across the entire order Apiales. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53(1):134-151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.06.010.
- Patrick B. Heenan. 1998. The status of Raukaua edgerleyi var. serratus and R. x parvus comb. nov. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36(2):307-310. (See External links below).
- Raukaua In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below).
- Raukaua in International Plant Names Index. (see External links below).
- Berthold Carl Seemann. 1866. On the genus Raukana (sic). page 352. In: Revision of the natural order Hederaceae. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 4:352. (See External links below).
- Anthony D. Mitchell, David G. Frodin, and Michael J. Heads. 1997. Reinstatement of Raukaua, a genus of the Araliaceae centred in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35(3):309-315. doi:10.1080/0028825X.1997.10410156. (See External links below).
- Berthold Carl Seemann. 1868. page 142 In: Additions and Corrections to the Revision of Hederaceae, pages 140-142. In: Revision of the Natural Order Hederaceae, pages 129-142. In: Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, volume 6. (See External links below).
- David G. Frodin, Porter P. Lowry II, and Gregory M. Plunkett. 2010. Schefflera (Araliaceae): taxonomic history, overview, and progress. Plant Diversity and Evolution 128(3-4):561-595. doi:10.1127/1869-6155/2010/0128-0028.
- Gregory M. Plunkett, Jun Wen, Porter P. Lowry II, Murray J. Henwood, Pedro Fiaschi, and Anthony D. Mitchell. accepted, undated. Araliaceae, pages ??. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor); ?? (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume ??. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN ??
- Raukaua In Mabberley's Plant-Book
- World Checklist and Bibliography of Araliaceae At World Checklists At kewbooks At Scientific Publications At Kew Gardens
- Abstract and References for Mitchell et alii (2012)
- Raukaua hybrids In Volume 36, Issue 2 In List of Issues Of New Zealand Journal of Botany
- Raukaua At Index Nominum Genericorum At References At NMNH Department of Botany At Research and Collections At Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
- Raukaua At Plant Names At: IPNI
- page 352 In: volume 4 Of: Journal of Botany, British and Foreign At: J At: Titles At: BHL
- page 142 In: volume 6 Of: Journal of Botany, British and Foreign
- Reinstatement of Raukaua In: volume 35 At: List of issues Of: New Zealand Journal of Botany At: Taylor & Francis Online
- Raukaua (exact) At: Names At: Tropicos At: Science and Conservation At: Missouri Botanical Garden
- Raukaua At: List of Genera At: Araliaceae At: List of families At: Families and Genera in GRIN At: Queries At: GRIN taxonomy for plants
- Raukaua At: Araliaceae At: Apiineae At: Apiales In: ··· Embryophyta At: Streptophytina At: Streptophyta At: Viridiplantae At: Eukaryota At: Taxonomy At: UniProt
- Pictures of Raukaua edgerleyi At: Trees (Native) Growing locally At: Friends of Te Henui At: Taranaki Educational Resource
- Raukaua edgerleyi At: Landcare Research
- R. edgerleyi, Raukawa
- R. laetevirens, Flora Chilena
- R. valdiviensis, Flora Chilena