Raven Tales

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The Raven sits on a really jumpy frog after having rescued children from a flood and were about to die but luckily they survived.

Raven Tales are the traditional people and animals creation stories of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast but are also found among Athabaskan-speaking peoples and others. Raven stories exist in nearly all of the First Nations throughout the region but are most prominent in the tales of the Tlingit and Tahltan people.

Raven and eagle are known by many different names by many different peoples and is an important figure amongst written and verbal stories. His tales are passed down through the generations of story tellers of the people and are of cultural and historical significance. It's important to note that Native myths such as the Raven Tales, as opposed to tall tales and little stories for children, are not entertainment and are cultural property of the clan or individual that the story originates from. It is customary that others should not tell stories that are owned by another clan, especially if they do not live in the same area.[1]

While each culture's stories of the Raven are different, there are even those that share the same title; certain attributes of Raven remain the same. The Raven is always a magical creature able to take the form of human, animal, even inanimate objects. He is a keeper of secrets, and a trickster often focused on satisfying his own gluttony for whatever he desires. His stories tell of how worldly things came to be or offer suggestion to children on how to behave.[2]:394–395 Raven's creative nature shows itself through circumstance rather than intent, through the desire to satisfy his own needs, rather than any altruistic principles. Raven is both the protagonist among the stories of some groups, and the antagonist of others; he is a hero and an amusement.

Tales that feature the Raven as the hero are specific to areas in the north of the continent such as northern British Columbia[3] and Alaska and their peoples,[2]:387 such as the Tsimshian[2]:397 and the Haida. Similar tales appear in Chukchi cultures in the north-east of Asia and it is probable that they are influenced by Native American stories.[2]:383–384

The Haida First Nation credits Raven with finding the first humans hiding in a clam shell; he brought them berries and salmon. The Sioux tell of how a white raven used to warn buffalo of approaching hunters. Eventually an angry shaman caught the bird and threw it into a fire, turning it black.[4][self-published source]

Common features[edit]

While Raven tales tell the origins of human beings, they do not address the origins of organized society. In tales which mirror development and organization of Native American societies, the hero is often humanity itself. Raven tales do not offer a detailed picture about the social relations and realities of life.[2]:395–397

Traditional myths[edit]

Athabaskan[edit]

Athabaskan is the language family of several contiguous dialects spoken by various peoples in Western Canada and the American West. They can be further subdivided into the Northern Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, and Southern Athabaskan subregions.

These groups lived in one of the 3 Athabaskan regions.

Cahto[edit]

The Cahto are an indigenous Californian group of Native Americans. The Kato lived farthest south of all the Athapascans in California, occupying Cahto Valley and Long Valley, and in general the country south of Blue Rock and between the headwaters of the two main branches of Eel River. The Kato language is one of four Athabaskan languages that were spoken in northwestern California. Most Kato speakers were also bilingual in Northern Pomo.

Creation story[edit]

One version of the Raven creation story is that of the Cahto in California.[5] In one variant, Raven is taught by his father, Kit-ka'ositiyi-qa, to be a creator, but Raven is unsatisfied with the result. He creates the world but is unable to give it light or water. On hearing that light could be found hidden in a far-off land, Raven decides to travel there and steal it. In the house of light, he finds a young woman living with her father and plays the first of many tricks. He turns himself into a small speck of dirt, slips into her drinking water, and is swallowed. The daughter becomes pregnant and she gave birth to an unusual and fussy child who cries constantly and demands to touch one of the bundles which has been stored hanging from the walls. The child is given one of the bags to quiet him, but when he tires of playing with it, he lets it go, and it floats away from him and disappears through the smoke hole. Once it reaches the sky the bundle comes undone and scatters stars across the sky. When the child cries to have it back again he is given the second bundle to play with and lets it float away through the hole in the ceiling, thus releasing the moon. It all happens again with the third and last bundle, which flies away and becomes sunlight. After bringing light to the whole world, he too flies out through the smoke hole.[6]:30

Tahltan[edit]

Locally among the Tahltan people, their customs and livelihoods varied widely as they were often widely separated and would have to endure varying conditions depending on their locality.[7] In Tahltan culture it was believed that some of their ancestors had knowledge that others did not from times before a great flood.[8]:232 Some of these ancestors used that knowledge for the good of the people, while others used it for evil and to the disadvantage of others. Raven is considered to be the protagonist hero against these evil ancestors.[9]

In Tahltan stories, Raven is referred to as Big-Crow (Tse'sketco or tceski'tco, "big raven" - from tceski'a, "raven").[8]:198

