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Kurdish history and Kurdish culture
Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū Rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim ruling family centered in historic Azerbaijan (also known as Iranian Azerbaijan) between the late 8th and early 13th centuries.
Originally of Azdi Arab descent, the Rawadids ruled Tabriz and northeastern Azerbaijan in the late 8th and early 9th centuries. The family became Kurdicized by the early 10th century and became centered on Tabriz and Maragheh. In the second half of the 10th century and much of the 11th century, these Kurdicized descendants controlled much of Azerbaijan as well as parts of Armenia.
Rawadids were originally from Arab ancestry, and arrived in the region in the mid 8th century, but they had become Kurdicized by the early 10th century and began to use Kurdish forms like Mamlan for Muhammad and Ahmadil for Ahmad as their names The Rawandid tribe moved into Kurdistan in the mid 8th century, and it was known as a Kurdish tribe by the tenth century. In the second half of the 10th century and much of the 11th century, these Kurdicized descendants controlled much of Azerbaijan as well as parts of Armenia.
The earliest form of the name is written "Rewend" in the Sharafnameh. According to Kasravi, Rawwadids conquered the lands of the Musafirid ruler Ibrahim I ibn Marzuban I, in Azarbaijan in 979. Wahsudan bin Mamlan is the best known Rawwadid ruler, and he is mentioned by Ibn Athir. The regions of Tabriz, Maragheh and the strongholds of Sahand mountain were in his possession. In 1029, he helped the Hadhbani Kurds in Maragheh to defeat the invading Oghuz Turkish tribes.
Toghrul conquered the principality in 1054 CE, and he defeated the prince of Tabriz Wahsudan ibn Mamlan. In 1071, when Alp Arslan returned from his campaign against the Byzantine Empire, he deposed Mamlan. Wahsudan's successor, Ahmad bin Wahsudan, lord of Maragheh, took part in the Muhammad Malik Shah's campaign against Syria in 1110 CE. His full title was Ahmadil bin Ibrahim bin Wahsudan al-Rawwadi al-Kurdi. Ahmadil fought again the crusaders during the First Crusade. Joscelin made a peace treaty with him during the siege of Tell Bashir (in present-day southern Turkey, south-east of Gaziantep). He was stabbed to death by the Ismailis in 1117 in Baghdad. His descendants continued to rule Maragheh and Tabriz as Atabakane Maragha until the Mongol invasion in 1227.
- Muhammad Ibn Husain (? – c. 951 ?)
- Husain I (955–988)
- Mamlan I (988–1000)
- Husain II (1000–1019)
- Vahsudan (Wahsudan) (1019–1054)
- Abu Nasr Mamlan II (1054–1071)
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The Rawwadids (the form "Rawad" later becomes common in the sources) were originally of Azdi Arab stock, but gradually became assimilated to their environment in Adharbaydjan (and especially, the area around Tabriz) and became Kurdicised...
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