Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway
|Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway|
River Irt approaches Miteside Loop, October 2007
|Connections||Cumbrian Coast Line|
|Built by||Whitehaven Mines Ltd.|
|Original gauge||3 ft (914 mm)|
|Owned by||Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway Co. Ltd|
|Operated by||Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway Co. Ltd|
|Length||7 miles (11.3 km)|
|Preserved gauge||15 in (381 mm)|
|Opened||24 May 1875|
|1960||Saved by the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway Preservation Society and reopened owned by the R&ER Co. Ltd.|
|1976||Celebrated centenary of passenger services on the line.|
|1977||New Radio Control System unveiled|
|2010||Celebrated fifty years of preservation.|
The Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway is a 15 in (381 mm) minimum gauge heritage railway in Cumbria, England. The 7 miles (11.3 km) line runs from Ravenglass to Dalegarth Station near Boot in the valley of Eskdale, in the Lake District. At Ravenglass the line ends at Ravenglass railway station on the Cumbrian Coast Line.
Intermediate stations and halts are at Muncaster Mill, Miteside, Murthwaite, Irton Road, The Green, Fisherground and Beckfoot. The railway is owned by a private company and supported by a preservation society. The oldest locomotive is River Irt, parts of which date from 1894, while the newest is the diesel-hydraulic Douglas Ferreira, built in 2005.
Nearby attractions include: the Roman Bath House at Ravenglass; the Hardknott Roman Fort, known to the Romans as Mediobogdum, at the foot of Hardknott Pass; the watermills at Boot and Muncaster; and Muncaster Castle, the home of the Pennington family since 1208.
- 1 History
- 2 Present operations
- 3 Stations on the route
- 4 Rolling stock
- 5 The line in fiction
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The original Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway was a 3 ft (914 mm) line opened on 24 May 1875 to transport hematite iron ore from mines around Boot to the Furness Railway standard gauge line at Ravenglass. A tramway separated from the line just after Beckfoot along the route of the current railway and up to Gil Force. There has been dispute about the gauge. It is shown as 3 feet in records but is quoted as 2 ft 9 in (838 mm) in some books such as the ABC of Narrow Gauge Railways. This figure was believed for many years until the present company discovered a sleeper from before the line closed, with spacings between holes made by track spikes confirming the gauge was the wider one. The confusion probably stems from the fact that the line was built under the condition that it was "of a gauge not less than 2' 9" ".
Following requests from the residents of the valley for a passenger service, the railway was upgraded to meet the minimum standards of the Board of Trade, and the first passenger trains ran in November 1876. It was the first public narrow-gauge railway in England. However, the cost of upgrading the line for passengers left the railway company with substantial debts which it was unable to pay off. The company was forced to declare itself bankrupt in 1877, although trains continued to run under the control of a series of receivers. Unfortunately, all but one of the iron ore mines closed within 10 years of the railway opening, and there wasn't enough traffic from other sources (local goods and passengers from the villages and farms of the valley) for the railway to sustain itself. In later years, the railway did become popular with summer tourists, but this wasn't enough to offset the railways running costs.
In 1905, a passenger train was derailed at Murthwaite due to a combination of a defective locomotive and defective track. By 1908 the track-work was is such poor condition, it was declared unsafe for passengers by the Board of Trade. The railway closed to passengers that year. Goods trains continued to run whilst attempts were made to raise money to rebuild the railway. These attempts failed, and the railway closed completely in April 1913
Conversion to 15in gauge
In 1915 Wenman Joseph Bassett-Lowke and Robert Proctor-Mitchell, two model makers, converted the line to the 15 in (381 mm) gauge that it is today. The first train operated over the regauged line on 28 August 1915. By 1917, the entire line had been converted and trains were running along the whole length. Initially, services were operated using the Bassett-Lowke-built, to-scale 4-4-2 Sans Pareil. Rolling stock was augmented by Sir Arthur Heywood's Duffield Bank line, following Sir Arthur's death in 1916. These included the 0-8-0 locomotive Muriel, whose frames and running gear were rebuilt as River Irt.
As well as passengers, the line transported granite between Beckfoot Quarry and Murthwaite crushing plant. From Murthwaite to Ravenglass the track ran as dual gauge for a time, with 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge track straddling the 15 in (381 mm) gauge rails. A diesel locomotive was obtained in 1929 to work this section and details are in Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway locomotives. The line carried much of the goods and produce for the valley. By the mid-1920s, the line had been extended to its present terminus at Dalegarth Station. Passenger trains did not run during World War II.
In 1946, the line was purchased by the Keswick Granite Company, but quarrying at Beckfoot finished in 1953, leaving the line dependent on passenger traffic. From 1958 attempts were made to sell the line, and it was expected that if these failed then the line would close at the end of the 1960 season. In the event, the railway was sold by auction in September of that year.