The Birth of Raven[edit]

They claim that Big-Crow was born miraculously as the youngest of many brothers in the northern Tlingit country and was raised speaking the local language.[8]:198 He was separated from his father at birth and his father is never spoken of in all of their stories. Raven was born, the third child of a woman whose previous two boys had killed by her uncle. Each time the woman gave birth, her uncle would offer to each them to hunt once they were old enough; each time he would take them out on a canoe and trick them, he would instruct the boys to sit on the edge of the canoe, at which point he would rock the canoe, forcing them to fall into the water where he would leave them to drown.[8]:199

But her third child was Raven who took well to carving. Just as he'd done 2 times before, her uncle asked if he could teach Raven how to hunt after he'd grown a few years. Several times she refused her uncle until Raven insisted that she allow him to go. So they went out to sea and the same scenario played out. Raven fell into the water but rather than drown, he took one of the toy canoes he had carved and made it grow into a full size canoe. He went straight back to his mother and told of what his uncle had done.[8]:200

Twice more the uncle tried to drown Raven in the same manner but Raven outsmarted him each time until the uncle gave up and no longer took Raven hunting but would go alone.[8]:200

As Raven grew into a man, he met the uncle's wife where he tried to play with her. He tickled the girl and two birds flew out from under her arms, a bluejay and a woodpecker; and the girl died. When the uncle returned from his hunt, he saw that his wife had died and he intended to kill Raven again, but this time in rage rather than trickery. But once again, Raven escaped with his canoe carvings. But when Raven escaped this time, he did not return home and his journey began; never to return to his home.[8]:200

He starting off travelling by canoe along the seashore all alone but would stop whenever he came upon a village. When he met people whom he saw take disadvantage of others or use their power for evil, he would kill in his efforts to deprive them of power.[8]:199

Raven travelled for many years along the coast of the Tlingit territory, first travelling south, having started in the north until he had gone so far south, beyond Tlingit territory until he reached the Mink people at which point he turned around and continued back the other direction. He did this north south, south north journey for several years. Not until his work along the coast was done, did he head inland along the Stikine river all the way to its source. He also traveled along the Nass, Skeena, and Taku Rivers and all of their many streams never staying in one place for very long and never traveling far off from the water ways. Through his inland journeys he met the Kaska, the Haida, and other nations to the east.[9]

Later in life, when Raven had done all the work he could do, he travelled back out to the coastal regions guided by the setting sun until he disappeared mysteriously. The only suggestion is that he may have gone to live with the Kanu'gu and other ancient gods on an island far out into the ocean where they believed weather was created from.[9]

Dempsey Bob's The Story of Fog Woman and Raven, exhibited at Vancouver International Airport, tells how Raven's greed resulted in salmon run.

As the Raven stories continue after "The Birth of Raven",[8]:199–200 many stories follow:

  1. "Origin of the Tides"[8]:201
  2. "Origin of Fresh Water"[8]:201–203
  3. "Origin of Olachen"[8]:203–204
  4. "Origin of Daylight"[8]:204
  5. "Raven and the Salmon"[8]:205
  6. "Raven Creates the Salmon and Teaches the People"[8]:206
  7. "Raven Institutes Birth and Death"[8]:206
  8. "Raven and the Grizzly-Bear"[8]:208
  9. "Raven Paints the Bird"[8]:208
  10. "Raven Paints his Men for War"[8]:208–209
  11. "The Tree Eats the Bird"[8]:209
  12. "Raven Kills Pitch-Man"[8]:210
  13. "Raven and His Sister"[8]:210
  14. "Raven Tires to Marry a Princess"[8]:210–211
  15. "Raven in the Country of the Tahltan"[8]:211–212
  16. "Raven and Kanu'gu"[8]:212–213
  17. "Raven and the Haida"[8]:213
  18. "Raven Institutes the Kuwega'n Ceremonies"[8]:213–215
  19. "Raven Makes the Wolf Women Good-Looking"[8]:215–216
  20. "Raven Considers how to Provide for the People"[8]:216
  21. "The Origin of Birth and Death"[8]:216
  22. "Raven Curtails the Powers of Game"[8]:216–218
  23. "Raven Steals Fire"[8]:218–219
  24. "Raven Ballasts the Earth"[8]:219
  25. "Raven Makes Lakes"[8]:219–220
  26. "Raven Makes Mud"[8]:220
  27. "Raven Creates Bear"[8]:220
  28. "Raven and Bear-Man"[8]:220–221
  29. "Raven and E'dista or Big-Toad"[8]:221
  30. "Raven and Rabbit-Man Kextsaza"[8]:222
  31. "Raven and Crow"[8]:222–223
  32. "Raven and His Blanket"[8]:223–224
  33. "Raven Loses his Nose"[8]:224–225
  34. "Raven and the Ghosts"[8]:225–226
  35. "Raven and Porcupine Make the Seasons"[8]:226

