Ravn virus

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Ravn virus (RAVV)
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((−)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filoviridae
Genus: Marburgvirus
Species: Marburg marburgvirus

Ravn virus (RAVV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Marburg virus (MARV). RAVV causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever.[1] RAVV is a Select Agent,[2] World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment),[3] National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen,[4] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent,[5] and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.[6]

Use of term[edit]

Ravn virus (today abbreviated RAVV, but then considered identical to Marburg virus) was first described in 1996.[7] Today, the virus is classified as one of two members of the species Marburg marburgvirus, which is included into the genus Marburgvirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The name Ravn virus is derived from Ravn (the name of the Danish patient from whom this virus was first isolated) and the taxonomic suffix virus.[8]

Note[edit]

Ravn virus is pronounced rævn vɑɪrəs (IPA) or ra-vuhn vahy-ruhs in English phonetic notation.[8] According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Ravn virus is always to be capitalized, but is never italicized, and may be abbreviated (with RAVV being the official abbreviation).

Previous designations[edit]

Ravn virus was first introduced as a new "subtype" of Marburg virus in 1996.[7] In 2006, a thorough whole-genome analysis of all marburgviruses revealed the existence of five distinct genetic lineages. The genomes of representative isolates of four of those lineages differed from each other by only 0-7.8% on the nucleotide level, whereas representatives of the fifth lineage, including the new "subtype", differed from those of the other lineages by up to 21.3%.[9] Consequently, the fifth genetic lineage was reclassified as a virus, Ravn virus (RAVV), distinct from the virus represented by the four more closely related lineages, Marburg virus (MARV).[8]

Virus inclusion criteria[edit]

A virus that fulfills the criteria for being a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus is a Ravn virus if it has the properties of Marburg marburgviruses and if its genome diverges from that of the prototype Marburg marburgvirus, Marburg virus variant Musoke (MARV/Mus), by ≥10% but from that of the prototype Ravn virus (variant Ravn) by <10% at the nucleotide level.[8]

Disease[edit]

RAVV is one of two marburgviruses that causes Marburg virus disease (MVD) in humans (in the literature also often referred to as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, MHF). MVD due to RAVV infection cannot be differentiated from MVD caused by MARV by clinical observation alone, which is why the clinical presentation and pathology of infections by all marburgviruses is presented together on a separate page (see Marburg virus disease (MVD)). In the past, RAVV has caused the following MVD outbreaks:

Marburg virus disease (MVD) outbreaks due to Ravn virus (RAVV) infection
Year Geographic location Human cases/deaths (case-fatality rate)
1987 Kenya 1/1 (100%)[7]
1998–2000 Durba and Watsa, Democratic Republic of the Congo  ? (A total of 154 cases and 128 deaths of marburgvirus infection were recorded during this outbreak. The case fatality was 83%. Two different marburgviruses, RAVV and Marburg virus (MARV), cocirculated and caused disease. It has never been published how many cases and deaths were due to RAVV or MARV infection)[10][11][12]
2007 Uganda 0/1 (0%)[13][14]

Virology[edit]

RAVV is basically uncharacterized on a molecular level. However, its genomic sequence, and with it the genomic organization and the conservation of individual open reading frames, is similar to that of Marburg virus. It is therefore currently assumed that the knowledge obtained for MARV can be extrapolated to RAVV and that all RAVV proteins behave analogous to those of MARV.

Ecology[edit]

