Rauvolfia serpentina

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Rauvolfia serpentina
Rauvolfia serpentina in Kudayathoor.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Rauvolfia
Species: R. serpentina
Binomial name
Rauvolfia serpentina
(L.) Benth. ex Kurz[1]
  • Ophioxylon album Gaertn.
  • Ophioxylon obversum Miq.
  • Ophioxylon salutiferum Salisb.
  • Ophioxylon serpentinum L.
  • Ophioxylon trifoliatum Gaertn.
  • Rauvolfia obversa (Miq.) Baill.
  • Rauvolfia trifoliata (Gaertn.) Baill.
Rauvolfia serpentina 11.JPG
Rauwolfia serpentina at talkatora gardens delhi.jpg

Rauvolfia serpentina, or Indian snakeroot or sarpagandha, is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae. It is native to the Indian Subcontinent and East Asia (from India to Indonesia).[3][4] Common English names : Devil-pepper, Snake-root.

Vernacular names[edit]

English: serpentine wood[5] Bengali: Chandra; Hindi: Chandrabagha, Chota chand; Kannada: Patalagondhi, Sarpagandhi,Shivavabhiballi, Sutranavi; Malayalam: Chuvanna-vilpori, Suvapavalforiyan; Marathi: Harkaya, Harki; Oriya:Patalgarur, Sanochada; Tamil: Chivan amelpodi; Telgu: Paataala garuda, Paataala goni; Urdu: Asrel.[6]

Chemical composition[edit]

Rauvolfia serpentina The plant contains more than 50 different alkaloids which belong to the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid family. The major alkaloids are ajmaline, ajmalicine, ajmalimine, deserpidine, indobine, indobinine, reserpine, reserpiline, rescinnamine, rescinnamidine, serpentine, serpentinine and yohimbine.[7]

Medicinal uses[edit]

The plant is known for curing various disorders because of the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phlobatannins, phenols, resins, saponins, tannins and terpenes.

The extract of the plant has also been used for millennia in India – Alexander the Great administered this plant to cure his general Ptolemy I Soter of a poisoned arrow. It was reported that Mahatma Gandhi took it as a tranquilizer during his lifetime.[8] It has been used for millennia to treat insect stings and the bites of venomous reptiles. A compound which it contains called reserpine, was used in an attempt to treat high blood pressure and mental disorders including schizophrenia, and had a brief period of popularity for that purpose in the West from 1954 to 1957.[9] . R. serpentina is also known for its antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antidiuretic and anticholinergic activities.[7]

Recent research has proved that Rauwolfia serpentina exhibits profound activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells.[10]

It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has the name shégēn mù (Chinese: ) or yìndù shémù (Chinese: ).


The wood, commonly known as serpentwood, is mildly popular amongst woodcarving and woodturning hobbyists.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Module 11: Ayurvedic". Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  3. ^ eFloras. "Rauvolfia serpentina". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S. (2002).Identification, cultivation and export of important medicinal plants. In Proc. National Seminar on Horticulture Development in Chhattisgarh: Vision and Vistas. Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur (India) 21-23 Jan. 2002:78-85.
  5. ^ "Rauvolfia serpentina". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  6. ^ http://www.bsienvis.nic.in/CITES/R.%20serpentina.pdf
  7. ^ a b http://www.globalresearchonline.net/journalcontents/v23-2/56.pdf
  8. ^ Pills for Mental Illness?, TIME Magazine, November 8, 1954
  9. ^ Sumit Isharwal and Shubham Gupta (2006). "Rustom Jal Vakil: his contributions to cardiology". Texas Heart Institute Journal 33 (2): 161–170. PMC 1524711. PMID 16878618. 
  10. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711315000215