Raven appears in other stories not directly related to him as well. In the story of the 'Warm and Cold Wind People' it is said that someone, possibly Raven, ordained that the people send out the winds.[8]:230

He appears again in the story of "The Great Flood", which reaccounts for the killing of the evil ancestors who used their powers to take away the sun, moon, and Dipper which were lost during the flood.[8]:234

Northern Athabaskan[edit]

  1. "Great Raven Makes The World"[10]
  2. "Raven Steals The Light"[11]
  3. "When Raven Was Killed"
  4. "How Raven Killed The Whale"
  5. "Raven and Mink"
  6. "Raven Lost His Eyes"
  7. "Raven and Goose-Wife"

Inuit[edit]

The Inuit are native to the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. Among Inuit tradition the owl, fish, and raven are of greatest prominence. Ravens are also common in the artwork of the Inuit and they have several stories that tell of Raven's birth which is often juxtaposed with the owl with whom Raven shared a deep friendship.[12]:5

The Inuit say that Raven was born out of the darkness. He was weak and lost. As he began traveling aimlessly experiencing the world, he realized that he was the Raven Father, Creator of All Life. Once he realized who he was, he gathered up his strength and flew out of the darkness to a new place which he called earth, but he was still alone, so he decided to create plants. As he flew around exploring this new world, he came upon a man whom the legend claims was the first of the Eskimo people. Raven fed the man and taught the man to respect the world around him. Soon after, a woman came to be and Raven taught the both of them how to cloth themselves, build shelter, and make canoes to travel the water. As the two bred and spawned children, Raven cared for their children and educated them as he had done before.[13]

  1. "Inuit Story of Owl and Raven"[14]
  2. "Raven's Great Adventure"
  3. Owl Paints the Raven by Ningeokuluk Teevee[12]:5

Aleuts[edit]

  1. "Princess Raven"[10]
  2. "Raven and His Grandmother"[15]
  3. "Raven's Great Adventure"

Cup'ik (Yupik)[edit]

Raven is known as Tulukaruq to the Yupik people and is seen as a culture hero to them who is benevolent and helps the people.[16]

  1. "Raven Seeks A Wife"
  2. "Raven and Goose-Wife"
  3. Ellagpiim Yua
  4. "Raven's Daughter"
  5. "How The Owl Got Its Grey Spots"

Haida[edit]

Bill Reid's Raven and The First Men (1980), UBC Museum of Anthropology, depicts a scene from the Haida creation myth. The Raven represents both the creator and trickster figures, common to many mythologies.

The Haida people live in British Columbia. To The Haida, Raven was the Bringer of Light and before Raven the world was nothing more than a gigantic flood. Raven was the Maker of Things, as well as the Transformer, Magician and Healer.[13] Raven was bored of the world being nothing but water and decided to fly as the waters receded. Once Raven became hungry, land was formed so he could land and find food. It was at this point he noticed strange sounds coming from a gigantic clam shell. Confused as to the sound, Raven decided he would begin singing to the clam shell in response to its sound, hoping to calm it with his pleasant sounds. Raven did this because he was a beautiful singer. Finally, a small creature emerged from the clam shell. It had long black hair, a round head, brown smooth skin and two legs like Raven but no feathers. This was the first of the First People.[17]

When he got bored with them, he considered returning them to their shell, but opted instead to find female counterparts of these male beings. The raven found some female humans trapped in a chiton, freed them, and was entertained as the two sexes met and began to interact. The Raven felt responsible and very protective of them, thus many Haida myths and legends often suggest the raven as a provider to mankind and combine the roles of the creator and the trickster.[18]

There are other versions that tells of a different creation. When the earth was only sky and water with a single reef that rose out of the water where all of the great beings lived with the greatest of them living at the highest point on the reef and the weakest of them living at the bottom. But Raven flew above them all and could never find a place to land. For that reason he decided to travel to the sky country where he met the Chief's daughter who had recently had a child. While it was dark, Raven possessed the baby and intended to take its place as Raven Child.[13]

Sun, Moon and Stars[edit]