Locals and railway enthusiasts formed Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway Preservation Society to save the line, with financial backing by Sir Wavell Wakefield, MP for Marylebone and owner of the Ullswater Steamers, and Colin Gilbert, a stockbroker. The railway was owned and operated by a private company, with the backing of the preservation society, an arrangement that is still in place.
Despite construction of the 2-8-2 locomotive River Esk in 1923 and the rebuilding of Muriel into the 0-8-2 River Irt in 1927, the line was short of motive power. To allow for an expanded timetable, the preservation society raised funds to build a third steam locomotive. River Mite (2-8-2) entered service in 1967 and, although owned by the society, has been on permanent loan to the company ever since.
In 1968, the death of Colin Gilbert led to the railway company becoming the property of Sir Wavell Wakefield, who by that stage had become Lord Wakefield of Kendal. In the early 1970s it became apparent that, with passengers rising, another locomotive was required. This time the company constructed the locomotive itself. Northern Rock (2-6-2) was complete in time for centenary celebrations in 1976. A further addition was made in 1980 when the company constructed the B-B diesel locomotive Lady Wakefield.
Other significant locomotives include Bonnie Dundee, built in 1900 as a 2 ft (610 mm)-gauge tank locomotive before being donated to the R&ER by a member and converted to 15 in (381 mm)-gauge, later converted again from tank to tender configuration; Synolda, a twin to the original 15 in (381 mm) loco Sans Pareil, built in 1912, saved from Belle Vue Zoo in 1978 and now in the railway museum; Shelagh of Eskdale, a 4-6-4 diesel built in 1969 incorporating parts of the Heywood loco Ella; Perkins, a rebuilt 0-4-4 diesel locomotive, which started as a quarry shunter before being rebuilt into the steam-outlined Passenger Tractor and then again in 1984 into its current guise; Douglas Ferreira, a B-B diesel loco constructed in 2005 and named after the general manager of the R&ER from 1961 to 1994.
Since the 1960s, the railway has improved and visitors have increased. Between 1961 and 1994, Douglas Ferreira was the general manager and he is one of the people who have left the biggest legacy on the Ratty. Today, there are 120,000 passengers each year with up to 16 trains daily in summer. Trains run most of the year; the railway is only closed in January.
After passing Spout House Farm the line reaches Gilbert's Cutting. Until 1964, trains were forced to follow a sharp curve along a contour in order to avoid steep gradients. However, after several thousands of tons of granite had been dug out, a new 230-yard cutting was opened by Colin Gilbert, thus ending the squealing noise the trains had made negotiating this part of the line until that year.
Today, the railway is a popular visitor attraction in the Lake District, with the majority of its annual passenger numbers coming during the summer months. The entire single journey takes 40 minutes from end-to-end. Passengers can choose between open and covered seating, with some saloon coaches being fitted with heaters for the winter months. Disabled passengers and cycles can also be conveyed by the trains. The locomotives are ⅓ scale models of mainline locomotives and are air-braked at 50 psi. There are over a hundred regular volunteers that help with the running of the railways, which include guarding the trains, carriage shunting and selling tickets at the major intermediate stations along the route.
The railway uses the Radio Control Train Order signalling system. Outside Ravenglass station, the line is single track with passing loops at Miteside, Irton Road and Fisherground. Trains operate by radio communication between drivers and at Ravenglass signal box. At passing loops and the terminus station, drivers contact the controller, using "RANDER" reporting numbers (even numbers for up trains, and odd for down), to indicate that the train is within the loop and is clear of the preceding single track. To leave the loop, the driver contacts control to gain authorisation to enter the next single track section. No semaphore signals are used outside Ravenglass station. Points at passing loops are weighted with direction indicators, meaning that no human intervention is required and the points reset themselves automatically after the passage of a train when entering the points from a trailing direction when the points are set for the other rail line.
Elements of the operation were used by British Rail to cut costs on remote lines. What became known as Radio Electronic Token Block signalling shared features with the Ratty, such as centralised control, automatic points at loops, and on-train equipment rather than fixed equipment at remote locations.
On peak days in the summer months, two trains depart each end of the line per hour. Capacity on the railway allows for a service run at 20 minute intervals.
The railway company is in common ownership with the Ullswater 'Steamers', a company that operates lake cruises on Ullswater in the north-eastern part of the Lake District. Both companies form part of the Lake District Estates group, which also owns various tourist oriented properties in the area, and is controlled by Lord Wakefield's descendents.
Stations on the route
|Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway|
Ravenglass railway station is the main terminus of the line: the other terminus is Dalegarth for Boot. Ravenglass station is the headquarters of the railway company and houses the railway museum, managerial offices and rolling stock maintenance facilities.