In 2009, the successful isolation of infectious RAVV was reported from caught healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus).[13] This isolation, together with the isolation of infectious MARV,[13] strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses. Further studies are necessary to establish whether Egyptian rousettes are the actual hosts of RAVV and MARV or whether they get infected via contact with another animal and therefore serve only as intermediate hosts.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spickler, Anna. "Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Infections" (PDF). 
  2. ^ US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "National Select Agent Registry (NSAR)". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  3. ^ US Department of Health and Human Services. "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  4. ^ US National Institutes of Health (NIH), US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). "Biodefense - NIAID Category A, B, and C Priority Pathogens". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  5. ^ US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  6. ^ The Australia Group. "List of Biological Agents for Export Control". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  7. ^ a b c Johnson, E. D.; Johnson, B. K.; Silverstein, D.; Tukei, P.; Geisbert, T. W.; Sanchez, A. N.; Jahrling, P. B. (1996). "Characterization of a new Marburg virus isolated from a 1987 fatal case in Kenya". Archives of virology. Supplementum. 11: 101–114. PMID 8800792. 
  8. ^ a b c d Kuhn, J. H.; Becker, S.; Ebihara, H.; Geisbert, T. W.; Johnson, K. M.; Kawaoka, Y.; Lipkin, W. I.; Negredo, A. I.; Netesov, S. V.; Nichol, S. T.; Palacios, G.; Peters, C. J.; Tenorio, A.; Volchkov, V. E.; Jahrling, P. B. (2010). "Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: Classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations". Archives of Virology. 155 (12): 2083–2103. PMC 3074192Freely accessible. PMID 21046175. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0814-x. 
  9. ^ Towner, J. S.; Khristova, M. L.; Sealy, T. K.; Vincent, M. J.; Erickson, B. R.; Bawiec, D. A.; Hartman, A. L.; Comer, J. A.; Zaki, S. R.; Ströher, U.; Gomes Da Silva, F.; Del Castillo, F.; Rollin, P. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Nichol, S. T. (2006). "Marburgvirus Genomics and Association with a Large Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Angola". Journal of Virology. 80 (13): 6497–6516. PMC 1488971Freely accessible. PMID 16775337. doi:10.1128/JVI.00069-06. 
  10. ^ Bertherat, E.; Talarmin, A.; Zeller, H. (1999). "Democratic Republic of the Congo: Between civil war and the Marburg virus. International Committee of Technical and Scientific Coordination of the Durba Epidemic". Medecine tropicale : revue du Corps de sante colonial. 59 (2): 201–204. PMID 10546197. 
  11. ^ Bausch, D. G.; Borchert, M.; Grein, T.; Roth, C.; Swanepoel, R.; Libande, M. L.; Talarmin, A.; Bertherat, E.; Muyembe-Tamfum, J. J.; Tugume, B.; Colebunders, R.; Kondé, K. M.; Pirad, P.; Olinda, L. L.; Rodier, G. R.; Campbell, P.; Tomori, O.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Rollin, P. E. (2003). "Risk Factors for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (12): 1531–1537. PMC 3034318Freely accessible. PMID 14720391. doi:10.3201/eid0912.030355. 
  12. ^ Bausch, D. G.; Nichol, S. T.; Muyembe-Tamfum, J. J.; Borchert, M.; Rollin, P. E.; Sleurs, H.; Campbell, P.; Tshioko, F. K.; Roth, C.; Colebunders, R.; Pirard, P.; Mardel, S.; Olinda, L. A.; Zeller, H.; Tshomba, A.; Kulidri, A.; Libande, M. L.; Mulangu, S.; Formenty, P.; Grein, T.; Leirs, H.; Braack, L.; Ksiazek, T.; Zaki, S.; Bowen, M. D.; Smit, S. B.; Leman, P. A.; Burt, F. J.; Kemp, A.; Swanepoel, R. (2006). "Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Multiple Genetic Lineages of Virus". New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (9): 909–919. PMID 16943403. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa051465. 
  13. ^ a b c Towner, J. S.; Amman, B. R.; Sealy, T. K.; Carroll, S. A. R.; Comer, J. A.; Kemp, A.; Swanepoel, R.; Paddock, C. D.; Balinandi, S.; Khristova, M. L.; Formenty, P. B.; Albarino, C. G.; Miller, D. M.; Reed, Z. D.; Kayiwa, J. T.; Mills, J. N.; Cannon, D. L.; Greer, P. W.; Byaruhanga, E.; Farnon, E. C.; Atimnedi, P.; Okware, S.; Katongole-Mbidde, E.; Downing, R.; Tappero, J. W.; Zaki, S. R.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Nichol, S. T.; Rollin, P. E. (2009). Fouchier, Ron A. M., ed. "Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats". PLoS Pathogens. 5 (7): e1000536. PMC 2713404Freely accessible. PMID 19649327. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000536. 
  14. ^ Adjemian, J.; Farnon, E. C.; Tschioko, F.; Wamala, J. F.; Byaruhanga, E.; Bwire, G. S.; Kansiime, E.; Kagirita, A.; Ahimbisibwe, S.; Katunguka, F.; Jeffs, B.; Lutwama, J. J.; Downing, R.; Tappero, J. W.; Formenty, P.; Amman, B.; Manning, C.; Towner, J.; Nichol, S. T.; Rollin, P. E. (2011). "Outbreak of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Among Miners in Kamwenge and Ibanda Districts, Uganda, 2007". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 204 (Suppl 3): S796–S799. PMC 3203392Freely accessible. PMID 21987753. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir312. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Klenk, Hans-Dieter (1999), Marburg and Ebola Viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 235, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-64729-4 
  • Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004), Ebola and Marburg Viruses - Molecular and Cellular Biology, Wymondham, Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience, ISBN 978-0-9545232-3-7 
  • Kuhn, Jens H. (2008), Filoviruses - A Compendium of 40 Years of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Studies. Archives of Virology Supplement, vol. 20, Vienna, Austria: SpringerWienNewYork, ISBN 978-3-211-20670-6 
  • Martini, G. A.; Siegert, R. (1971). Marburg Virus Disease. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-05199-4. 
  • Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004), Ebola and Marburg Viruses - A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy, Columbus, Ohio, USA: Battelle Press, ISBN 978-1-57477-131-2 

External links[edit]