One ancient story told on Haida Gwaii tells about how Raven helped to bring the Sun, Moon, Stars, Fresh Water, and Fire to the world:[19]

Other Haida stories include:

  1. "The Coming of the Salmon"[20]
  2. "The Raven and the First Men"[21]
  3. "The Bear and His Indian Wife" [22]:419

Heiltsuk (Bella Bella)[edit]

The Heiltsuk were formerly known as the Bella Bella people and lived along the central coast of British Columbia. To the Bella Bella Raven was known as the Real Chief or He'mask.as. Raven is revered by them as a benevolent figure. He helps people, but he is also a trickster spirit whose unreflected behavior gets him into trouble.[23]

  1. "The World is Burnt"[23] Raven foretells a world fire

Kwakwaka'wakw[edit]

Another story of the Kwakiutl or Kwakwaka'wakw of British Columbia who exposed boys' placentas to ravens to encourage future prophetic visions, thereby associating the raven with prophecy, similar to the traditions of Scandinavia.[24]

  1. "Wakiash and the First Totem Pole"[22]:423

Miwok[edit]

The Miwok are segregated into three distinct groups: the Coast Miwok, the Lake Miwok, and the Interior Miwok which make up the majority of the overall population.

The Miwok territory is defined by the Maidu to their right, the Yokuts to the left, and the Washoe and Mono behind them. The Interior Miwok faction live primarily on the western side of the Sierra above the lower San Joaquin Valley. The Sierra territory of the Miwok extended from the Cosumnesr River on the north to the Fresno on the south but the other boundaries that are shared with the Yokuts, Wintun, and Maidu has always been a matter of controversy.[25]:5

Amongst the Northern Miwok of what is now Central California the story of Raven begins with a world covered in water except for a single mountain top where people had gathered during the flooding of the world. As the waters receded the people tried to come down from the mountain but the land was so soft with mud that those that tried would sink into the ground. Where ever a person sank, a raven would come and stand on that spot. One raven at each hole. Once the ground hardened the raven turned into a person, explaining why Miwok are so dark.p101[26]

Nuu-chah-nulth[edit]

The Nuuchahnulth are also known commonly as the Nootka.

  1. "Octopus and Raven"[27]:39

Ojibwe[edit]

The Ojibwe are also known by other names including Anishinaabe which is the name of their language, Odawa, or Algonquin.

The Plains Ojibwa, also known as Bûngi Indians, lived on the Long Plains Reserve in Manitoba.[28]

  1. "Turtle's War-Party"[29]:295–297
  2. "The Man and the Ravens"[30][31]

Puget Sound[edit]

Another raven story from the Puget Sound region describes the "Raven" as having originally lived in the land of spirits (literally bird land) that existed before the world of humans. One day the Raven became so bored with bird land that he flew away, carrying a stone in his beak. When the Raven became tired of carrying the stone and dropped it, the stone fell into the ocean and expanded until it formed the firmament on which humans now live.[32][self-published source]

  1. "The Legend of Raven"[33]

Pima[edit]

The Pima are in Arizona.

  1. "The Children of Cloud"[34]:34

Quileute[edit]

The Quileute are a Native American people in western Washington state in the United States, currently numbering approximately 2000. Their language belongs to the Chimakuan family of languages.

The native name for Raven among the Quileute is Báyaḳ (By-yuhk).[35]:9

Quileute Indians were the southernmost group along the Pacific Coast whose mythology included several stories of the Raven. Though the Quileute's primary protagonist was not the Raven, but Kweeti, whose stories can be very closely related to similar stories of the Tlingit involving the Raven.[35]:6

The Raven, amongst the Quileute people, is used to tell scary stories to children of how Raven's feet :226[36]:259 look the way they do; others pursued children to be generous rather than selfish, or to be true to themselves and work hard rather than trying to take shortcuts. In their stories Raven is often punished, or must witness suffering by the people whom he cares for as a result of his trickery.[35]:4

In the Quileute story of Duskeah[36]:255

In the first story of "Kweeti" the story goes "At Neah Bay he taught them to fish, as all men do. He traversed the whole world." which is compared to the Tlingit story "Raven teaches people their mode of life".[36]:252

Again in the story of the "Kweeti and the Wolves", "Finally, when the wolves had all but caught him, Kweeti urinated and made Ozetta Lake." which is compared to "Raven Creates Rivers".[36]:254