There is a turntable at the western extremity of the station's platforms, which doubles as the datum for mileage markers on the line. Ravenglass houses two locomotive sheds, on the southern side of the track, and a carriage shed on the northern side. There is a carriage & wagon workshop beyond Platform 1, opposite the signalbox. The Turntable Café is situated on Platform 1. The car park has spaces for 100 cars, as well as coaches. There are holiday accommodation facilities for weekly use, which consist of the Pullman camping coaches 135 Elmira and 137 Maid of Kent, and a holiday bungalow, the Hilton Cottage.
Muncaster Mill is 1 mile or 1.6 kilometres from Ravenglass, adjacent to an historic corn mill (no longer open to the public). It is unmanned station and formerly known as simply as Muncaster.
Miteside Halt is 1 3⁄4 miles (2.8 km) from Ravenglass. It is accessible only from a footpath that passes along Miterdale, at the foot of Muncaster Fell. The station shelter is the wooden hull of an old boat, the third such structure at the Halt.
Murthwaite Halt is 2 3⁄4 miles (4.4 km) from Ravenglass and is also only accessible from a footpath.
Irton Road is 4 1⁄4 miles (6.8 km) from Ravenglass, approximately halfway along the line. It was formerly known as Hollowstones, after the adjacent farm. There is a passing loop within the station and, consequently, two platforms. It has three sidings which branch off from the "up" loop - two of which run into a small shed, and the third of which is used for ballast and log traffic. There is a station building, which dates from 1875.
The Green, also known as Eskdale Green, is 4 3⁄4 miles (7.6 km) from Ravenglass. It was formerly known as King of Prussia after a local pub, then Eskdale Green, and since has changed between Eskdale Green and The Green several times. Has recently received a new picnic area.
Fisherground is accessible via a public footpath, adjacent to Fisherground campsite. It is 5 1⁄2 miles (8.9 km) from Ravenglass, just East of Fisherground loop.
Beckfoot is 6 1⁄2 miles (10.5 km) from Ravenglass. Setting down is permitted only from trains travelling from Ravenglass, and picking up is permitted only on trains to Ravenglass.
Dalegarth for Boot
Dalegarth for Boot is a few yards short of 7 miles or 11.3 kilometres from Ravenglass and is the eastern terminus of the railway. It was formerly known as Eskdale (Dalegarth). There are two platforms and a turntable. The facilities at this station include Fellbites Café and the Scafell Gift Shop. A water supply to platform 1 allows topping up of the steam locomotive's tenders.
|№||Name||Livery||Arrival||Type||Wheels||Builder||Built||Status||Railway Series/Thomas & Friends Equivalent|
|3||River Irt||Mid Green||1917||Steam||0-8-2||Sir Arthur Heywood||1894||In service||Bert|
|7||River Esk||Blackberry Black||1923||Steam||2-8-2||Davey Paxman & Co.||1923||In service||Rex|
|9||River Mite||Indian Red||1966||Steam||2-8-2||Clarkson & Sons||1966||In service||Mike|
|10||Northern Rock||Muscat Green||1976||Steam||2-6-2||R&ER||1976||In service||Jock (Railway Series Only)|
|11||Bonnie Dundee||Bronze Green||1976||Steam||0-4-2||Kerr Stuart||1900||At the Cleethorpes Coast Light Railway|
|N/A||Synolda||NGR Blue||1978||Steam||4-4-2||Bassett-Lowke||1912||Operational, usually displayed in the museum|
|N/A||The Flower of the Forest||NER Green||1992||Steam||0-2-2||R&ER||1985||Stored, unserviceable|
|6||Katie||Green||1982||Steam||0-4-0T||Sir Arthur Heywood||1896||Operational, usually displayed in the museum|
|12||Whillan Beck||Caledonian Blue||2016||Steam||4-6-2||Krauss||1929||In service|
|ICL 1||Bunny||Green||1922||Petrol-Mechanical||B-2||Francis Theakston||1922||On display in the museum|
|ICL 5||Quarryman||Green||1927||Petrol-Mechanical||4w||Muir-Hill||1927||Operational, usually displayed in the museum|
|ICL 4||Perkins||Yellow||1929||Diesel-Mechanical||4w-4||Muir-Hill||1929||Under overhaul||Frank (Railway Series Only)|
|ICL 7||Shelagh of Eskdale||Two-tone Green||1969||Diesel-Mechanical||4-6-4||Severn-Lamb||1969||Awaiting new PU||Sigrid of Arlesdale (Railway Series Only)|
|ICL 8||Lady Wakefield||BR Green||1980||Diesel-Mechanical||B-B||R&ER||1980||In service|
|N/A||Greenbat||Green||1982||Battery-Electric||4w||Greenwood & Batley||1957||Stored, unserviceable|
|ICL 9||Cyril||Green||1985||Diesel-Mechanical||4w||R.A. Lister||1932||Station shunter||Blister I & Blister II (Railway Series Only)|
|ICL 10||Les||Green||1999||Diesel-Mechanical||4w||R.A. Lister||1960||Workshop pilot|
|ICL 11||Douglas Ferreira||Indian Red||2005||Diesel-Hydraulic||B-B||TMA Engineering||2005||In traffic|