But in one story, Raven and Kweeti meet and Kweed entertains Raven.[36]:259–260

  1. "Báyaḳ and Ákil" (Raven and Bear)
  2. "Báyaḳ and Kwíd" (Raven and Fishduck)
  3. "Báyaḳ and Pákwad" (Raven and Skatefish)
  4. "Báyaḳ and Píxťadax" (Raven and Eagle)
  5. "The Bungling Host"[36]:259–261
  6. "Duskeah"[36]:255–256
  7. "Raven lights the world: Hungry for clams"[37]

Salishan[edit]

Bella Coola[edit]

Coeur d'Alene[edit]

The Coeur d'Alene live in villages along the Coeur d'Alene, St. Joe, Clark Fork and Spokane Rivers; as well as sites on the shores of Lake Coeur d'Alene, Lake Pend Oreille and Hayden Lake, in what is now northern Idaho, eastern Washington and western Montana.

  1. "Circling Raven and the Jesuits"[38]:287

Squamish[edit]

The Squamish see Raven to be a symbol of the Creator and even to this day is the subject of preachings.[39]

  1. "Raven: The Brave Warrior"[40]
  2. "Raven Proposes and is Accepted"
  3. "Raven and the Fish Melt"
  4. "The Mink, the Raven and the Sea Eggs"

Sechelt[edit]

  1. "The Seal and the Raven"[38]:200

Tlingit[edit]

Tlingit and neighboring peoples

Tlingit territory is in Southeast Alaska.[41] Most of their territory is in present-day Canada.

The Tlingit call Raven Katce'de but it is disputed whether this derives from the name of another place in the region named Kate, meaning "cedar-bark" or from Tlingitka, signifying "man" or "people"[8]:207

In Tlingit culture, there are two different raven characters which can be identified, although they are not always clearly differentiated. One is the creator raven, responsible for bringing the world into being and who is sometimes considered to be the individual who brought light to the darkness. The other is the childish raven, always selfish, sly, conniving, and hungry. When the Great Spirit created all things he kept them separate and stored in cedar boxes. The Great Spirit gifted these boxes to the animals who existed before humans. When the animals opened the boxes all the things that comprise the world came into being. The boxes held such things as mountains, fire, water, wind and seeds for all the plants. One such box, which was given to Seagull, contained all the light of the world. Seagull coveted his box and refused to open it, clutching it under his wing. All the people asked Raven to persuade Seagull to open it and release the light. Despite begging, demanding, flattering and trying to trick him into opening the box, Seagull still refused. Raven became angry and frustrated, and stuck a thorn in Seagull's foot. Raven pushed the thorn in deeper until the pain caused Seagull to drop the box. Then out of the box came the sun, moon and stars that brought light to the world and allowed the first day to begin.[42]

Theft of water[edit]

Raven continued using such trickery to bring water and stamp people, animals and other features in the world with certain characteristics.[43] Many versions of Raven's theft of water are told but all center on Raven's trickery against the owner of water. In one version Raven leads its owner to believe he has soiled his bed in his sleep and threatens to shame him unless he shares his water with Raven. In another version Raven puts ash on his tongue to fool the owner to believe his extreme thirst is unquenched. Instead of drinking the water Raven collects it in a seal's bladder hidden under his clothes and flees with all of it.[44]

Tsimshian[edit]

To the Tsimshian, Raven, was known as Txamsem or ganhada or the Clever One and was accompanied by a brother named Lagabula or Lazy One.[45]

The two had been born in a kelp patch and adopted by a Chief's wife and a magical being from the region of Price Rupert Harbor. At the time of their birth things such as daylight did not yet exist; only dusk. Some records contradict this stating that they were of Gispaxloats origin, born of a Gispaxloats Chief who married a beautiful princess.[46]:86

Among their journeys, they traveled to a mountain at the head of the Nass River. Txamsem, who could transform into anything, and often took the form of a human or bird, turned himself into a pine needle and was consumed by the daughter of the Chief who guarded daylight. She then gave birth to him as a baby and the baby cried incessantly to play with daylight. As soon as it was given to the baby in the form of a playful ball, he transformed back into Raven and flew away with it. He traveled back up the Nass River with daylight and released it; immediately lighting up the river and allowing it to spread all over the world.[47]:1

The most prominent culture hero for many of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest is Raven. There are numerous stories, widely distributed which focus on the Raven myth and his adventures to satisfy his insatiable desire to obtain whatever he wants. The plot of most Raven tales, tell of how Raven is able to use force or trickery to obtain or motivate someone else to relinquish an object he desires. Throughout his many stories, Raven claims daylight, water, fire, the oceans waves, the olachen, salmon, the soil, and even the weather.[48]:618

Through the Raven tales, people are able to explain why their surrounding environment was the way it was by linking the Raven or his companions as the cause for why various things in the world come about.

Some stories account for the creation of dangerous animals which were transformed from inanimate objects(No 61. p 572), others suggest that men, animals and objects could be turned to stone.(nos89-93). While other stories suggest how names were attributed to important landmarks, and how significant geographical features came about.

There is a vague mention that Raven was the ancestor of the Raven Clan, but there are no other direct references between Raven and the ancestry of the Indian people.[48]:619

  1. "The Beginning"[49]
  2. "The Theft of Light"
  3. "Raven Becomes Voracious"[6]:19[50]
  4. Origin of Txa'msem[48]:58
  5. Origin of daylight[48]:60
  6. Stone and Elderberry Bush[48]:62
  7. Origin 0f fire [48]:63
  8. Txa'msem uses the sinews of the tomtit[48]:63
  9. Origin of tides[48]:64
  10. Giant gambles with Gull[48]:65
  11. Giant obtains the olachen[48]:
  12. Giant learns how to cook olachen[48]:66
  13. Giant and the gulls[48]:66
  14. Txa'msem and the steelhead-salmon[48]:67
  15. Txa'msem and Lagobola’[48]:68
  16. Txa'msem and the crab[48]:70
  17. Origin of the bullhead[48]:71
  18. Txa'msem frightens away the owners of a whale[48]:71
  19. Txa'msem finds a beautiful blanket[48]:72
  20. Txa'msem and his slave[48]:73
  21. Txa'msem kills his slave[48]:74
  22. Fishermen break off Txa'msem jaw[48]:74
  23. Txa'msem and the Hunter[48]:75
  24. Txa'msem and the children[48]:75
  25. Txa'msem and the salmon woman[48]:76
  26. Txa'msem makes war on the south wind[48]:79
  27. Txa'msem makes a girl sick and then cures her[48]:81
  28. Txa'msem pretends to build a canoe[48]:84
  29. Txa'msem visits Chief Echo[48]:85
  30. Txa'msem kills Little Pitch[48]:86
  31. Txa'msem kills Grizzly Bear[48]:87
  32. Txa'msem kills Deer[48]:88
  33. Txa'msem imitates Chief Seal[48]:90
  34. Txa'msem imitates Chief Kinfisher[48]:91
  35. Txa'msem imitates the thrush[48]:91
  36. Txa'msem and Cormorant[48]:92
  37. Txa'msem returns to the Wolves[48]:94
  38. Txa'msem invites the monsters [48]:100
  39. The further history of Txa'msem [48]:100
  40. Txa'msem invites the monsters[48]:100
  41. The further history of Txa'msem[48]:100
  42. Raven obtains fresh water[48]:651
  43. Raven paints the birds[48]:664
  44. Raven carves salmon out of various kinds of wood[48]:666
  45. Raven marries the dead twin[48]:667
  46. Raven abducts the daughter of the salmon chief[48]:671
  47. Raven gets the soil[48]:674
  48. Why Crow and Raven are black[48]:677
  49. Raven and Eagle gather red and black cod[48]:692
  50. Raven marries Hair-Seal-Woman[48]:702
  51. Raven steals salmon eggs[48]:705
  52. Raven steals his sisters' berries[48]:705
  53. Raven's gizzard is torn out[48]:706
  54. Raven kills the seals[48]:706
  55. Raven pretends to be dead[48]:706
  56. Raven burns his sister's groins[48]:707
  57. Raven deserts Master Fisherman on a lonely island[48]:710
  58. War with the Thunderbird[48]:711
  59. Wren kills the Bear[48]:718
  60. Raven pulls off the arm of a chief[48]:719
  61. Raven is set adrift[48]:720

Zuni[edit]

The Coyote canoeing up Columbia River. The Raven shares the trickster nature with the coyote in Native American mythologies, but for the Zuni people he lacks the negative characteristics.

The raven is not a traditional fetish of the Zuni but he, along with the Macaw play a part in the Zuni story of migration and is carved often in their artwork, typically carved from black marble though not exclusively.