The operational passenger stock of the railway currently comprises the following -
- 7 20-seat heated saloons (102; 110; 111; 113-115; 136)
- 2 18-seat heated saloons (106; 107)
- 1 14-seat heated brake saloon (112)
- 3 20-seat saloons (119; 121; 122)
- 2 14-seat brake saloons (104; 120)
- 1 16-seat brake saloon (103)
- 1 22-seat heated maxi brake saloon (133)
- 1 20-seat heated maxi special saloon (130)
- 1 17-seat heated disabled saloon (118)
- 2 19-seat disabled saloons (123; 137)
- 7 20-seat semi-opens (101; 108; 109; 116; 117; 124; 125)
- 3 20-seat disabled semi-opens (127-129)
- 9 20-seat opens (166; 169-469; 170-370; 387)
- 4 18-seat brake opens (271; 371; 199; 287)
The permanent way department currently utilises nine four-wheeled flat wagons, eight of which have removable tops for ballast carrying, a four-wheeled railbender wagon, a bogie man-rider wagon, two bogie flat wagons, a utilities van, and a mess saloon coach (105).
The line in fiction
The Arlesdale Railway in The Railway Series by Rev. W. Awdry is based on the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway. In Small Railway Engines (1967), Awdry relates part of a holiday he spent visiting the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway with the Rev. E. R. Boston; the two appear in the book as the Thin Clergyman and the Fat Clergyman, respectively. The Arlesdale Railway was also the focus point in Jock the New Engine, with an incident that was inspired by an accident that happened on the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway, when Perkins crashed in the back of the shed, and with cameos in other books.
The fictional railway's locomotives are each based on Ravenglass locomotives: Bert, Rex, Mike and Jock are the steam locomotives River Irt, River Esk, River Mite and Northern Rock, while the Sudrian diesels Frank, Sigrid of Arlesdale and Blister 1 & 2 are the Cumbrians Perkins, Shelagh of Eskdale and Cyril. The Arlesdale Railway stations are also visibly based on the Ravenglass ones: Arlesburgh is Ravenglass, Ffarquhar Road is Muncaster Mill, Marthwaite is Irton Road, Arlesdale Green is Eskdale Green and Arlesdale is Dalegarth. Bert, Rex, and Mike first appeared in Thomas & Friends TV Series in the special Sodor's Legend of the Lost Treasure and later appeared in Season 20.
In the first two instalments in the RollerCoaster Tycoon franchise of theme park simulation series, RollerCoaster Tycoon and RollerCoaster Tycoon 2, the model for the basic "miniature railway" ride is based on the engine No 10 Northern Rock.
- Duffield Bank Railway
- Eaton Hall Railway
- Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway
- Sand Hutton Miniature Railway
- Shuzenji Romney Railway in Japan
- Bush Mill Railway
- Van Zeller, Peter (December 2008). "100 years since the end of the 'Owd Ratty'". The Railway Magazine. 154 (1, 292): 39–40.
- Welbourn 2000, pp. 14-18.
- Whitehouse, Patrick & Snell, John (1984). Narrow gauge railways of the British Isles. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-0196-9.
- Davies, W.J.K. (1981) . "Inception of the Railway". The Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway. David & Charles. pp. 13–22. ISBN 0-7153-9224-7.
- Ian Allan ABC of Narrow Gauge Railways, c. 1960, pp. 49-50
- Earnshaw, Alan (1989). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 5. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 5. ISBN 0-906899-35-4.
- "History of the Railway". Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway". British Heritage Railways. 27 June 2016. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016.
- Andersen, Eliot; Jenner, David. The Ratty Album Volume 3. p. 3.
- "Visitor Attractions & Events". Lake District Estates. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "Name and Livery decision". The Train From Spain Appeal. 12 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- van Zeller, Peter & Higginson, Martin (2006). Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway Stockbook (4th Edition). Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway Preservation Society.
- Awdry, Wilbert and George (1987). The Island of Sodor: Its People, History and Railways. Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-96348-8.
- Wilcock, David, respectively. The Rev Wilbert Awdry - Thomas the Tank Engine's Creator - Dies at 85, obituary in Steam Railway dated June 1997 online at pegnsean.net (accessed 13 April 2008)
- Welbourn, Nigel (2000). Lost Lines: British Narrow Gauge. Shepperton: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-2742-0.
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