The Zuni consider Raven to be a prankster but without negative characteristics which they associate with the coyote. The Raven's greatest traits are his ability to assist the people in overcoming their failures by offering gentle reminders that anything people have the courage to face, thus too do they have the power to transform.[51]

  1. "Origin of Raven and the Macaw"[34]:40[52]
  2. "The Search for the Corn Maidens"[34]:40

Modern adaptations[edit]

There have been many children's and picture books that recount traditional Raven Tales. These new versions have been criticized for portraying a much "nicer" Raven with little left from the original greedy trickster. In some stories Raven acts for the good of people and not for himself. In other stories Raven refuses to use force, and sexual themes are edited out. Trickery is in some instances substituted for magic. These newer tales are also written in conventions of Western rather than Native American literature thus conveying the message that native storytellers' ability or style is inferior.[53]

In 2004, The Smithsonian Institution sponsored Chris Kientz to develop a series of half-hour animated television programs targeted at school children as an entertaining way of educating kids on aboriginal folklore. The show Raven Tales was produced by New Machine Studios working with producer Winadzi James and aired for two seasons with a total of 26 episodes.[54][55]

In 2010, Matt Dembicki produced an anthological graphic novel of the trickster stories, making sure to maintain the cultural integrity of the stories with the help of 21 Native American story-tellers who were paired directly with several graphic designers.[56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Giese, Paula (1996). "Who Owns the Stories — A Letter to Eldrbarry". Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Boas, Franz (October–December 1914). "Mythology and Folk-Tales of the North American Indians". The Journal of American Folklore. American Folklore Society. 27 (106): 374. doi:10.2307/534740. JSTOR 534740. 
  3. ^ Kuiper, Kathleen (2011). Native American Culture. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 58. ISBN 1615301380. 
  4. ^ Nyxks (27 November 2000). "How The Raven Became Black". Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  5. ^ Goddard, Pliny Earle; Bill Ray (1909). "Kato texts". Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnography. University of California. 8 (3): 184. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Thompson, Stith (1929). "1 Mythological Stories". Tales of the North American Indians (PDF) (3rd pr. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0253200914. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  7. ^ editor, William C. Sturtevant, general (1978). Handbook of North American Indians. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. p. 463. ISBN 9780160045783. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Teit, James A (1920). Boas, Franz, ed. "Tahltan Tales". The Journal of American Folk-lore. Lancaster, PA: American Folk-lore Society, G.E. Stechert and Co. 32 (124): 198. doi:10.2307/534980. JSTOR 534980. 
  9. ^ a b c "The Raven cycle". SAMS Anthology. Society for Ancient & Medieval Studies. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "Native American Legends (A-B)". First People, The Legends. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  11. ^ "Raven's Athabaskan Tales". Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Skinner, Kelly; Brill, Laura. "Inuit Views of Nature" (PDF). St. Lawrence University. 
  13. ^ a b c "The Story of the Raven". Raven Eco Ventures. 2004. 
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  15. ^ "Raven and His Grandmother". Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Yupik Legends". Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  17. ^ Carolyn, Kenny (June 1994). Connections: Integrating our Work and play (DOC) (Keynote presentation). Our Legacy: Work and Play. 4. Annual conference of the American Association for Music Therapy. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  18. ^ Svitko, Darren A.; Rosado, Jessica A. "Raven Creation". Prezi Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  19. ^ Clark, Ella E.: Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest, University of California Press, 1953.
  20. ^ "Native American Legends" (PDF). US Forest Service, United States: 3. 
  21. ^ "First Nations in British Columbia: An Exploration of Cultural Continuity and Change" (PDF). Education Program (Grades 8 to 12). UBC: Museum of Anthropology. 2003: 8. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  22. ^ a b Ortiz, selected and edited by Richard Erdoes and Alfonso (1985). American Indian myths and legends (PDF) ([2nd impr.]. ed.). New York: Pantheon Books/Random House. ISBN 0-394-74018-1. 
  23. ^ a b "Heiltsuk/Bella Bella Legends, Myths, and Stories". 1998. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  24. ^ Cribley, Byron. "Reproductive Physiology Lecture Notes" (PDF). Buchanan, MI 49107: Buchanan High School: 310. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  25. ^ Kroeber, A.L. (1919). "Geography". Handbook of the Indians of California ([Nachdr.] ed.). New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486233680. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1976. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  26. ^ Hart, Merriam C (1910). "The Dawn of the World". University of Nebraska Press. OCLC 2581152. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. 
  27. ^ Deloria, told by Joseph Bruchac ; foreword by Vine; Fadden, Jr. ; illustrations by John Kahionhes; Fadden, David Kanietakeron (1992). Native American animal stories. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Pub. ISBN 9781555911270. 
  28. ^ Skinner, Alanson (April–June 1914). "The Cultural Positions of the Plains Ojibway". American Anthropologist. New Series. American Anthropological Association. 16 (2): 314–318. doi:10.1525/aa.1914.16.2.02a00090. JSTOR 659613. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  29. ^ Skinner, Alanson (1920). Boas, Franz, ed. "Plains Ojibwa Tales" (PDF). The Journal of American Folk-lore. Lancaster, PA: American Folk-lore Society, G.E. Stechert and Co. 32. doi:10.2307/534982. 
  30. ^ "The Man and the Ravens". Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  31. ^ White, Charles Phillip (15 August 1995). "The Man and the Ravens". Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  32. ^ John (26 November 2011). "The raven tattoo on my right leg". Retrieved 8 September 2014. A raven story from the Puget Sound region describes the "Raven" as having originally lived in the land of spirits (literally bird land) 
  33. ^ "Raven Stories" (PDF). Muncie, IN: Ball State University. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  34. ^ a b c Judson, Katharine Berry (1912). Myths and Legends of California and the Old Southwest (TXT) (2nd ed.). Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  35. ^ a b c Woodruff, Sr, Fred. Jensen, Vickie; Powell, Jay, eds. "Raven Tales:Traditional Quileute Stories of Bayak, the Trickster" (PDF). Quileute River Classroom. La Push, Washington: Quileute Tribal School of the Quileute Nation. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Farrand, Livingston; Mayer, Theresa (1920). Boas, Franz, ed. "The Journal of American Folk-lore". 32. Lancaster, PA: American Folk-lore Society, G.E. Stechert and Co. doi:10.2307/534981. JSTOR 534981. 
  37. ^ Ortiz, selected and edited by Richard Erdoes and Alfonso (1998). American Indian trickster tales. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-87829-4. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  38. ^ a b Thompson, edited by M. Terry; Egesdal, Steven M. (2008). Salish myths and legends : one people's stories (PDF). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803210899. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  39. ^ "God Outside the Lines" (PDF). Squamish United Church. 28 July 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 5 September 2014. (2nd Paragraph) Why not think of the Holy Spirit as the legendary Raven, the Trickster, who is always surprising us, turning things upside down, helping us to see in new ways. ..(Last paragraph, page 1) it has encouraged my home congregation ... to portray the Spirit as a great blue heron. 
  40. ^ "Native American Legends (P-S)". First People, The Legends. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  41. ^ "The Raven Story". Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  42. ^ Swanton, John (1909). "Tlingit Myths and Texts" (PDF). Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin. Harvard University (39). Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  43. ^ Leeming, David A. (2009). Creation Myths of the World (PDF) (2nd ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 260, 343. ISBN 978-1-59884-174-9. 
  44. ^ "Bulletin" (PDF). Bureau of American Ethnology. p. 72. Retrieved 3 September 2014. Emmons also published petro-glyphs on Lisiansky Bay, Baranof Island, where the totemic crestsare organized to illustrate the Raven myth of the theft of water 
  45. ^ Turner, Nancy J. (2014). Ancient pathways, ancestral knowledge : ethnobotany and ecological wisdom of Indigenous peoples of northwestern North America. pp. 256, 259, 263, 273–278, 286, 288. ISBN 9780773585409. 
  46. ^ Ayaawx (Ts'msyen ancestral law): The power of Transformation (PDF) (Doctorate of Philosophy). University of Victoria. 1993. 
  47. ^ Barbeau, Marius; Beynon, William (1987). Cove, John J.; MacDonald, George F., eds. Tsimshian narratives. Ottawa: Directorate, Canadian Museum of Civilization. ISBN 978-0660107615. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Boas, Franz; Tate, Henry W. (1916). "Tsimshian mythology". Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1). Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  49. ^ McEntee, retold by Fran Martin ; pictures by Dorothy (1975). Raven-who-sets-things-right : Indian tales of the Northwest coast (Rev. ed., with all new art, of Nine tales of raven. ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0060240717. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  50. ^ Boas, Franz (1902). Tsimshian Texts (PDF). Washington : Govt. print. off. ISBN 978-1141405503. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2001. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  51. ^ Riggs, Darlene Meader (2006). "Zuni Fetish Meanings". The Zuni Fetish Story. 
  52. ^ "Native American Legends (V-Z)". First People, The Legends. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  53. ^ Singer, Eliot A. "Fakelore, Multiculturalism, and the Ethics of Children's Literature". 
  54. ^ "The Award-Winning Animated Series". RavenTales (Alberta) Ltd. 2004. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  55. ^ "Raven Tales Episode Guide". Smithsonian Channel. SNI/SI Networks L.L.C. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  56. ^ Higgins, Jim. "'Trickster Tales': Gladstone, Indian storytellers team with artists". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]